Jammu and Kashmir has already revealed ns cultural potential in the form of numerous archaeological sites stretching from Paleolithic period to the modem through the Dogra rule. The importance of archaeology in history deals not so much with invention but discovering historical evidences in different forms (artifacts 'even quantitative data) so as to provide the background for making conjectures and their refutation. I his edited book studies from the ancient to modern historical information of Jammu and Kashmir. The present work makes an attempt to find out information from the archaeological. historical and the oral tradition. The scope of the present work ban attempt for the understanding and re-writing of history and culture of this area. The tradition of writing of history was carried out very early period in Kashmir in the name of the Rajatarangini. The present publication encompasses a remarkable research study on Jammu and Kashmir. The author draws his conclusion mainly on the basis of the different research paper available from the different authors. It can be useful for research scholars and academicians having interest on history, culture and archaeology of this region.
Dr. Tirtharaj Bhoi took his Post-graduation, M. Phil and Doctoral degree from Central University of Hyderabad. Presently, he is working as Senior Assistant Professor in Department of History, School of Social Sciences, university of Jammu. He has participated in many national and international conferences and published several research papers in journals of national and international repute. He has written extensively on Megalithic culture in India. His interest areas include Ancient history, Ethno-archaeology and Religious study. His recent publications include a book Religion in Western Orissa: from 200 BC to 600 A.D., Ethnography of Megalithic Culture in Chhattisgarh and Forest Management in India: Past and present (in Press).
Jammu and Kashmir is a state with intimate connection between various strata of civilization. The development of religion is an important phenomenon in relation to societal development. The region of Jammu and Kashmir is no exception in this regard. Consequently, the archaeological and literary data provide evidences to suggest that religion played an important role in Jammu and Kashmir region right from the Harappan days, the earliest known civilization of India. That Kashmir's technology was greatly benefited by its contacts with the neighbouring civilizations. During the Kushan period, Kashmir became a great centre of Buddhism so much so that it attracted Kanishka to convene Fourth World Buddhist Council in Kashmir in which, according to Huien-Tsang, hundreds of Buddhist savants participated. The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism. In his edicts, King Ashoka claims that he had sent Buddhist emissaries to Greek to develop herbal medicine in their territories. The Greco-Bactrians maintained a strong Hellenistic culture at the door of India during the rule of the Mauryan period. When the Mauryan Empire was overthrown by the Sunga Dynasty around 185B.C, an army led by King Demetrius I of Bactria invaded India and seized the Kabul Valley. The possibility of a direct connection between the Indo-Greeks and Greco-buddhist art has been reaffirmed recently dating 100 AD in Punjab.
Alexander Cunningham described, the art and architecture of this region is influenced by the Greeks. The Kashmir style of architecture was the style of the Arians or the Aryas of Kashmir as belonging to the "Arian Order." He referred to the strong resemblance between Kasluniri colonnades, with their fluted pillars, and the classical peri-style of the Greeks. This influence made the temple architecture aesthetically pleasing. Dowries and virilocal were also central features of marriage customs in both ancient Greece and Rome. The predictions of historical development of dowries, bequests, bride prices, and marriage gifts in various civilizations of the past particularly in Ancient Greece from 500-1500 A.D. influence in this region. In ancient Greece, Saffron was a royal dye and was used as a perfume in saloons, courts, theatres and bathrooms; later its use spread among ordinary people and it transformed in to this countries through trade.
Archaeological studies relate the great cultural diversity of humanity in every comer of the world. By nature, human beings have an innate tendency of remaining interested about the past and it was the fascination for antiquities which gave birth to the study of the archaeology. The construction of archaeological culture has generally been based on spatial and chronological variations in the material record. Such an interpretation is premised on the assumption that these variations are reflections of different people. Variations in artifacts (monuments) have been framed in terms of style. Both archaeologists and historian understand identities as social categories produced through negotiation of power relations in distinct socio-historical setting. This new concept of regional identities in historical archaeology marks a standard shift from previous analysis that correlated identities in textual sources with excavation, artifacts, association as though identities were fixed positions that people occupied. Identities development consists of an individual's movement toward a highly conscious identification with their own cultural values, behavior, beliefs and traditions. It provides a theoretical structure for understanding individual's negotiations of culture. Consequently, the archaeological writings on ancient Jammu region has recently explored by various historians based on their own aim and objective. There was serious lack of concentration from academicians in this region. Archaeologically, this region has a high potential that can help to explore and re-construct the ancient past history, which in turn would help to gain information that will help us in understanding the present scenario. This region is important because of its hilly tract areas, providing scope for investigating the unexplored monuments and history. The sporadic studies carried out in the recent past and the reports of some of the British officers (mentioned earlier) indicate that the region has been surrounded with numerous archaeological monuments and great historical importance. But so far no systematic archaeological work has been carried out. Reason behind can be devoted to either Article 370 of Indian constitution preventing detailed explorations or lack of interest among intellectuals.
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