Early Buddhism will serve a very broad audience, including specialists of
Buddhist monastic history and students of the material expression of ritual and
religion in a complex cultural setting. Fogelin has effectively
integrated modern theory on ritual, practice, and landscape with archaeological
data from a key South Indian Buddhist monastery-Thatlakanda-to
create a stimulating explanation of its place within a complex political,
economic and social setting. It is certain to become a classic to become a
classic in the field.
Lars Fogelin is assistant professor of anthropology at Albion
College, Michigan. He received a BA in anthropology from Ithaca College, New
York, an MA from the University of Hawaii at Manoa,
and a PhD in anthropology from the University of Michigan in 2003. His research
and publications center on South Asian archaeology, religion, architecture, and
landscape. For the last five years he has led archaeological investigations of
a 2000-year-old Buddhist monastery), near the modern city of Visakhapatnam,
India. He is also coeditor, with Carla M. Sinopoli , of Imperial Imaginings: The Dean C Worcester Photographic
Collection of the Philippines, 1890-1913, a CD-ROM addressing American
colonialism in the Philippines. Prior to his first trip to
India in 1994. He participated in archeological research in Israel, the
Mediterranean, Peru, and the Dutch West Indies.
book I phonetically transliterate Sanskrit terms rather than using the more
modern system of diacritical marks that is commonly employed in Buddhist
studies. This was a difficult decision. Diacritical marks undoubtedly allow for
the most accurate pronunciation of Sanskrit. I chose to use phonetic
transliteration for two reasons. First, archaeological sites are by convention
named by their excavators. In almost all cases the names of archaeological
sites are phonetically transliterated. For reasons of consistency, other
Sanskrit words should be similarly transliterated. Second, I expect that many
of the people reading this book will be archaeologists who work outside South
Asia. While phonetic transliteration is less accurate than the use of
diacriticals, it is the quickest and easiest way to approximate proper
pronunciation for the non specialist. Using phonetic transliteration, Sanskrit
and other terms are pronounced pretty much as an English speaker would expect.
The one difference is the use of the letter to mark certain consonants as
aspirated. With the exception of this does not cause any significant confusion.
As for it is never pronounced as a fricative as in them, but rather as an
aspirated as in stop are pronounced as they are in English.
This book is
revise version of my Ph.D. dissertation, submitted in 2003 to the University of
Michigan Department Of Anthropology (Fogelin 2003c).
Most of the revisions have consisted of removing extraneous information
unrelated to the specific goals of this book, but I have also expanded some
portions of the original, particularly those dealing with the method and theory
of the archaeology of religion.
dissertation had several appendices containing the data that I had collected
during fieldwork-summaries of my site forms, field maps, ceramic drawings, and
ceramic measurements. I have chosen not to reproduce them here because of space
limitations. The primary data and more extensive discussions of the specific
material remains can be found in the original dissertation. I am also happy to
provide all of this information in a digital format to any legitimate
All of the
archaeological materials collected during survey were given to the Andhra
Pradesh Department of Archaeology and Museums for long-term duration. The
department has stored all of the archaeological materials collected during
fieldwork in its warehouse in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. No archaeological
remains were removed from India or Andhra Pradesh at any time.
of this book were adapted from recent and forthcoming publications (Fogelin 2003a, 2003b, 2004, and in press a) to suit the
particular needs of this book. Most excerpts are only a few paragraphs long. In
some cases, I have incorporated a few pages.
: Archaeology and Early Buddhism
Brief History of the Early Historic Period in South Asia
in Early Historic Period in South Asia
Ritual, Architecture, and Landscape
Thotlakonda’s Archeological and Environment Context
the Monastery Walls
Architectural Layout and Organization of Thotlakonda
Thotlakonda Monastery in
Its Local Landscape
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