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Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha
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Our Shastras are reservoir of knowledge on the various aspects of life. They contain conceptual frame work and also practical guidelines for the realization of bliss, harmony and peace in our everyday life. The purport of Shrutis is aptly summed up in the following Sloka:
Thus, the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Smritis have very profound relevance even in the modern times. If only we try to derive the messages of this literature in a proper perspective and in a manner applicable to the challenges of our contemporary society, we would be able to appreciate their relevance and utility.
This Seminar on “Work Culture and Efficiency – Lessons from Ancient Philosophy and Psychology” is a commendable exercise aimed at providing an insight into the ancient Shastric wisdom in the framework of conceptual, theoretical and practical analysis. Our Shastras provide an insightful theory of the determinants of human behaviour. The following sloka of Bhagavadgita is pertinent here.
Essentially, human behaviour is the result of the interaction between (Indriyas), (Mind) and (Intellect). The sense organs come in contact with the objects in the universe and generate thought processes. Mind becomes the venue of the conflict of all types of thought processes – good and bad, virtuous and evil. The intellect provides the flow of reasoning to settle the conflict of thoughts. In this context we should understand the meaning, scope and functions of Indriyas, Manas and Buddhi. Further we should also analyse the question as to how one should influence the functions of Indriya, Manas and Buddhi, in such a way that the final outcome of behaviour takes the desired pattern and content. In other words, the work culture of the individuals is governed by the nature of their Indiryas, Manas and Buddhi and their interactions. Thus, it should be possible to derive efficiency in the work culture of the individuals by adopting suitable methods for influencing Indriyas, Manas and Buddhi. This approach to the challenge of enhancing efficiency in work places is much more fundamental and effective than the analysis available in the modern treatises on management.
This National Seminar has brought together both the traditional and the modern scholars to exchange their perceptions on the different doctrines of human behaviour. The Seminar has had presentations on very interesting and diverse themes such as Prabhakar doctrine of Indriyas, Buddhist reflections, Dwaitic perception of Indriyas, Manas and Jnanendriyas in Kashmir Saivism, Nyaya-Vaiseshika theory of work culture and modern thoughts on work culture.
I am sure that this volume based on the deliberations of the seminar, provides an innovative framework for analyzing the challenges of realizing an efficient work culture in the contemporary Indian Society.
I would like to compliment once again Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati for organizing this Seminar for providing a forum for discussions on the fusion of traditional and modern thoughts on work culture and efficiency. In particular, I should express our gratitude to Prof. Arindam Chakrabarti, Professor of Philosophy, University of Hawai, USA, who was visiting Professor at Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati during 2003-04 for conceiving this unique Seminar.
My words of appreciation to Prof. D. Prahlada Char, Vice-Chancellor, Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati and Prof. M.L. Narasimha Murthy who was the co-ordinator of this Seminar.
I hope that the contents of this volume would be found useful by the students and scholars of the subject.
“A clever charioteer restrains the horses of the chariot by intelligently holding the reins. In a similar manner one can bring the senses under control through proper discrimination (Vijnana) and the employment of will-force (Manas)”. –Kathopanishad.
For several millennia, the civilized sections of the world have been in an incessant pursuit to understand the nature of the invisible life-principle behind the visible universe. India, the Peninsular of Letters, has all through the ages been in the fore-front of such Knowledge-seeking communities. As a result, several sophisticated systems of philosophy like Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya. Vaiseshika, Purvamimamsa and Uttaramimamsa, that accept the validity of the Vedas in theorizing their principles, and Jainism and Buddhism with non-Vedic logical strength, emerged in this land. All these systems irrespective of their ways and means of approach emphasize the single goal, namely, the realization of the Ultimate Reality.
The theories identifying, determining and directing the functions, facets and features of the two sets of organs namely, the tols of human action and the tols of cognition (karmendriya and jnanendriya) : have been, through ages, well analyzed in all theistic and atheistic systems of Indian Philosophy in a very clear manner. The philosophical and psychological aspects of these theories are very interesting and generate curiosity in the inquirers.
Efficiency in Resource utilization is an underscored phrase in the modern times as the prerequisite of the economic development and social transformation of Indian society. Capital, technology, infrastructure, government policies, institutions, higher professional education etc. are usually belived by all as the influencing factors of the level of economic efficiency in a society. But one essential fact is ignored that ‘efficiency’ is the final outcome of human behavior at the individual level and at the collective level. ‘Efficiency’ is essentially the result of ‘work culture’, at the individual level and the latter in turn, is determined by the interactions of the sense organs, internal organs and intellect. The ancient Indian disciplines of psychology and philosophy give us a good length of discussion to analyze these determinants of human behavior. Hence length of discussion to analyze these determinants of human behavior. Hence the ‘Motor organs’ and ‘Sense-organas’ the tools of action and cognition of the human body-mind complex cover the central theme of the National seminar on Work Culture and efficiency : Lessons from Ancient Indian Psychology and Philosophy.
The seminar, organized by the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha in collaboration with ICSSR, New Delhi was guided at every stage by our Honourable Chancellor, Dr. V.R. Panchamukhi who is also the Chairman of the ICSSR. The Vidyapeetha remains ever indebted to our Hon’able Chancellor whose keen interest and constant guidance in all the activities is a source of strength. The name of the distinguished visiting professor Dr. Arindam Chakrabarty, Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Hawai at Manoa, Hawaii, U.S.A. needs special mention in this context, who helped us in planning and as well in organizing the seminar in a fruitful manner.
Scholars from Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi, Pune, Lucknow, Chennai, Bangalore, Pondicherry, Visakhapatnam, Orissa and other places representing the most prestigious academic agencies of our nation such as University of Delhi, Indian Council of Social Science Research, Centre for Advenced study in Sanskrit of University of Pune, National Institute of Advanced Studies in the Indian Institute of Science campus of Bangalore, Indian Instituter of Management of Kolkata, Benaras Hindu University, Madras Sanskrit College, French Institute of indology, Central University of Hyderabad, Utkal University. Jadavpur University etc., have significantly contributed to the success of this seminar. We are ever thankful to them for them for their inspiring participation.
According to a traditional anecdote Vyasa stated and Jaimini corrected it as Jaimini might not have proved the veracity of his statement. But, here, all the scholars have proved it through their critical investation of the theme leaving a powerful message to the fruit-aspirants of this seminar.
The Cream of the literati participated in the seminar have discussed the various theories with regard to the sense organs, work culture and efficiency and brought out the essence of them, for the benefit of inquirers. We hope that the contributions of the scholars, recorded here, will help for further persuit in the area.
I heartly congratulate Dr. M.L. Narasimha Murthy, Professor of Advaita Vedanta and Dr. Rani Sadasiva Murty, Lecturer in Sahitya, Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha for their dedicated efforts in organising the seminar and also in bringing out the Proceedings of the Seminar in an excellent manner.
|1||The Deities in Our Bodies: Work-Culture and Making Sense of the “Senses”||1-15|
|Prof. Arindam Chakrabarti|
|2||Vedic Concepts of Work-Culture and Efficiency-As Related to Manas and Indriyas||16-26|
|Prof. Sitanath Goswami|
|3||Classical Indian Psychology Lessons for Education, Health and Wellness||27-33|
|Prof. K. Ramakrishna Rao|
|4||Advaita View of Sense Organ and Saksiijnana and Its Relevance for Work Culture and Efficiency||34-49|
|Prof. S. Saha|
|5||The Idea of Work Culture: Some Indian Insights||50-60|
|Prof. Girishwar Misra|
|6||The Body-Mind interface in Western Epistemology and Philosophy of Mind : An Overview||61-71|
|Prof. R.C. Pradhan|
|7||Manas and Jnanendriyas in Kashmir Saivism||72-116|
|Prof. Navjivan Rastogi|
|8||The Prabhakara Doctrine of Indriya||117-136|
|Prof. Prabal Kumar Sen|
|9||Indriyas in Jainism : An Analysis And A Speculative Re-interpretation||139-156|
|Prof. T.K. Sarkar|
|10||Nyaya-Vaisesiika Theory of Work-Culture||157-165|
|Prof. V.N. Jha|
|11||Holistic Effectiveness and Human Values||166-165|
|Prof. Sanjay Mukherjee|
|12||Analysis of Indriya: A Buddhist Reflection||176-197|
|Dr. Madhumita Chattopadhyay|
|13||Senses, Awareness and Sleep in Dvaita Philosophy||198-210|
|Dr. Veeranarayanachar Pandurangi|
|14||Prof. N.S. Ramanuja Tatacharya||211-218|
|15||Dr. Mani Sastry Dravid|
|16||Prof. N.R. Srinivasan||226-231|
|17||Dr. Veeranarayanachar Pandurangi||232-245|