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Books > Hindu > Yoga: Perceived and Practised by Sages of India
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Yoga: Perceived and Practised by Sages of India
Yoga: Perceived and Practised by Sages of India
Description

From the Jacket

Born in October, 1927, Mr. J.C. Singhal, author of this book hails from Shahbad Markanda, as modest but flourishing town in Kurukshetra district of the state of Haryana, India. Having done his matriculation from the local DAV high school, he prosecuted his further studies at the D.A.V College Lahore and later at the D.A.V College Jalandhar city in Punjab, from where he did his Master of Arts in Sanskrit at Punjab University. Thereafter he taught Sanskrit to undergraduates at the A.S. College, Khanna (Punjab) for three years.

Mr. Singhal was keenly desirous of prosecuting further studies at the Oxford University in the United Kingdom; but circumstances refused to oblige him toward the fulfillment of this consuming passion. Much against his natural inclination he then decided to compete for the Central Civil Services of the Government of India. He succeeded therein and joined the Indian Railways as an officer of the Indian Railway Accounts Service. Having served the Railways for about 33 years, he finally retired from the post of Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer of the Northern Railway, New Delhi.

Mr. Singhal served as President of various Welfare Associations such as Indian Railway Accounts Service Officers’ Association, Federation of Railway Officers Associations and All- India Confederation of Central Government Officers Association with remark- able success.

During his Railway service Mr. Singhal also took the law degree from Deliri University. After retirement he. In this book Shri Singhal has brought together an impressive corpus of information on theories aspects of Yoga. A Evidently he has studied this topic in great depth, and this book will, I am sure, be a trove of valuable information for students and practitioners of Yoga not only in India but around the world.

I commend the author for his profound study and am happy to present this, book to all those who realize the deep significance of Yoga and its capacity to help us face the unique challenge and opportunities that lie before us in the rapidly globalising world.

practiced as an advocate in the High Court of Delhi and the Supreme Court A of India. He also served as President of the Bar Association of the Central Administrative Tribunal, Principal Bench, New Delhi.

During the span of Railway service he spent a good deal of leisure time in the study Western literature. After his retirement, he once again devoted himself to the study of ancient Indian literature in Sanskrit, both Vedic and classical. During the last about 4-5 decades, Yoga has gained popularity virtually throughout the Globe. But, Mr. Singhal felt a keen disappointment and anguish over the erroneous impression of Yoga perpetrated by those (mostly Indians) interested in the commercial exploitation of this unique gift of India to humanity at large. It is this anguish which has ultimately resulted in the writing of this book which presents an authentic and holistic view of Yoga as expounded by the ancient sages of India.

Apart from Yoga, Mr. Singhal has done serious study of Indian astrology and the Biochemic system of medicine. Occasionally, he diverts himself by v penning pieces of Urdu poetry. Divine Grace has also blessed him with the gift of oratory.

Foreword

Yoga is one of the glories of India’s civilisation, a profound concept involving multiple methodologies for joining the Ataman and the Brahman, the divine within and the all pervasive divine. In fact, the word Yoga comes from the same root as the English word Yoke which implies joining. The physical exercises and asanas that are popularly known as Yoga around the world are indeed very helpful for maintaining good health and a supple body, but they represent only a small part of Hatha Yoga which itself is one of several major yogic methodologies.

As the learned author of this book Shri J .C. Singhal points out, Yoga goes all the way back to the Upanishads, and has been developed and rearticulated by great masters from age to age down to the present day. In this book Shri Singhal has brought together an impressive corpus of information on theories aspects of Yoga. Evidently he has studied this topic in great depth, and this book will, I am sure, be a trove of valuable information for students and practitioners of Yoga not only in India but around the world.

An interesting aspect of the book is that he has referred not only to classical commentators such as Adi Shankracharya A but also to more recent scholars and spiritual leaders such as Prof. Max Mueller, Swami Shivananda, Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo. I commend the author for his profound study and am happy to present this book to all those who realize the deep significance of Yoga and its capacity to help us face the unique challenge and opportunities that lie before us in the rapidly globalising world.

Introduction

The market-both Indian and global-is flooded with books on Yoga, displaying fancy titles. Where, then, is the need to add to such a glut? This is further accentuated by the fact that I do not even claim to be a Yogi! On the face of it, the superfluity seems obvious. But a deeper probe will reveal that this is not so. While it is true that in the market there is a glut of books on Yoga, it is also equally true that there are hardly any books on Yoga which have dealt with the subject comprehensively. By now it should be common knowledge that there are several paths to Yoga; but the books available in the market deal only with a few aspects of Yoga, not all. As such the reader only gets a partial view of the subject. There are some books, for example, which deal with the Path of Action (Karma Yoga); others deal with the aspect of the Path of Knowledge (Jnana Yoga), and so on.

The bulk of the books available, however, deal with that aspect of Yoga called Astanga Yoga (Yoga of Eight Parts). It also goes by the name of Hatha Yoga, Raja Yoga, it is noticed that the nomenclature has been employed rather indiscriminately.

Having said all this, it must be noted that there are some excellent books which have dealt with the subject comprehensively. The masterly treatment given to the subject of Yoga by Swami Vivekananda and Maharsi Aurobindo is unmatched. It is unique. But here, it may be humbly stated, the practical details required by the beginner are not to be found. For example, both the masters have extensively dealt with Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga, but they do not give the practical details of Asanas, Pranayama, Mudras, etc. This is one reason for writing this book.

Thanks to the efforts of some Indian enthusiasts, Yoga has become as popular in the West as it is in India. But what sort of Yoga is it that has become so popular? It is not the Yoga of Knowledge-(Jnana). It is also not the Yoga of Devotion (Bhakti). Nor is it the Yoga of Action (Karma). Overwhelmingly, it is the Astanga Yoga-the Eight Part Yoga. It would be a boon for humanity, if this Astanga Yoga to practiced in right earnest and to its logical end. The Eight Part Yoga begins from Yama and traverses through the various stages culminating in Samadhi the eighth and last part. In the popular zeal, the first two parts viz Yama and Niyama have virtually vanished. Yoga aims high i.e., virtual release of every individual human being from misery and unhappiness. The aspirant who decides to follow this course requires a lot of determination and will power to mould himself mentally in a way which becomes conducive in that progress. The first two stages are meant just for that preparation. The five constituents of Yama are- (i) Non-violence (ii) Truth (iii) Non-stealing (iv) Celibacy or at least controlled and regulated sex sanctioned by religious command and (v) Non-grabbing or non avariciousness.

All these are to be practiced in right earnest. But who is doing it? These can be skipped?

The same is the case with the second part i.e, Niyamas, which has five constituents, viz, (i) Personal cleanliness (ii) Contentment (iii) Imposition self-control like fasting, etc. (ri), (iv) Study of religions and similar literature, which purifies the self and finally (v) Complete surrender to the Will to God.

All the above are necessary adjuncts to achieving the most difficult stage of utter emptiness of he Mind.

Man is in a hurry. He wants a 'quick fix.' The Yoga enthusiast, therefore, loves to ignore the above mentioned first two stages and jumps to the third stage viz, Asana - postures of physical exercise-promising perfect health. Here is a miraculous system of achieving perfect health from the Mystic East! Grab it. The eastern practitioner claiming to be Master of Yoga assesses the Western psyche and seizes the opportunity to fully exploit its commercial potential. In due course a plethora of books on Yoga with title pages displaying all sorts of complicated Asanas-physical postures including that of Nataraja have entired the market. Thus, Yoga has been successfully reduced to the level of ultimate system of physical exercise, one which can cure all conceivable diseases of the world. The curious and gullible practitioner is highly impressed. Combine with it a few breathing exercises to relieve the mental stress. And the picture is complete.

Our ancient sages, who expounded Yoga never claimed that the Yogic exercises are a perfect substitute for medicine, ancient or modern, to cure diseases. If that were so, the highly advanced ancient system of medicine, i.e., Ayurveda, would not have been found. There is, therefore, no need to make tall claims they do go a long way in keeping diseases at bay, when the practitioner chooses to observe a proper diet regime and a conducive lifestyle.

Contents

 

  Chapters  
  Foreword——Did Karan Singh vii
  Abbreviations xxvii
  Transliteration Chart xxxi
  (Showing Roman equivalents of letters in the Devanagari script adopted in the book, along with indication of their pronunciation.) Introduction xxxiii
 
PART - I
 
I WHAT IS YOGA? 1-8
  (i) Literal meaning of the word Yoga  
  (ii) Yoga according to Yogasikha Upanisad  
  (iii) Yoga according to Yoga Vasistha  
  (iv) Yoga according to Brahma Purana  
  (v) Yoga according to Siva Purana  
  (vi) Agni Purana on Yoga  
  (vii) Visnu Purana on Yoga  
  (viii) Yoga according to Yoga Darsana  
  (ix) Yoga according to the Bhagavadgita  
  (x) Mrgendra Tantra’s definition  
  (xi) Sanaka on Yoga  
  (xii) Professor F. Max Mtieller’s view  
  (xiii) Swami Vivekananda on Yoga  
  (xiv) Maharsi Aurobindo on Yoga  
  (xv) Conclusion  
II BUT WHY YOGA? 9-17
  (i) The universal desire for happiness.  
  (ii) Manu’s observations  
  (iii) Visnu Purana’s observations  
  (iv) Maharsi Aurobindo’s observations  
  (v) The Bhagavadgita on the subject  
  (vi) Maharsi Aurobindo quoted  
  (vii) The Mahabharata observes  
  (viii) Advayataraka Upanisad’s observations  
  (ix) Tejobindu Upanisad’s observations  
  (x) Gheranda Sarnhita observations  
  (xi) The Bhagavadgita observation  
  (xii) Acquisition of unusual powers—vibhutis  
  (xiii) Acquisition of physical and mental health through practice of Yoga.  
  (xiv) Four—fold aim of life : Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa  
  (xv) Observation of Isavasya Upanisad  
  (xvi) Bhagavadgita observation  
  (xvii) Emancipation (Moksa) ultimately leading to release from life’s misery  
III THE MIND 18-30
  (i) Patanjali’s definition of Yoga in terms of the Mind  
  (ii) Importance of Mind according to Devikalottara Agama  
  (iii) Mind as a constituent of the eight—fold Prakrti (Nature)  
  (iv) The origin of Mind according to Gandharva Tantra  
  (v) Observance of Varaha Upanisad and Hathayoga Pradipika on Mind  
  (vi) Relative importance of the Mind  
  (vii) Products of the Mind  
  (viii) Mind according to Yogasikha Upanisad  
  (ix) Varaha Upanisad observations on Mind  
  (x) Location of Mind  
  (xi) Types of Mind  
  (xii) Mind the cause of bondage and freedom  
  (xiii) Mind and thoughts  
  (xiv) Mercurial nature of Mind and the way to bring it under control  
  (xv) Mind and Prana  
  (xvi) How to control the Mind and for how long  
  (xvii) Siva Sankalpa Mantras from the Yajurveda  
IV VARIOUS PATHS OF YOGA 31-39
  (i) Numerous ways to reach one and the same goal. Sri Aurobindo’s views on the subject  
  (ii) Swami Vivekananda’s view in the matter  
  (iii) Four main paths of Yoga—Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga and Raja Yoga  
  (iv) Suitability of each path to particular types of human beings  
  (v) Various paths not mutually exclusive  
V JNANA YOGA 40-51
  (i) Sage Vasistha’s exposition of Jnana Yoga  
  (ii) Various steps in the attainment of Siddhi (Emancipation)  
  (iii) Bhagavadgita on Sankhya philosophy  
  (iv) What does Jnana do?  
  (v) What is Jnana  
  (vi) God-described  
  (vii) Immortal entities  
  (viii) Swami Vivekananda on Jnana  
  (ix) Jnana according to Sri Aurobindo  
VI BHAKTI YOGA 52-62
  (i) Sage Kapila’s exposition of Bhakti Yoga  
  (ii) Bhagavadgita on Bhakti Yoga  
  (iii) Swami Vivekananda on Bhakti Yoga  
  (iv) Bhakti Yoga according to Sri Aurobindo  
VII KARMA YOGA 63-73
  (i) Karma Yoga in brief  
  (ii) Who is a Karma Yogi?  
  (iii) Inherent characteristics of Prakrti (Nature-Satva, Rajas & Tamas  
  (iv) Signs to look for in a person risen above the inherent characteristics of Prakrti  
  (v) Swami Vivekananda on Karma Yoga  
  (vi) Sri Aurobindo on Karma Yoga  
 
PART - II ASTANGA YOGA
 
VIII SOME IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS 77-99
  (i) Need for a competent teacher in the pursuit of Yoga  
  (ii) Three categories of teachers  
  (iii) Qualifications of a practitioner of Yoga  
  (iv) Impediments in the path of Yoga  
  (v) Three categories of impediments  
  (vi) How to overcome these impediments  
  (vii) What is helpful in Yoga?  
  (viii) Food suitable for Yoga and food to be avoided  
  (ix) What is measured food?  
  (x) Type of food in the beginning of Yoga practice  
  (xi) When to eat  
  (xii) Appropriate place, environment etc. for practice of Yoga  
  (xiii) Time for Yoga practice  
  (xiv) Importance of regular practice  
IX ASTANGA YOGA 100-104
  (i) Literal meaning of Astanga Yoga  
  (ii) Eight parts of Yoga  
  (iii) The number of constituents of Astanga Yoga—fixed or flexible  
  (iv) What the Astanga Yoga is intended to achieve  
  (v) Means to purify and firm up the human body  
  (vi) The five sins  
X YAMA 105-115
  (i) The constituents of Yama  
  (ii) Is the number fixed or flexible?  
  (iii) Classification as Yama and Niyama not rigid  
  (iv) Ahimsa—non—violence  
  (v) Satya—Truth  
  (vi) Asteya—non-stealing  
  (vii) Brahmacarya—celibacy  
  (viii) Aparigraha—non—avariciousness  
  (ix) Akrodha——Absence of anger  
  (x) Anasuya—absence of jealousy  
  (xi) Daya——Compassion  
  (xii) Arjavam—Straightforwardness  
  (xiii) Ksama—Forgiveness  
  (xiv) Dhrti—Perseverance  
  (xv) Mitahara—Frugality in food or measured eating  
XI NIYAMA 116-125
  (i) Five main constituents of Niyama  
  (ii) Absence of rigidity in the number and constituents of Niyama  
  (iii) Yet another definition of Niyama  
  (iv) Slauca  
  (v) Santosa  
  (vi) Tapa  
  (vii) Svadhyaya  
  (viii) Isfvarapranidhana  
  (ix) Japa  
  (x) Astikya  
  (xi) Dana  
  (xii) Siddhanta Sravana  
  (xiii) Vrata  
  (xiv) Isvara/Hari Pujana  
  (xv) Hri  
  (xvi) Mari  
  (xvii) Some general observations regarding Yama and Niyama  
XII ASANA 126-173
  (i) Meaning of Asana  
  (ii) Number of Asanas  
  (iii) Parts A and B of the Asana  
  (iv) Asana’s detailed under  
 
Part-A
 
  1. Siddha Asana  
  2. Padma Asana  
  3. Bhadra Asana  
  4. Sirnha Asana  
  5. Svastika Asana  
  6. Sukha Asana  
  7. Mukta Asana  
  8. Vira Asana  
  9. Vajra Asana  
  10. Gomukha Asana  
  11. Gupta Asana  
  12. Gorakga Asana  
  13. Yoga Asana  
  14. Pascimottana Asana  
  15. Matsya Asana  
  16. Matsyendra Asana  
  17. Ardhamatsyendra Asana  
  18. Ustra Asana  
  19. Dhanur Asana  
  20. Bhujanga Asana  
  21. Salabha Asana  
  22. Kukkuta 21 Asana  
  23. Mayura Asana  
  24. Kurma Asana  
  25. Uttana Kurma Asana  
  26. Utkata Asana  
  27. Makara Asana  
  28. Matsyapithaka Asaua  
  29. Vrksa Asana  
  30. Sava Asana  
  31. Baddha Padma Asana  
  32. Ardha Asana  
  33. Garuda Asana  
  34. Manduka Asana  
  35. Uttana Manduka Asana  
  36. Sankata Asana  
  37. Vrsa Asana  
  38. Sirsa Asana or Viparitakarani  
 
PART - B
 
  (i) Supta Vajra Asana  
  (ii) Yogamudri Asana  
  (iii) Sarvanga Asana  
  (iv) Hala Asana  
  (v) Karnapida Asana  
  (vi) Cakra Asana  
  (vii) Merudanda Asana  
  (viii) Vrscika Asana  
  (ix) Tada Asana  
  (x) Pavanamukta Asana  
  (xi) Trikona Asana  
  (xii) Garbha Asana  
  (xiii) Ardhacandra Asana  
  (xiv) Mrga Asana  
  (xv) Pidottana Asana  
  (xvi) Surya Namaskara Asana  
  (xvii) Sithila Asana  
XIII OF HUMAN BODY 174-222
  (i) What to expect in this chapter  
  (ii) Human body a temple  
  (iii) Size of human body  
  (iv) Mid—point of the body  
  (v) Length of Prana——main breath  
  (vi) The body—a cosmos  
  (vii) Moon and sun in the body  
  (viii) The five elements in the body  
  (ix) Vital points of the body  
  (x) Gross and subtle body  
  (a) Origin of the five elements  
  (b) Origin of body parts  
  (c) Origin of mind, intellect, ego, citta and heart.  
  (d) Functions of mind etc and their details  
  (xi) The senses  
  (xii) Five shortcomings and their cure  
  (xiii) The Airs  
  (a) Particulars  
  (b) Location  
  (c) Two—fold classification of Vayus (AIRS)  
  (d) Colours of AIRS  
  (e) Functions of individual Vayu  
  (f) Importance of the knowledge of Vayus  
  (xiv) The Nadis (Vessels, Veins and Arteries), Kanda (bulbous root), The Brahma Randhra  
  (xv) The Satcakras—-The six plexuses, the kundalini, the three—Brahma, Visnu and Rudra - Granthis (knots) etc.  
XIV CLEANSING OF INTERNAL CHANNELS 223-235
  (i) Why is the cleansing necessary?  
  (ii) How is the cleansing to be done  
  (iii) Nadisodhana Pranayama  
  (iv) How long should it be practised?
How much and how often?
 
  (v) Signs of Nadis getting rid of impurities.  
XV CLEANSING OF INTERNAL CHANNELS- EXTERNAL AIDS 236-252
  (i) Satkarma—the six activities for cleansing of internal channels, besides Nadisodhana Pranayama  
  (ii) Conditions in which they are particularly useful  
  (iii) Kapala Bhati  
  (iv) Trataka  
  (v) Neti  
  (vi) Dhauti  
  (a) Antar Dhauti  
  (1) Vatasara  
  (2) Varisara  
  (3) Vahnisara  
  (4) Bahishkrita  
  (b) Dantadhauti  
  (1) Banta mula  
  (2) Jihvamula  
  (3) Karna Randhra  
  (4) Kapala Randhra  
  (c) Hrddhauti  
  (1) Danda Dhauti  
  (2) Vamana Dhauti  
  (3) Vasodhauti  
  (d) Mulasodhana  
  (vii) Nauli or Laukik  
  (viii) Vasti Karma  
  (a) Jalavasti  
  (b) 'Suska Vasti  
  (ix) Special advice  
  (iv) Five types of Pratyahara  
  (v) Eighteen vital points  
XVI PRANAYAMA 253-283
  (i) General remarks and meaning of Pranayama  
  (ii) Types of Pranayama  
  (iii) Classification of Pranayama on different bases  
  (a) Dirgha & Sfiksma  
  (b) Sagarbha & Agarbha  
  (c) Sahita & Kevala  
  (d) Different ways in which inhaling and exhaling are done.  
  (iv) Recaka  
  (v) Pitraka  
  (vi) Kumbhaka  
  (vii) Sagarbha Pranayama  
  (viii) Nine varieties of Pranayama  
  (xi) Sitali Pranayama  
  (x) Ujjayi Pranayama  
  (xi) Sitali Pranayama  
  (xii) Bhastrika Pranayama  
  (xiii) Sitkari Pranayama  
  (xiv) Bhramari Pranayama  
  (xv) Mtircha Pranayama  
  (xvi) Kevali  
  (xvii) Progressive stages in Pranayama- Adhama, Madhyama and Uttama  
  (xviii) Quantum of Pranayama to be done daily  
  (xix) Benefits of Pranayama  
XVII AWAKENING OF KUNDALINI AND MUDRAS 284-325
  (i) What is kundalini? Where located.  
  (ii) Why awaken the kundalini?  
  (iii) What is meant by awakening of kundalini?  
  (iv) How to awaken the kundalini  
  (v) Mudras  
  (vi) Mahamudra  
  (vii) Mahabandha  
  (viii) Mahavedha  
  (ix) The desirability of doing the above three Mudras one after the other and in that sequence  
  (x) Khecari  
  (a) Literal meaning  
  (b) Elongation of the tongue  
  (xi) Mulanbandha  
  (xii) Uddiyana Bandha—why called Uddiyana and when should it be done.  
  (xiii) Jalandhara Bandha——when to apply this Bandha.  
  (xiv) The overall effect of all the three Bandhas  
  (xv) Viparitakarani  
  (xvi) Vajroli  
  (xvii) Sakticalana  
  (xviii) Asvini Mudra  
  (xix) Some additional Mudra’s mentioned  
  (xx) Hand—Mudras  
  (a) Jnana Mudra  
  (b) Vayu Mudra  
  (c) Prana Mudra  
  (d) Varuna Mudra  
  (e) Prthvi Mudra  
  (t) Linga Mudra  
  (g) Sunya Mudra  
  (h) Surya Mudra  
XVIII PRATYKHARA 326-332
  (i) Literal meaning of Pratyahara and what it is in essence  
  (ii) Holding of the breath at different points in the body  
  (iii) Pratyahara in terms of the period for which breath can be held  
  (iv) Five types of Pratyahara  
  (v) Eighteen vital points  
XIX YOGA AND HEALTH 333-382
  (i) Importance of health in the yogic effort  
  (ii) Same aspects of Yoga as contributory to sound health  
  (iii) Importance of Asanas.  
  (v) Specific advantages flowing from Satkarma, Asana, Mudra, Pratyahara and Pranayama  
  (vi) Ahankrti (Ego)—the root cause of all ills  
  (vii) Benefits of Hatha Yoga i.e. Asana Pranayama, Satkama and Mudras  
  (viii) Chart showing various diseases and activities such as Asana etc. particularly suited to cure that disease.  
  (ix) What is meant by the disturbance of Air Element (HRWRW)  
  (x) Causes of disturbance of Air Element  
  (xi) Timings of disturbance of Air Element  
  (xii) Disturbance of the Fire Element symptoms  
  (xiii) Causes of the disturbance of Fire Element  
  (xiv) Time for disturbance of Fire Element  
  (xv) Disturbance of Water Element—symptoms  
  (xvi) Causes of Water disturbance  
  (xvii) Timing of Water disturbance  
  (xviii) Characteristics of each Element viz Air, Fire and Water and the cure principle  
  (xix) Exercise•—Its benefits  
  (xx) Excessive exercise and also some other habits  
  (xxi) Quantum of exercise and reason for doing it  
  (xxii) When not to exercise  
  (xxiii) Massage  
  (a) Of the body——benefits  
  (b) Gargling of mouth and teeth with oil——benefits  
  (c) Oil on the head—benefits  
  (d) Oil in the ears—benefits  
  (e) Massage of the feet——benefits  
  (f) Which oil to use  
  (g) Early rising  
  (h) Clearance of stool and other impurities in the morning  
  (i) Sudden impulses——urges from inside the body and distortions caused by holding them unnaturally and their cure  
  (i) Some useful observations regarding food and drink.  
  (k) Some beneficial remarks on sleep, massage, vomiting, skipping a meal, dosing, sleep during day time etc., sex during day time, instant energisers, hot water bath and drinking water in the morning.  
  (l) Table-chart giving characteristics of meal times and their impact on health.  
  (a) Cereals and pulses  
  (b) Vegetables  
  (c) Fruits  
  (d) Spices  
  (e) Milk and milk products  
  (f) Oils  
  (g) Miscellaneous  
  (h) Medicinal value of some types of urine—cow’s urine and human urine  
  (xxiii) Useful advice in the matter of food from a famous ancient book——Pancatantra  
XX DHARANA 383-398
  (i) What is Dharana? Its relative position in the Astanga Yoga  
  (ii) Dharana in terms of the duration for which the breath can be held  
  (iii) Dharana as twelve times of Pratyahara  
  (iv) Holding of the breath-How the duration can be increased  
  (v) Various spots and objects within and outside the body for fixation of the mind  
  (vi) The Pancabhuta Dharana  
  (a) Earth region  
  (b) Water region  
  (c) Fire region  
  (d) Air region and  
  (e) Ether region  
XXI DHYKNA—Concentration or Meditation  
  (i) What is Dhyana?  
  (ii) Dhyana in terms of the duration for which breath is held  
  (iii) The trio viz Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi called Samyama  
  (iv) Object of contemplation  
  (v) Saguna Nirguna Dhyana or Sakala and Niskala Dhyana  
  (vi) What is Isvara and Pranava (OM)  
  (vii) Obstacles in Yoga as also some problems accompanying them.  
  (viii) The remedy to tide over the above obstacles and contemplation of OM- Pranava—OM explained——the letters as constituents of OM  
  (ix) The four great sayings  
  (x) Different types and forms of contemplation- absence of rigidity  
  (xi) Sthula, Jyoti and Suksma Dhyana  
  (xii) Contemplation of the mysterious sound- Nada  
  (xiii) Hathyoga and Rajayoga——their relative importance and interdependence  
  (xiv)Yet another classification of Yoga  
  (a) Mantra Yoga  
  (b) Laya Yoga etc.  
XXII VIBHUTIS OR ACQUISITION OF UNUSUAL POWERS 419-434
  (i) Five different ways of acquiring powers—Siddhis, including Samadhi  
  (ii) Acquisition of unusual powers, not the aim of Yoga  
  (iii) Two types of Siddhis»—Kalpita and Akalpita  
  (iv) The Siddhis as a barometer of progress in Yoga  
  (v) Unusual powers potentially attainable according to Yogatattva Upanisad  
  (vi) Various powers attainable according to n Siva Samhita  
  (vii) The various points of concentration (Samyama i.e. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi) and different types of powers (Vibhutis or Siddhis) resulting there from as per Sandilya Upanisad  
  (viii) Treatment of the above powers in Yoga Darsana of Patanjali  
  (ix) Treatment of some additional powers by Yoga Darsana over and above those already mentioned  
  (x) Anima and other Siddhis-The eight Siddhis  
  (xi) Kayasampat explained  
  (xii) What is Dharmanabhighata  
  (xiii) Madhupratika  
XXIII SAMADHI 435-453
  (i) Samadhi- first stage called Samprajnata Samadhi and the second and the ultimate called Nirbija Samadhi  
  (ii) What is Samadhi and what differentiates it from the immediately preceding stage of Dhyana  
  (iii) Signs of a Yogi in Samadhi  
  (iv) Synonyms of Samadhi  
  (v) The Jivamnukta  
  (a) The fundamental principles including those of Prakrti  
  (b) Seven stages in Yoga  
  (c) Successive transformation of the intellect in various stages.  
  (vi) Brief description of the contents of Yogadarsana of Patanjali  
  (a) The four chapters of Yogadarsana  
  (b) What is Yoga  
  (c) Detachment  
  (d) Samprajnata and Asamprajnata Samadhi  
  (e) Four stages of Samprajnata Samadhi Vitarka Vicara Ananda and Asmita  
  (f) Asamprajnata or Nirbija Samadhi  
XXIV KAIVALYA 454-468
  (i) Literal meaning of the word Kaivalya  
  (ii) The essence of Kaivalya in Yoga  
  (iii) How to avoid the misery resulting from future actions  
  (iv) The terms Drasta and Drsya explained  
  (v) Swami Vivekananda’s observations on the state of Kaivalya  
  (vi) The seven progressive stages-—two sets of classification and Swami Vivckananda’s description of the same  
  (vii) Twofold classification of the seven progressive stages by Sri Vyasa—famous commentator of Patanjali’s Yogadarsana  
  (viii) Description of the seven progressive stages by Swami Vivekanda  
  (ix) Description of the seven stages by Sri Vyasa famous commentator of Patanjali’s ‘Yogadarsana  
  (x) How does Astariga Yoga tit into the scheme of things  
  (a) Patanjali’s exposition of Kaivalya  
  (b) Prasankhyana, Dharma Megha  
  (xi) Sri Aurobindo’s observations  
  (xii) Observations from Kathopanisad  
  (xiii) Observation from the Bhagavadgita  
  INDEX 469-484

 

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Yoga: Perceived and Practised by Sages of India

Item Code:
IHL424
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2009
Publisher:
Abhishek Prakashan
ISBN:
9788183900652
Language:
English and Hindi
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8.8 inch X 5.8 inch
Pages:
528
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Yoga: Perceived and Practised by Sages of India

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From the Jacket

Born in October, 1927, Mr. J.C. Singhal, author of this book hails from Shahbad Markanda, as modest but flourishing town in Kurukshetra district of the state of Haryana, India. Having done his matriculation from the local DAV high school, he prosecuted his further studies at the D.A.V College Lahore and later at the D.A.V College Jalandhar city in Punjab, from where he did his Master of Arts in Sanskrit at Punjab University. Thereafter he taught Sanskrit to undergraduates at the A.S. College, Khanna (Punjab) for three years.

Mr. Singhal was keenly desirous of prosecuting further studies at the Oxford University in the United Kingdom; but circumstances refused to oblige him toward the fulfillment of this consuming passion. Much against his natural inclination he then decided to compete for the Central Civil Services of the Government of India. He succeeded therein and joined the Indian Railways as an officer of the Indian Railway Accounts Service. Having served the Railways for about 33 years, he finally retired from the post of Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer of the Northern Railway, New Delhi.

Mr. Singhal served as President of various Welfare Associations such as Indian Railway Accounts Service Officers’ Association, Federation of Railway Officers Associations and All- India Confederation of Central Government Officers Association with remark- able success.

During his Railway service Mr. Singhal also took the law degree from Deliri University. After retirement he. In this book Shri Singhal has brought together an impressive corpus of information on theories aspects of Yoga. A Evidently he has studied this topic in great depth, and this book will, I am sure, be a trove of valuable information for students and practitioners of Yoga not only in India but around the world.

I commend the author for his profound study and am happy to present this, book to all those who realize the deep significance of Yoga and its capacity to help us face the unique challenge and opportunities that lie before us in the rapidly globalising world.

practiced as an advocate in the High Court of Delhi and the Supreme Court A of India. He also served as President of the Bar Association of the Central Administrative Tribunal, Principal Bench, New Delhi.

During the span of Railway service he spent a good deal of leisure time in the study Western literature. After his retirement, he once again devoted himself to the study of ancient Indian literature in Sanskrit, both Vedic and classical. During the last about 4-5 decades, Yoga has gained popularity virtually throughout the Globe. But, Mr. Singhal felt a keen disappointment and anguish over the erroneous impression of Yoga perpetrated by those (mostly Indians) interested in the commercial exploitation of this unique gift of India to humanity at large. It is this anguish which has ultimately resulted in the writing of this book which presents an authentic and holistic view of Yoga as expounded by the ancient sages of India.

Apart from Yoga, Mr. Singhal has done serious study of Indian astrology and the Biochemic system of medicine. Occasionally, he diverts himself by v penning pieces of Urdu poetry. Divine Grace has also blessed him with the gift of oratory.

Foreword

Yoga is one of the glories of India’s civilisation, a profound concept involving multiple methodologies for joining the Ataman and the Brahman, the divine within and the all pervasive divine. In fact, the word Yoga comes from the same root as the English word Yoke which implies joining. The physical exercises and asanas that are popularly known as Yoga around the world are indeed very helpful for maintaining good health and a supple body, but they represent only a small part of Hatha Yoga which itself is one of several major yogic methodologies.

As the learned author of this book Shri J .C. Singhal points out, Yoga goes all the way back to the Upanishads, and has been developed and rearticulated by great masters from age to age down to the present day. In this book Shri Singhal has brought together an impressive corpus of information on theories aspects of Yoga. Evidently he has studied this topic in great depth, and this book will, I am sure, be a trove of valuable information for students and practitioners of Yoga not only in India but around the world.

An interesting aspect of the book is that he has referred not only to classical commentators such as Adi Shankracharya A but also to more recent scholars and spiritual leaders such as Prof. Max Mueller, Swami Shivananda, Swami Vivekananda and Sri Aurobindo. I commend the author for his profound study and am happy to present this book to all those who realize the deep significance of Yoga and its capacity to help us face the unique challenge and opportunities that lie before us in the rapidly globalising world.

Introduction

The market-both Indian and global-is flooded with books on Yoga, displaying fancy titles. Where, then, is the need to add to such a glut? This is further accentuated by the fact that I do not even claim to be a Yogi! On the face of it, the superfluity seems obvious. But a deeper probe will reveal that this is not so. While it is true that in the market there is a glut of books on Yoga, it is also equally true that there are hardly any books on Yoga which have dealt with the subject comprehensively. By now it should be common knowledge that there are several paths to Yoga; but the books available in the market deal only with a few aspects of Yoga, not all. As such the reader only gets a partial view of the subject. There are some books, for example, which deal with the Path of Action (Karma Yoga); others deal with the aspect of the Path of Knowledge (Jnana Yoga), and so on.

The bulk of the books available, however, deal with that aspect of Yoga called Astanga Yoga (Yoga of Eight Parts). It also goes by the name of Hatha Yoga, Raja Yoga, it is noticed that the nomenclature has been employed rather indiscriminately.

Having said all this, it must be noted that there are some excellent books which have dealt with the subject comprehensively. The masterly treatment given to the subject of Yoga by Swami Vivekananda and Maharsi Aurobindo is unmatched. It is unique. But here, it may be humbly stated, the practical details required by the beginner are not to be found. For example, both the masters have extensively dealt with Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga, but they do not give the practical details of Asanas, Pranayama, Mudras, etc. This is one reason for writing this book.

Thanks to the efforts of some Indian enthusiasts, Yoga has become as popular in the West as it is in India. But what sort of Yoga is it that has become so popular? It is not the Yoga of Knowledge-(Jnana). It is also not the Yoga of Devotion (Bhakti). Nor is it the Yoga of Action (Karma). Overwhelmingly, it is the Astanga Yoga-the Eight Part Yoga. It would be a boon for humanity, if this Astanga Yoga to practiced in right earnest and to its logical end. The Eight Part Yoga begins from Yama and traverses through the various stages culminating in Samadhi the eighth and last part. In the popular zeal, the first two parts viz Yama and Niyama have virtually vanished. Yoga aims high i.e., virtual release of every individual human being from misery and unhappiness. The aspirant who decides to follow this course requires a lot of determination and will power to mould himself mentally in a way which becomes conducive in that progress. The first two stages are meant just for that preparation. The five constituents of Yama are- (i) Non-violence (ii) Truth (iii) Non-stealing (iv) Celibacy or at least controlled and regulated sex sanctioned by religious command and (v) Non-grabbing or non avariciousness.

All these are to be practiced in right earnest. But who is doing it? These can be skipped?

The same is the case with the second part i.e, Niyamas, which has five constituents, viz, (i) Personal cleanliness (ii) Contentment (iii) Imposition self-control like fasting, etc. (ri), (iv) Study of religions and similar literature, which purifies the self and finally (v) Complete surrender to the Will to God.

All the above are necessary adjuncts to achieving the most difficult stage of utter emptiness of he Mind.

Man is in a hurry. He wants a 'quick fix.' The Yoga enthusiast, therefore, loves to ignore the above mentioned first two stages and jumps to the third stage viz, Asana - postures of physical exercise-promising perfect health. Here is a miraculous system of achieving perfect health from the Mystic East! Grab it. The eastern practitioner claiming to be Master of Yoga assesses the Western psyche and seizes the opportunity to fully exploit its commercial potential. In due course a plethora of books on Yoga with title pages displaying all sorts of complicated Asanas-physical postures including that of Nataraja have entired the market. Thus, Yoga has been successfully reduced to the level of ultimate system of physical exercise, one which can cure all conceivable diseases of the world. The curious and gullible practitioner is highly impressed. Combine with it a few breathing exercises to relieve the mental stress. And the picture is complete.

Our ancient sages, who expounded Yoga never claimed that the Yogic exercises are a perfect substitute for medicine, ancient or modern, to cure diseases. If that were so, the highly advanced ancient system of medicine, i.e., Ayurveda, would not have been found. There is, therefore, no need to make tall claims they do go a long way in keeping diseases at bay, when the practitioner chooses to observe a proper diet regime and a conducive lifestyle.

Contents

 

  Chapters  
  Foreword——Did Karan Singh vii
  Abbreviations xxvii
  Transliteration Chart xxxi
  (Showing Roman equivalents of letters in the Devanagari script adopted in the book, along with indication of their pronunciation.) Introduction xxxiii
 
PART - I
 
I WHAT IS YOGA? 1-8
  (i) Literal meaning of the word Yoga  
  (ii) Yoga according to Yogasikha Upanisad  
  (iii) Yoga according to Yoga Vasistha  
  (iv) Yoga according to Brahma Purana  
  (v) Yoga according to Siva Purana  
  (vi) Agni Purana on Yoga  
  (vii) Visnu Purana on Yoga  
  (viii) Yoga according to Yoga Darsana  
  (ix) Yoga according to the Bhagavadgita  
  (x) Mrgendra Tantra’s definition  
  (xi) Sanaka on Yoga  
  (xii) Professor F. Max Mtieller’s view  
  (xiii) Swami Vivekananda on Yoga  
  (xiv) Maharsi Aurobindo on Yoga  
  (xv) Conclusion  
II BUT WHY YOGA? 9-17
  (i) The universal desire for happiness.  
  (ii) Manu’s observations  
  (iii) Visnu Purana’s observations  
  (iv) Maharsi Aurobindo’s observations  
  (v) The Bhagavadgita on the subject  
  (vi) Maharsi Aurobindo quoted  
  (vii) The Mahabharata observes  
  (viii) Advayataraka Upanisad’s observations  
  (ix) Tejobindu Upanisad’s observations  
  (x) Gheranda Sarnhita observations  
  (xi) The Bhagavadgita observation  
  (xii) Acquisition of unusual powers—vibhutis  
  (xiii) Acquisition of physical and mental health through practice of Yoga.  
  (xiv) Four—fold aim of life : Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa  
  (xv) Observation of Isavasya Upanisad  
  (xvi) Bhagavadgita observation  
  (xvii) Emancipation (Moksa) ultimately leading to release from life’s misery  
III THE MIND 18-30
  (i) Patanjali’s definition of Yoga in terms of the Mind  
  (ii) Importance of Mind according to Devikalottara Agama  
  (iii) Mind as a constituent of the eight—fold Prakrti (Nature)  
  (iv) The origin of Mind according to Gandharva Tantra  
  (v) Observance of Varaha Upanisad and Hathayoga Pradipika on Mind  
  (vi) Relative importance of the Mind  
  (vii) Products of the Mind  
  (viii) Mind according to Yogasikha Upanisad  
  (ix) Varaha Upanisad observations on Mind  
  (x) Location of Mind  
  (xi) Types of Mind  
  (xii) Mind the cause of bondage and freedom  
  (xiii) Mind and thoughts  
  (xiv) Mercurial nature of Mind and the way to bring it under control  
  (xv) Mind and Prana  
  (xvi) How to control the Mind and for how long  
  (xvii) Siva Sankalpa Mantras from the Yajurveda  
IV VARIOUS PATHS OF YOGA 31-39
  (i) Numerous ways to reach one and the same goal. Sri Aurobindo’s views on the subject  
  (ii) Swami Vivekananda’s view in the matter  
  (iii) Four main paths of Yoga—Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga, Jnana Yoga and Raja Yoga  
  (iv) Suitability of each path to particular types of human beings  
  (v) Various paths not mutually exclusive  
V JNANA YOGA 40-51
  (i) Sage Vasistha’s exposition of Jnana Yoga  
  (ii) Various steps in the attainment of Siddhi (Emancipation)  
  (iii) Bhagavadgita on Sankhya philosophy  
  (iv) What does Jnana do?  
  (v) What is Jnana  
  (vi) God-described  
  (vii) Immortal entities  
  (viii) Swami Vivekananda on Jnana  
  (ix) Jnana according to Sri Aurobindo  
VI BHAKTI YOGA 52-62
  (i) Sage Kapila’s exposition of Bhakti Yoga  
  (ii) Bhagavadgita on Bhakti Yoga  
  (iii) Swami Vivekananda on Bhakti Yoga  
  (iv) Bhakti Yoga according to Sri Aurobindo  
VII KARMA YOGA 63-73
  (i) Karma Yoga in brief  
  (ii) Who is a Karma Yogi?  
  (iii) Inherent characteristics of Prakrti (Nature-Satva, Rajas & Tamas  
  (iv) Signs to look for in a person risen above the inherent characteristics of Prakrti  
  (v) Swami Vivekananda on Karma Yoga  
  (vi) Sri Aurobindo on Karma Yoga  
 
PART - II ASTANGA YOGA
 
VIII SOME IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS 77-99
  (i) Need for a competent teacher in the pursuit of Yoga  
  (ii) Three categories of teachers  
  (iii) Qualifications of a practitioner of Yoga  
  (iv) Impediments in the path of Yoga  
  (v) Three categories of impediments  
  (vi) How to overcome these impediments  
  (vii) What is helpful in Yoga?  
  (viii) Food suitable for Yoga and food to be avoided  
  (ix) What is measured food?  
  (x) Type of food in the beginning of Yoga practice  
  (xi) When to eat  
  (xii) Appropriate place, environment etc. for practice of Yoga  
  (xiii) Time for Yoga practice  
  (xiv) Importance of regular practice  
IX ASTANGA YOGA 100-104
  (i) Literal meaning of Astanga Yoga  
  (ii) Eight parts of Yoga  
  (iii) The number of constituents of Astanga Yoga—fixed or flexible  
  (iv) What the Astanga Yoga is intended to achieve  
  (v) Means to purify and firm up the human body  
  (vi) The five sins  
X YAMA 105-115
  (i) The constituents of Yama  
  (ii) Is the number fixed or flexible?  
  (iii) Classification as Yama and Niyama not rigid  
  (iv) Ahimsa—non—violence  
  (v) Satya—Truth  
  (vi) Asteya—non-stealing  
  (vii) Brahmacarya—celibacy  
  (viii) Aparigraha—non—avariciousness  
  (ix) Akrodha——Absence of anger  
  (x) Anasuya—absence of jealousy  
  (xi) Daya——Compassion  
  (xii) Arjavam—Straightforwardness  
  (xiii) Ksama—Forgiveness  
  (xiv) Dhrti—Perseverance  
  (xv) Mitahara—Frugality in food or measured eating  
XI NIYAMA 116-125
  (i) Five main constituents of Niyama  
  (ii) Absence of rigidity in the number and constituents of Niyama  
  (iii) Yet another definition of Niyama  
  (iv) Slauca  
  (v) Santosa  
  (vi) Tapa  
  (vii) Svadhyaya  
  (viii) Isfvarapranidhana  
  (ix) Japa  
  (x) Astikya  
  (xi) Dana  
  (xii) Siddhanta Sravana  
  (xiii) Vrata  
  (xiv) Isvara/Hari Pujana  
  (xv) Hri  
  (xvi) Mari  
  (xvii) Some general observations regarding Yama and Niyama  
XII ASANA 126-173
  (i) Meaning of Asana  
  (ii) Number of Asanas  
  (iii) Parts A and B of the Asana  
  (iv) Asana’s detailed under  
 
Part-A
 
  1. Siddha Asana  
  2. Padma Asana  
  3. Bhadra Asana  
  4. Sirnha Asana  
  5. Svastika Asana  
  6. Sukha Asana  
  7. Mukta Asana  
  8. Vira Asana  
  9. Vajra Asana  
  10. Gomukha Asana  
  11. Gupta Asana  
  12. Gorakga Asana  
  13. Yoga Asana  
  14. Pascimottana Asana  
  15. Matsya Asana  
  16. Matsyendra Asana  
  17. Ardhamatsyendra Asana  
  18. Ustra Asana  
  19. Dhanur Asana  
  20. Bhujanga Asana  
  21. Salabha Asana  
  22. Kukkuta 21 Asana  
  23. Mayura Asana  
  24. Kurma Asana  
  25. Uttana Kurma Asana  
  26. Utkata Asana  
  27. Makara Asana  
  28. Matsyapithaka Asaua  
  29. Vrksa Asana  
  30. Sava Asana  
  31. Baddha Padma Asana  
  32. Ardha Asana  
  33. Garuda Asana  
  34. Manduka Asana  
  35. Uttana Manduka Asana  
  36. Sankata Asana  
  37. Vrsa Asana  
  38. Sirsa Asana or Viparitakarani  
 
PART - B
 
  (i) Supta Vajra Asana  
  (ii) Yogamudri Asana  
  (iii) Sarvanga Asana  
  (iv) Hala Asana  
  (v) Karnapida Asana  
  (vi) Cakra Asana  
  (vii) Merudanda Asana  
  (viii) Vrscika Asana  
  (ix) Tada Asana  
  (x) Pavanamukta Asana  
  (xi) Trikona Asana  
  (xii) Garbha Asana  
  (xiii) Ardhacandra Asana  
  (xiv) Mrga Asana  
  (xv) Pidottana Asana  
  (xvi) Surya Namaskara Asana  
  (xvii) Sithila Asana  
XIII OF HUMAN BODY 174-222
  (i) What to expect in this chapter  
  (ii) Human body a temple  
  (iii) Size of human body  
  (iv) Mid—point of the body  
  (v) Length of Prana——main breath  
  (vi) The body—a cosmos  
  (vii) Moon and sun in the body  
  (viii) The five elements in the body  
  (ix) Vital points of the body  
  (x) Gross and subtle body  
  (a) Origin of the five elements  
  (b) Origin of body parts  
  (c) Origin of mind, intellect, ego, citta and heart.  
  (d) Functions of mind etc and their details  
  (xi) The senses  
  (xii) Five shortcomings and their cure  
  (xiii) The Airs  
  (a) Particulars  
  (b) Location  
  (c) Two—fold classification of Vayus (AIRS)  
  (d) Colours of AIRS  
  (e) Functions of individual Vayu  
  (f) Importance of the knowledge of Vayus  
  (xiv) The Nadis (Vessels, Veins and Arteries), Kanda (bulbous root), The Brahma Randhra  
  (xv) The Satcakras—-The six plexuses, the kundalini, the three—Brahma, Visnu and Rudra - Granthis (knots) etc.  
XIV CLEANSING OF INTERNAL CHANNELS 223-235
  (i) Why is the cleansing necessary?  
  (ii) How is the cleansing to be done  
  (iii) Nadisodhana Pranayama  
  (iv) How long should it be practised?
How much and how often?
 
  (v) Signs of Nadis getting rid of impurities.  
XV CLEANSING OF INTERNAL CHANNELS- EXTERNAL AIDS 236-252
  (i) Satkarma—the six activities for cleansing of internal channels, besides Nadisodhana Pranayama  
  (ii) Conditions in which they are particularly useful  
  (iii) Kapala Bhati  
  (iv) Trataka  
  (v) Neti  
  (vi) Dhauti  
  (a) Antar Dhauti  
  (1) Vatasara  
  (2) Varisara  
  (3) Vahnisara  
  (4) Bahishkrita  
  (b) Dantadhauti  
  (1) Banta mula  
  (2) Jihvamula  
  (3) Karna Randhra  
  (4) Kapala Randhra  
  (c) Hrddhauti  
  (1) Danda Dhauti  
  (2) Vamana Dhauti  
  (3) Vasodhauti  
  (d) Mulasodhana  
  (vii) Nauli or Laukik  
  (viii) Vasti Karma  
  (a) Jalavasti  
  (b) 'Suska Vasti  
  (ix) Special advice  
  (iv) Five types of Pratyahara  
  (v) Eighteen vital points  
XVI PRANAYAMA 253-283
  (i) General remarks and meaning of Pranayama  
  (ii) Types of Pranayama  
  (iii) Classification of Pranayama on different bases  
  (a) Dirgha & Sfiksma  
  (b) Sagarbha & Agarbha  
  (c) Sahita & Kevala  
  (d) Different ways in which inhaling and exhaling are done.  
  (iv) Recaka  
  (v) Pitraka  
  (vi) Kumbhaka  
  (vii) Sagarbha Pranayama  
  (viii) Nine varieties of Pranayama  
  (xi) Sitali Pranayama  
  (x) Ujjayi Pranayama  
  (xi) Sitali Pranayama  
  (xii) Bhastrika Pranayama  
  (xiii) Sitkari Pranayama  
  (xiv) Bhramari Pranayama  
  (xv) Mtircha Pranayama  
  (xvi) Kevali  
  (xvii) Progressive stages in Pranayama- Adhama, Madhyama and Uttama  
  (xviii) Quantum of Pranayama to be done daily  
  (xix) Benefits of Pranayama  
XVII AWAKENING OF KUNDALINI AND MUDRAS 284-325
  (i) What is kundalini? Where located.  
  (ii) Why awaken the kundalini?  
  (iii) What is meant by awakening of kundalini?  
  (iv) How to awaken the kundalini  
  (v) Mudras  
  (vi) Mahamudra  
  (vii) Mahabandha  
  (viii) Mahavedha  
  (ix) The desirability of doing the above three Mudras one after the other and in that sequence  
  (x) Khecari  
  (a) Literal meaning  
  (b) Elongation of the tongue  
  (xi) Mulanbandha  
  (xii) Uddiyana Bandha—why called Uddiyana and when should it be done.  
  (xiii) Jalandhara Bandha——when to apply this Bandha.  
  (xiv) The overall effect of all the three Bandhas  
  (xv) Viparitakarani  
  (xvi) Vajroli  
  (xvii) Sakticalana  
  (xviii) Asvini Mudra  
  (xix) Some additional Mudra’s mentioned  
  (xx) Hand—Mudras  
  (a) Jnana Mudra  
  (b) Vayu Mudra  
  (c) Prana Mudra  
  (d) Varuna Mudra  
  (e) Prthvi Mudra  
  (t) Linga Mudra  
  (g) Sunya Mudra  
  (h) Surya Mudra  
XVIII PRATYKHARA 326-332
  (i) Literal meaning of Pratyahara and what it is in essence  
  (ii) Holding of the breath at different points in the body  
  (iii) Pratyahara in terms of the period for which breath can be held  
  (iv) Five types of Pratyahara  
  (v) Eighteen vital points  
XIX YOGA AND HEALTH 333-382
  (i) Importance of health in the yogic effort  
  (ii) Same aspects of Yoga as contributory to sound health  
  (iii) Importance of Asanas.  
  (v) Specific advantages flowing from Satkarma, Asana, Mudra, Pratyahara and Pranayama  
  (vi) Ahankrti (Ego)—the root cause of all ills  
  (vii) Benefits of Hatha Yoga i.e. Asana Pranayama, Satkama and Mudras  
  (viii) Chart showing various diseases and activities such as Asana etc. particularly suited to cure that disease.  
  (ix) What is meant by the disturbance of Air Element (HRWRW)  
  (x) Causes of disturbance of Air Element  
  (xi) Timings of disturbance of Air Element  
  (xii) Disturbance of the Fire Element symptoms  
  (xiii) Causes of the disturbance of Fire Element  
  (xiv) Time for disturbance of Fire Element  
  (xv) Disturbance of Water Element—symptoms  
  (xvi) Causes of Water disturbance  
  (xvii) Timing of Water disturbance  
  (xviii) Characteristics of each Element viz Air, Fire and Water and the cure principle  
  (xix) Exercise•—Its benefits  
  (xx) Excessive exercise and also some other habits  
  (xxi) Quantum of exercise and reason for doing it  
  (xxii) When not to exercise  
  (xxiii) Massage  
  (a) Of the body——benefits  
  (b) Gargling of mouth and teeth with oil——benefits  
  (c) Oil on the head—benefits  
  (d) Oil in the ears—benefits  
  (e) Massage of the feet——benefits  
  (f) Which oil to use  
  (g) Early rising  
  (h) Clearance of stool and other impurities in the morning  
  (i) Sudden impulses——urges from inside the body and distortions caused by holding them unnaturally and their cure  
  (i) Some useful observations regarding food and drink.  
  (k) Some beneficial remarks on sleep, massage, vomiting, skipping a meal, dosing, sleep during day time etc., sex during day time, instant energisers, hot water bath and drinking water in the morning.  
  (l) Table-chart giving characteristics of meal times and their impact on health.  
  (a) Cereals and pulses  
  (b) Vegetables  
  (c) Fruits  
  (d) Spices  
  (e) Milk and milk products  
  (f) Oils  
  (g) Miscellaneous  
  (h) Medicinal value of some types of urine—cow’s urine and human urine  
  (xxiii) Useful advice in the matter of food from a famous ancient book——Pancatantra  
XX DHARANA 383-398
  (i) What is Dharana? Its relative position in the Astanga Yoga  
  (ii) Dharana in terms of the duration for which the breath can be held  
  (iii) Dharana as twelve times of Pratyahara  
  (iv) Holding of the breath-How the duration can be increased  
  (v) Various spots and objects within and outside the body for fixation of the mind  
  (vi) The Pancabhuta Dharana  
  (a) Earth region  
  (b) Water region  
  (c) Fire region  
  (d) Air region and  
  (e) Ether region  
XXI DHYKNA—Concentration or Meditation  
  (i) What is Dhyana?  
  (ii) Dhyana in terms of the duration for which breath is held  
  (iii) The trio viz Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi called Samyama  
  (iv) Object of contemplation  
  (v) Saguna Nirguna Dhyana or Sakala and Niskala Dhyana  
  (vi) What is Isvara and Pranava (OM)  
  (vii) Obstacles in Yoga as also some problems accompanying them.  
  (viii) The remedy to tide over the above obstacles and contemplation of OM- Pranava—OM explained——the letters as constituents of OM  
  (ix) The four great sayings  
  (x) Different types and forms of contemplation- absence of rigidity  
  (xi) Sthula, Jyoti and Suksma Dhyana  
  (xii) Contemplation of the mysterious sound- Nada  
  (xiii) Hathyoga and Rajayoga——their relative importance and interdependence  
  (xiv)Yet another classification of Yoga  
  (a) Mantra Yoga  
  (b) Laya Yoga etc.  
XXII VIBHUTIS OR ACQUISITION OF UNUSUAL POWERS 419-434
  (i) Five different ways of acquiring powers—Siddhis, including Samadhi  
  (ii) Acquisition of unusual powers, not the aim of Yoga  
  (iii) Two types of Siddhis»—Kalpita and Akalpita  
  (iv) The Siddhis as a barometer of progress in Yoga  
  (v) Unusual powers potentially attainable according to Yogatattva Upanisad  
  (vi) Various powers attainable according to n Siva Samhita  
  (vii) The various points of concentration (Samyama i.e. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi) and different types of powers (Vibhutis or Siddhis) resulting there from as per Sandilya Upanisad  
  (viii) Treatment of the above powers in Yoga Darsana of Patanjali  
  (ix) Treatment of some additional powers by Yoga Darsana over and above those already mentioned  
  (x) Anima and other Siddhis-The eight Siddhis  
  (xi) Kayasampat explained  
  (xii) What is Dharmanabhighata  
  (xiii) Madhupratika  
XXIII SAMADHI 435-453
  (i) Samadhi- first stage called Samprajnata Samadhi and the second and the ultimate called Nirbija Samadhi  
  (ii) What is Samadhi and what differentiates it from the immediately preceding stage of Dhyana  
  (iii) Signs of a Yogi in Samadhi  
  (iv) Synonyms of Samadhi  
  (v) The Jivamnukta  
  (a) The fundamental principles including those of Prakrti  
  (b) Seven stages in Yoga  
  (c) Successive transformation of the intellect in various stages.  
  (vi) Brief description of the contents of Yogadarsana of Patanjali  
  (a) The four chapters of Yogadarsana  
  (b) What is Yoga  
  (c) Detachment  
  (d) Samprajnata and Asamprajnata Samadhi  
  (e) Four stages of Samprajnata Samadhi Vitarka Vicara Ananda and Asmita  
  (f) Asamprajnata or Nirbija Samadhi  
XXIV KAIVALYA 454-468
  (i) Literal meaning of the word Kaivalya  
  (ii) The essence of Kaivalya in Yoga  
  (iii) How to avoid the misery resulting from future actions  
  (iv) The terms Drasta and Drsya explained  
  (v) Swami Vivekananda’s observations on the state of Kaivalya  
  (vi) The seven progressive stages-—two sets of classification and Swami Vivckananda’s description of the same  
  (vii) Twofold classification of the seven progressive stages by Sri Vyasa—famous commentator of Patanjali’s Yogadarsana  
  (viii) Description of the seven progressive stages by Swami Vivekanda  
  (ix) Description of the seven stages by Sri Vyasa famous commentator of Patanjali’s ‘Yogadarsana  
  (x) How does Astariga Yoga tit into the scheme of things  
  (a) Patanjali’s exposition of Kaivalya  
  (b) Prasankhyana, Dharma Megha  
  (xi) Sri Aurobindo’s observations  
  (xii) Observations from Kathopanisad  
  (xiii) Observation from the Bhagavadgita  
  INDEX 469-484

 

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