The Prakarana Pancika belongs to
the Prabhakara school of Purvamimamsa. It is a primer of the Prabhakara
system and deals with very important
tenants such as pramana, prameya
and other subject which distinguish
this system with the other systems.
The Vakyartha-matrka is no. eleventh
prakarana of the Prakarana Pancika.
It is a cluster of verses on which
the author has written vrtti. This
prakarana has two sub section namely
prathama pariccheda and dvitiya
pariccheda, of which the first one
serves as an introduction to the second.
The prathama pariccheda of the Vakyarthamatrka consists of twenty two
karikas besides the collected verses
(Samgraha slokas) pertaining to the
same author. In the first section
the author has established Anvitabhidhanavada (The theory of expression
of the correlated) and in doing so,
he has criticised and refuted abhihitanvayavada (the theory of the expressed
the correlation) of the Bhatta Mimamsakas and also the theory of sphota
of the Grammarians.
The author has also discussed in this
chapter, the three factors that lead
to the comprehension of the total
meaning of the sentence namely
expectancy. Sannidha and Yogyata.
In the second section of the said
prakarana the author has established
Niyoga (Moral imperative) as the
meaning of the optative case-ending,
apurva (unique result) as the meaning
of the vedic optatives and the effect
of the actions as the meaning of
non-vedic optatives and in this section
he has refuted the views of Mandana
Misra who has in his Brahmasiddhi
strongly criticized and discarded
the view of the prabhakara school
regarding Niygoga in the second section
there are forty six karikas of which
the last karika gives the name of
I had the opportunity of studying the Vakyarthamatrka of
Salikanatha Misra, when I had been to Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati in 1981, in connection with participating in the All
India level winter Institute on Prabhakara-Mimamsa. In course of
our discussion, we found the Vakyarathamatrka as an indispensable
treatise of the Prabhakara-Mimamsa and as it has no translation
in any language, we felt the necessity of an English translation of
The present work is an attempt to that aim. It is very difficult
to present such an abstruse philosophy through translation, when
the language into which it is translated differs so widely in form and
in spirit from the original. But I have tried to be as literal and as
true to the spirit and sequence of the sentences, as the English
allows. For those who are not well-versed in Sanskrit, an English
version of it is sure to be of great help and I have ventured to make
an attempt. I am very much grateful to my revered teacher.
Professor Dr. Mukunda Madhava Sharma, M.A., Ph.D., D. Litt.
Kavya-Tirtha, Head of the Deptt. of Sanskrit, Gauhati University.
who asked me to make the present attempt. I am also deeply
indebted to my honourable teacher and colleague Dr. Ashok Kumar
Goswami, Reader in Sanskrit, Gauhati University, who has kindly
helped me very much in making the English Version and revised
the manuscripts. I am also thankful to my teacher and colleague
Dr. Apurva Chandra Barthakuria for his help in many ways. My
thanks are also due to some others who helped me in various ways
in executing this work.
I also express my sincere thanks to Messrs. Indian Books
Centre, Delhi, who has undertaken the publication of this work.
I hope that the boo will facilitate the study of Prabhakara Mimamsa in respect of the theory of meaning and widely be ready by interested readers.
I am really cncious of the probable shortcomings in this work, however.
The Purvamimamsa or Karmamimamsa system of Indian'
philosophy is ascribed to the great sage Jaimini who wrote the•
Mimamsa-Sutras. Sabarasvamin wrote the major commentary
known as Sabarabhasya, on Jaimin's Sutras. He was followed by
a long line of commentators and independent writers of whom
Kumarila Bhatta and Prabhakara Misra deserve special mention.
These two scholors founded the two chief branches of Purvamimamsa known after their names, vis., the: Bhatta school and the
Prabhakara Misra composed two commentaries namely, Brhati
and Laghvi on the Sabarabhasya. The reputation enjoyed by
Prabhakara among scholars was mainly due to the subsequent
contribution of Salikanatha Misra, a first-rate scholar and an
independent writer of the Prabhakara system. Among other writers
of this school are Bhavanatha Misra, author of the Nayaviveka,
Nandisvara, author of the Prabhakaravijaya and Ramanujacarya,
author of the Tantrarahasya. They are the only ancient writers of'
the Prabhakara system. Of the modern scholars writing on this
system, the names of Dr. Ganganatha Jha and MM. Kuppuswami
Shastri deserve to be specially mentioned. It may perhaps be.
deduced from the length of the list of scholars of this system,
both traditional and modern, that there were only a few scholars
who were interested in the study of the Prabhakara school and as
such, this school unlike the Bhatta school was not so popular
among the students of Indian philosophy. It will, however, be
wrong to conclude that as the prabhakara school of Purvamimamsa .
was not popular and widely studied, so it has no importance as a
system of philosophy. Rather it can be said that the school at
Prabhakara is more important than the Bhatta school despite it
wide popularity. Dr. Ganganath Jha is of the view that Prabhakara
is more faithful to the Bhasya of Sabara than Kumarila, According
to professor Hiriyana, the original teaching of the Mimamsa is
better preserved in the writings of Prabhakara than in those of
Kumarila.! Prabhakara, however, was a more original thinker than
Kumarila and he will always be remembered as the author of a
-peculiar theory of knowledge known as Triputipratyaksavada or the
theory of triple perception and a-theory of error called Akhyativada
. or the Vivekakhyativada." To understand the Mimamsa system
-fully and precisely, one must go through the works of the Prabhakara system.
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