Punjab has been the cradle of Cultures from the earliest times. In the Cultural History of India the contribution of Punjab has been of immense value. Archaeologically speaking, it is one of the most important areas of India which has brought to light the vestiges of Pre Harappan, Harappan, Late Harappan, Bara and Painted Greyware cultures be sides remains of early historical and historical periods.
Archaeology of Punjab is an anthology which brings together much of the scattered writing on the subject by various authors and field workers and the latest positional point of views have been projected. The book has a fore word by Jagat Pati Joshi, former Director General of Archaeological Survey of India and has seven chapters three elaborate site lists and a bibliography. The introductory Chapter has information on the physical features and river system of Punjab; Chapter 2 deals with pre-historic Punjab, Chapter 3 is on the neolithic horizon; Chapter 4 discusses the protohistoric Punjab; Chapter 5 sums up the literary references to Pun jab; Chapter 6 relates the numismatics evidence from Punjab; Chapter 7 gives the dawn of the historical period of Pun jab. Throughout the book an attempt has been to give coherent pictures of the archaeology of Punjab.
Madhu Bala, after doing her M.A. in Sanskrit (Epigraphy Group) from Pun jab University, Chandigarh did her post graduate diploma in Archaeology from the School of Archaeology (now Institute of Archaeology) of the Archaeological Survey of India. She joined the Archaeological Survey of India in 1975 and presently she is a Deputy Superintending Archaeologist in the Survey. She has actively participated in a number of noteworthy excavations e.g., Purana Qila, Raja Karan Ka Qila, Mathura, Bhagwanpura, Katpalon, Dadheri, Nagar and Manda. She has proved her self to be a good excavator and has a flair for field work. She has done vast exploration in Haryana, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir and has been associated with discovery of Pre-Harappan, Harappan, Late Harappan, painted Grey ware sites, besides large scale documentation of sites of the protohistoric period. She has specialized in the proto historic period, excavation techniques and has to her credit upto date about forty-five research papers published in various Journals of repute in different languages. Two books, one in Sanskrit entitled Bhartiya Puratattavam Navin tama Upalabhdhayaha and another en titled, Prachin Punjabi di Sanskriti in Gurmukhi have been published by the author which are pioneering attempts to write on Archaeology in Sanskrit and Punjabi(Gurmukhi) respectively.
This book is extensively revised translated version of my original book written in Punjabi (Gurmukhi) entitled Prachin Punjab Di Sanskriti. The entire book has been re-edited and as the matter has been enlarged with latest information available from the field work carried out by different archaeologists and relevant available information. from various sources has been put in different chapters. With a view to give a coherent picture of the Archaeology of Punjab, physical, archaeological, numismatic, literary and other data has been projected up to the early historical times.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank all my well wishers friends and colleagues who have variously helped me and encouraged me to take up the present study and complete it. I am most grateful to the Director General, Archaeological Survey of India for per mitting me to publish the book.
I have no words to express my gratitude to Shri Jagat Pati Joshi, Director General (Retired) Archaeological Survey of India who has been always a source of inspiration to me and gave his constant guidance and valuable suggestions in the preparation of the book and also graciously obliged by writing the forward.
My grateful thanks are to Shri M.C. Joshi, Director General Archaeological Survey of India, Shri K.N. Dikshit, Director, Monuments, Dr. W. H. Siddiqui, Director, Expeditions (Abroad) Dr. C. Margabandhu, Director, Excavation and Exploration, Dr. I.K. Sharma, Director, Antiquity, Shri B.M. Pande, Director, Publication, and Shri R.S. Bisht, Course Director, Institute of Archaeology, New Delhi for generous help and encouragement.
It is widely known that Punjab has been the cradle of cultures from the emergence of Man in India and it has bequeathed a rich cultural inheritance. In the cultural cavalcade of India's history the contribution of Pubjab has been of immense value. Archaeologically speaking, it is one of the most important areas which has revealed the remains of Pre-Harappan, Harappan, Late Harappan and Bara and Painted Grey Ware cultures besides vestiges of the Early historical and historical period.
In the Archaeology of Punjab there are some land marks which are of great importance e.g. the discovery of Sivapithicus, Ramapithicus, Brahmapithicus and Sugrivapithicus; the extensive mounds of pre-Harappan and Harappan period at Dhalewan, Baglian Da Theh, Gurnikalan, Lakhmirwala, Hasanpur in Mansa Taluka, Bhat inda District; availability of 21 sites in an area of approximately 50 km x 25 km (i.e. 1250 km) in Mansa Taluka of Bhatinda shows that it was very important economic pocket in the Harappan culture area; there were six cities, seven towns on one side of the Sirhind Nala in this area which was connected with Sarasvati and there were eight villages on other side of the nala, the Pre or Early Harappan and Harappans preferred the Ghaggar and its tributaries, it was a more static river system than the Beas, Satlej and Ravi which were erratic in their behaviour and changed their courses very often; the Sirhind, a tributary of the Ghaggar was one of the most important line of cominunication between Punjab and Rajasthan and it was once the route of penetration of Harappans to Punjab; discovery of Bara culture having two phases, one earlier which was co-existing with Pre-Harappan and the latter continued along with the Late Harappan cultures; overlap of late Harappan-Bara culture with PGW culture without iron at Dad heri, Nagar, Katpalon and Sanghol showing an earlier phase of PGW culture; a flourishing Buddhist settlement at Sanghol with monasteries, stupas and a Mahastupa surrounded by a railing having most beautiful examples of Mathura School of Art of the Kushana period in red sand stone.
The present state of Punjab is situated in the northwestern part of the Indian Union and lies precisely between lat 29" 45' N, long 74" 05' E and lat 32° 30′ N and long 76" 55' E. Roughly, in a triangular shape, the state occupies an area of 50, 302 sq km which is divided into twelve districts. The state of Punjab is bound by Siwalik hills of Himachal Pradesh in the north and by Jammu and Kashmir in the west. It touches Rajasthan in the south and joins Haryana in the east. The green sprawling fields of the plains of Punjab, gurgling rivers and nalas and snow clad white mountain range of Dhauladhar in the far off background give the state an attractive and pleasing environment.
Poetically, Punjab has been described variously 'as a Crowning Canopy of India' and 'an indomitable gateway', 'Harit-vasana' i.e., 'land wearing green clothes', 'Brahamarshi-desh' and 'Brahmavarta', the land of Sages and Gods. Celebrated in Vedic literature as 'Sapta Sindhu', the land of Mantradrishta rishis, (sages), it is known as 'Panchanada' in the epics. The Greek historians have named Punjab as 'Pentapotamia'. Its present name is derived from the Persian word, 'Panj' (five) and 'Ab' (water).
**Contents and Sample Pages**
Art & Culture (792)
Emperor & Queen (493)
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