Yoga: From Confusion to Clarity is a refreshing series of five volumes entitles as follows:
Vol 1. Foundation of Yoga
Vol 2. Psychology of Yoga
Vol 3. Asana
Vol 4. Sat Karma, Mudra, Pranayama and Pratyahara
Vol 5. Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi
The first volume is based on the novel findings of the authors of the elements of yoga in the Vedic Samhitas as well as in the Upanishads and has developed the view that it is these elements which gradually in course of time have taken the shape of various system of Yoga such as jnana-yoga , bhakti-yoga, karma-yoga, dhyana-yoga, mantra-yoga and hatha-yoga, etc. The second volume has put forward the view of consciousness as the most fundamental reality getting concretized into matter only secondarily. The entire psychology of yoga, according to it, is based on this basic postulate opening up thus the possibility of transformation in the nature of mankind as a whole as well as in that of the individual through the discipline of yoga. The last three volumes show the way to such a transformation via various kind as of yogic practices such as asana, sat karma, Mudra, praayaama, pratyahar, dahrana, dhyana and Samadhi. All these ingredients of yoga as well as its basic postulates have been discussed here clearly and authentically having been based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.
Here is an attempt to trace the origin of Yoga back to the Veda millennia before the advent of Patanjali with his Yoga-sutra which ordinarily is mistaken to be the earliest source-book o the discipline. By tracing the origins of so important a disciplines as Yoga to that end this work not only presents a corrective of an error of so abysmal order but also brings to the fore the discipline in its pristine purity and abundance which resulted in the elevation of Angiras, Visvamitra, Vasistha, etc., to seer hood. The mystery of the Veda at such an early stage of the human history gets cracked here through the trace of yoga to that antiquity. Besides showing sure indications opt the discipline in the Vedic Samhita, it discloses the secret yogic practices of some of the most important seers of the Vedic age. If the method of prananusandhana as developed by Angiras has resulted in the way of access to pure consciousness through control of the vital, that of nadanusandhana as epitomized by the female seers Angiras has led to descent of Vedic mantas on the seers with all their exquisite wealth of wisdom, knowledge and aesthetic values. While the chapter on Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals confirms the literary evidence adduced here by archaeological verity, the Critique of Patanjali brings to the fore the seminal points of departure of him from the royal road of Yoga, raja-yoga, built up by the seers. Thus, if one wants to understand the secret of Spirituality in India along with the infallible way to it, one is sure to find this publication most refreshing and rewarding.
As the book is designed to confirm to course contents of Yoga, it will be of great use to graduates, post grag8uates, diploma, degree and research students of Yoga and the teachers alike.
While the first volume of the Foundation of Yoga deals with the historical side of the foundation, the present one concerns itself with the psychological which has been discerned in the form of consciousness. Just as matter is the basic stuff physical sciences have to deal with, consciousness serves as the basic stuff of the science of spirit known as Yoga. Any yogic practice apart from deep understanding of the nature of consciousness is, thus, doomed to end in an exercise in futility. This is what has been brought to the fore by Vedic seers and Upanisadic sages practically by diving deep into consciousness and declaring it as the source of everything in the world including matter itself. As such, what modern psychologists have declared as sub-conscious and unconscious, is only a covert form of consciousness. What has been recounted in the Veda as war between gods and demons is, thus, reducible to the seer's entry into these covert layers of consciousness and facing the odds. Search of one's identity in the pure consciousness is liberation and immortality while one's identification with the physical is bondage and mortality. The Mahdmrtyunjaya mantra epitomizes this secret at its best. All this has been brought out here closely and cogently on the evidence of the galaxy of Vedic seers and Upanisadic sages with a view to recreate the real psychological foundation of Yoga which otherwise is being tossed around today like a kite snapped off its string. As such, the volume is expected to prove an authentic passage to entry into the citadel of yoga and experience the felicity lying await within. It will be helpful in clearing the cobweb of misunderstanding about it formed in course of millennia and will benefit everyone including yoga teachers, practitioners, researchers and students who are doing graduation, post-graduation and Ph.D. in Yoga.
One, who has established control over the asanas, conquers the three worlds.
Practice of asanas removes diseases and brings stability and health to the body.
This volume discusses various kinds of asana, both gross and subtle with suitable pictorial illustrations, textual references and scientific notes on their effects on the body and the mind from both hygienic and yogic viewpoints. Combination of textual account with the modern physiological analysis is sure to be helpful in the understanding of the proper mode of these postures which otherwise are likely to cause damage to the body and disturbance to the mind instead of bringing succor to both of them. It also discusses preparatory asanas for beginners as well as asanas for advanced practitioners. Practice of these asanas is so described that it prepares one for inner journey. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga, and we hope that it will benefit everyone including Yoga teachers, practitioners, researchers and students who are doing diploma, graduation, post-graduation, and Ph.D.
This volume deals with what are known in yogic parlance as sat karma, mudra, pranayama, pratyahara. Sat karma is purificatory of the body. It includes what are known as neti, dhauti, vasti, nauli, etc. These devices of purification of the body on the yogic line have been discussed in hatha-yogic treatises of the medieval age and are highly useful in the redemption of the body from various kinds of diseases. So is the case with the mudras and bandhas which, however, being purificatory of the body are highly useful in leading to concentration of the mind. While pranayama in the course of yogic sadhana is self-evident as prana and consciousness are closely interrelated. Various kinds of pranayama have been deliberated upon in the volume apart from several others that have remained generally unknown so far. It also discusses precaution and safety during the practice of pranayama. Pratyahara is that method in which the sense organs follow the sense-mind on the image held within so that they can get sensations from within thereby leading to the dissolution of the sensations of sense-organs in the sense-mind and finally it gets dissolved in the consciousness or the Self. All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.
The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga and will be of great use to graduates, post graduates, diploma, research students and teachers of Yoga and the practitioners alike.
This volume discusses the three next steps of Yoga known as dharana, dhyana and samadhi. They represent the crux of the. process of yogic sadhana. In view of the extreme subtlety of these steps, this volume successful coverage of these steps through relevant texts dealing with this part of the sadhana. With this end in view, selections have been made from such yogic texts bearing as the Upanisads, Bhagavadgita, Vijnabhairava, Malinivijayottaratantra, etc. which have been adduced here along with their English translation and necessary notes wherever required for clarification.
It also includes and discusses the Epistemology of Yoga as well as a digest of the entire process and method of the sadhana put together succinctly and in a graded manner under A Tractatus of Yoga. The formulations made here are for summarising the entire range of the sadhana in as brief a form as possible. These formulations have been made somewhat on the pattern of the classical authors of the sutra-from of literature dealing with subjects of utmost technical bearing requiring close attention of the reader. A significant difference in the process of formulation of the tractatus here from that of the ancient Sanskrit authors of the sutras lies in the fact that while surra preceded their expositions made sometimes by the sutrakaras themselves and mostly by other exponents of them quite subsequently, here the formulations only follow the detailed exposition meant particularly to serve as a digest of the entire stuff along with all the difficulties involved in its coverage, understanding and practical application. All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other.
All these ingredients of yoga as well its basic postulates have been discussed clearly and authentically having based on the textual verity on the one hand and scientific possibility on the other. The book is designed to confirm to the course contents of Yoga and we hope that it will be of great use to graduates, post graduates, diploma, research students, teachers of Yoga and general practitioners alike.
Professor Satya Prakash Singh is a renowned Vedic and Yogic Scholar as well as practicing Yogi. He is a Ph. D. of the Banaras Hindu University and D. litt. Of the Alilgarh Muslim University. A former Chairman of eh Department of Sanskrit and Dean, Faculty of Arts, Aliigarh Muslim University, he is presently working as an Editorial Fellow in the Centre for Studies in Civilisations, New Delhi. He has also been Director of Dharam Hindu International Centre of Indic Research Centre Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratisthan under Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India in New Delhi. He is the recipient of a number of prestigious awards including Ganganath Jha Award of the Uttar Pradesh Sanskrit Academy, Rajaji Literary Award of Bharatiya Visdya Bhavan , Bombay, Banabhatta Puraskara of Sanskrit Academy, Uttar Pradesh, besides President of India’s Award of Scholar of Eminence. His publications’ include: 1. Sri Aurobindo and Whitehead d on the Nature of God 2. Sri Aurobindo, Jung and Vedic Yoga 3. Upanisadic Symbolism. 4. Vedic Symbolism 5. Life and Vision of Vedic Seers Vol. I visvamtira, vol. II. Dirghatamas 6. Vedic Vision of Consciousness and Reality 7. History of Yoga.
Yogi Mukesh is and accomplished yogin besides being deeply grounded in the study of yogic literature of a variety of shades including Vedic, Tantric, Saiva, Vaisnava and Buddhist. He has been initiated in yoga practically by a reputed yogin while living in his company for quite some time in a sacred cave in western Uttar Pradesh. He is an extensively travelled scholar and sadhaka both externally and internally having devoted considerable time of his life in several countries of the world as well as in the yogin’s cave.
I feel honored to write a foreword to the present publication on yoga which, to be sure, is the most scholarly work on yoga published so far. Its novelty as well as profundity lies in tracing other root of yoga right in the Vedas which hardly any other scholar so far has dared to go to inches search for the root. Of any other scholar has to refer to any Vedic mantra in this regard that has been done only with reference to such mantras which have happened to be quoted in the Upanishads. It goes to the credit of such a profound scholar of Veda as Professor Satya Prakash Singh to have adduced so much insight from the foremost scriptural creation of mankind in regard to the beginning of this pre-eminently intuition-based discipline as yoga. Tracing the root of yoga in the Vedas has automatically resolved a number of points of confusion in regard to the nature of the discipline, such as the involvement of dualistic or non-dualistic metaphysics in its fabric. So is the case with the authors’ basing their treatment of yoga on the ontological primacy of consciousness which in spite of having been presumed b each and every practitioner of yoga, has seldom been put forward so consistently and convincingly by any other author on yoga world over so far.
The volumes as asana, sat karma, pratyaharam Dhahran, dhyana and Samadhi too are refreshing and highly instructive. The pictorial representations in these as well as in earlier both the volumes are marvelous. They are highly suggestive of the content they have been designed to represent. The coordination between the textual and the expository matter is perfect. Each statements supported by relevant textual evidence. While ht first two volumes of the series are highly illuminative to the frontline scholar of the discipline, the remaining three are as much instructive to students of yoga at large. I am, therefore of the considered view that this series of volumes on yoga must necessarily be acquired by each and every educational institution and library in the country and closely be gone through by each and every scholar as well as student of yoga whosever.
We are glad to present herewith in the form of this series the fruits of our association of more than a decade since we happened to work together at the Dharma Hindu a International Centre of Indic Research during the nineties of the last century .It is since those days that we got all the more deeply interested in the essentials of yoga as embedded in the Vedic Samhitas which otherwise were taken by scholars to concern mainly with nature- worship particularly under the persuasion of the Aryan Invasion theory. The myth at the theory began to get exploded as we progressed ahead with our findings of the beginnings of various forms of yoga in those earliest texts of mankind as came to be elaborated upon in later works on the discipline such as the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, the Mahabharata, the Yoga Sutra, the later Upanishads, the Tantric texts and works on Hatha-yoga. Sri Aurrobindo, the sage of Pondicherry with his refreshing interpretation of the Veda of the side and deep understanding of the subsequent literature on the other proved a great source of inspiration of the Veda on the one side and deep understanding of the subsequent literature on the other proved a great source of inspiration to us. This work has taken fifteen years of our time to complete it. Prof. Kireet Joshi’s company with us all through this period served as a remarkable stimulant to us in giving the present shape to our understanding of the origin and development of the discipline of yoga as we have presented it here. In fact, the major part of the second volume of this series was worked out under a project entitled Consciousness in the Veda granted to one of us under the auspices of Maharshi Sandipani Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratisthan , Ujjan, during the Chairmanship of Professor Kireet Joshi himself. We, therefore, express our obligation and thus providing us the facility to carry out the work to this end.
We are thankful to Shri Kulvir Singh, born and raised in New Delhi. He was one of the youngest, Creative Art Directors in India and is at present living in Toronto, Canada for the last seven years. Currently he is working with an international media publishing company as Creative Art Director for internationally published B2B magazines. He has assisted us by designing the covers of the volumes with a unique perspective and concept by this design the rise of yoga globally. The abstract illustrative art with warm colour palette gives the design a very Eastern and earthy feel and look.
We cannot forget the help rendered to us by Mrs. Nisha Saxena, NTPC, who took upon herself the task of typing the manuscript correctly and elegantly and also for providing the print outs.
In the same way we are grateful to Shri Anurag Chopra, Advocate, Supreme Court, New Delhi for his constant inspiration, support and encouragement.
Our heartfelt gratitude goes to Shri Mohindra Vashistha, the publisher of these volumes, for his constant support an initiative in getting them published.
Also we would like to thank Dr. Premlat, Judge, Consumer court, Delhi, Shri Radhey Shyam Sharma, PGT, KEndriya Vidyalaya, Rajokari, New Delhi and Shri Pankaj Rastogi of Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
The graphics used in the book are not of our own creation. They have been drawn from dicers sources to bear out some sort of semblance to the central ideas discussed here. We acknowledge our indebtedness to all those agencies responsible for the creation, production or reproduction as the case may be, of these graphics.
Yoga is the greatest gift of Indian to mankind. It is a gift of the same magnitude from the Indian side as science is from the Western with this difference, however, that while the fruits of science began to be relished by people a large right from the very beginning, Yoga continued to remain confined only to the selected few for aeons. Even while remaining so, it has produced effects quite splendid as a device of bringing to the fore man’s latent potentialities, as is evident from the creativity of the Vedic seers, Upanisadic sages, poets like valmiki and vyasa, sages like Kapila, Adinatha, Mahavira, Buddha, Sankara and Abhinavagupta, philosopherse like Kanada and Gautama, grammarians like Panini and Patanjali besides an endless list of thinkers and innovators emerging from the Indian soil in the hoary past and remaining unparalleled, to a great extent, even until now. As is evident from their biographies in whatsoever scanty from, all these seers, sages, saints, thinkers and innovators of different disciplines of knowledge were basically yogis’ having been involved in the practice of yoga as the source of their exceptional knowledge and wisdom which have kept India sustained since untold ages until now, all vicissitude of history notwithstanding. It is, therefore, imperative now to bring that technique of knowledge, wisdom and transformation of life out of its haunt of secrecy so that the humanity, as a whole, may taste the fruit of it without any inhibition and discrimination.
In order to get this objective materialized, what is necessary is to go to the very root of this discipline both historically and psychologically. So far as the historical perspective is concerned, the necessity of going into it has arisen out of the misconception of delimiting the root of Yoga generally midway to Patanjali, the author of Yoga-sutra. Indeed, it is due to this misconception that Yoga has come to be mistaken as something secret, unsocial an otherworldly and hence not lonely difficult to take yup but also counterproductive in many respects. It is due to the prevalence of this view of Yoga that such a scripture as the Bhagavad-Gita has been mistaken as denunciatory in spite of its most eloquent advocacy in favor of karma yoga. Another by- product of this mistaken view of Yoga particularly in the modern times is the delimitation of it to only a certain kind of physical and vital exercises in the form of asansas and pranayama as popularly taught by some enthusiasts of the discipline in the name of Yoga as such today. The special feature of the present attempt is to explore the history of Yoga right from the Vedic or even the pre-Vedic era and reconstruct it from the material scatted throughout the Vedas as a system of Yoga by virtue of which pre-Vedic and Vedic people became seers of Vedic mantras as the treasure-chest of the profoundest kind of wisdom and knowledge even at that epoch of human history and thus laid the foundation of the Indian culture so broad an humane in outlook and so lasting in character. In fact, it is the tapas and sadhana of the Vedic seers which has got crystallized in the form of the discipline of Yoga in all its dimensions, phases and varieties coming to be designated in course of time as bhakti-yga, jnana-yoga,karma-yoga, hatha-yoga, etc. It is for the first time here so far that the prmecal seers like Atharvan, Angiras, Ayasya, Agastya, Dadhyan, Dirghatamas, Visvamitra, VAmadeva, Vasisthat, Patanga, Ambhrni et al have been induced to speak for themselves through their mantric mouths as to how through the yogic process they happened to envision mantras of such profound bearing like the well-known Gayatri, mahamrtyunjaya etc., which have been serving as the last resort of millions of people for millennia in their venture into the unknown as well as known, howsoever impregnable otherwise.
On the other hand, so far as the psychological perspective of the discipline is concerned, instead of searching for its motivation in the desire for alleviation of any kind of suffering or affliction in this world or in the wish for the enjoyment of the plenitude of the world beyond, here it has been found to lie in man’s eternal quest for exploring into the mystery of consciousness has been determined here as the explorer as well as the field of exploration, as the object as well as the subject. In the commonsense experience, the object is object and subject, as both are conceived as categorically different form each other. The interaction between the two is considered as just a matter of fact without needing any explanation concerning the mystique behind it. Philosophical attempts to solve the problem has resulted in the East in the form of the admittance of Prakriti and Purusa as two absolutely independent realities while in the West it has led to the Cartesian dichotomy between Mind and Matter. Both these positions stop short of resolving the problem of explaining the why of the integration between so polar entities as the subject and the object. In view of this kind of shortfall of these explanations, science made an effort to resolve the problem by setting before itself Matter alone as the reality projecting itself primarily as the object and giving isle to the subject as its by product. This viewpoint served well in concentrating exclusively on Matter and developing the physical sciences, which have served mankind well to a certain extent but, at the same time, have led inadvertently to extreme erosion in moral values today in the society. A society scorn of such values cannot afford to sustain itself very long. Moreover, in spite of adding immensely to the means of comfort to the human life, the physical science, with this basic standpoint of it, has robbed him of what really he is, that is, his self, in research of which he is panting like a fish put out of water. When Self as the crux of the personality is lost, what remains there to enjoy the plenitude of life! This dilemma in the human life created by the physical science, however, finds a gleam of light emerging from science itself in the form of its proposition that even in the strictly scientific observation there is a possibility of the subject playing a definite role in molding the shape of the object to a great extent. This finding under quantum mechanics in course of experiments of the ultimate shape of matter as particle and wave both as per the peresupposition of the observer, is sufficient to open our eye to the pre-eminence of consciousness in the spectrum of the reality.
This gleam of light as emerging faintly from modern science happened to have been envisioned by Vedic seers in its full abundance as the light of lights known as Atman and was found out in course of meditation on it as both the beginning and the end of creation in its entirety. As the Taittiriya Upanisad has put it, it is out of the atman that has emerged akasa, the space-time continuum resulting eventually in the creation of matter in all forms, that is, gaseous, illiquid and solid via interaction between space and time as the warp and woof of creation. The realization of this order of immensity of consciousness, the Upanishad contends, is productive of the quantum of delight equivalent to hundred times that of a sovereign king.
This work is intended to show the way to the entry into that infinitude of consciousness, which, at the same time, is the infinitude of bliss, called in the Upanisad as bhuman. In this reject, it distinguishes itself from those works which are based on the Yoga-stra of Patanjali and aim at just redemption from the hold of Prakrti, Nature, and hence approve of living in isolation of it. It is for the first time that here in this work Yoga has been brought to the notice of the reader in all its comprehensiveness based as it is on the primacy an immensity of consciousness on the one hand and concordance of the results of tapas and sadhana of Vedic seers themselves on the other.
How that glorious tradition comprising various methods of meditation leading to self-realization has been kept intact to a great extent, is evident from discussions on Saivism, etc. These discussions and deliberations may prove sufficient to show to what extent the basic stream of sadhana has remained intact and to what extent it has given way to sectarian divisions. The chapter on the Indus Seals is included here to bear out not only the verity of the Vedic Yoga on the tangible archaeological grounds but also to show how Vedic mantaras, looking apparently to concern sheer nature-worship, have, indeed, been used as the medium of communication of yogic ideas if deep significance. It is also explosive of the myth of Aryan Invasion created by the vested interest to distort the image of the Indian history, demoralize the Indian mind and denigrate the Vedic ethos. The chapter on Aesthetics and yoga, on the other hand, is illustrative of the extent to which Yoga is practicable in life while deliberations on consciousness are meant for indicating to the sound basis of the Yoga taken resort to by Vedic seers. These discussion, I f perused minutely, would show how much the psychology of today which has distance itself from its real centre in accepting, on the analogy of science, Matter as its basis.
In view of these possibilities, this series of volumes on Yoga is expected to prove instrumental in the restoration of peace, joy and real values of life to the humanity which it has lost, to a great extent, under the enchantment of the facilities of life brought to its doorstep by science. At the same time, it is also hoped to prove corrective of the aberrations of the religious dogmas overburdening the human mind and creating fissures in the solidarity of the society.
The first volume of the work deals with the life and visions of the seers who were instrumental in giving a shape to this discipline through the austerities and tapas of their lives. Some of such seers are Angiras, Atharvan, Bhrgu, Visvamitra, Grtsamada, Vamadeva, Atri, Bharadvaja, Vasistha, Kanva, Agasstua, Lopamudra and Vagambhrni. The mantras seen by them and collected in the Vedic Samhitas from within the details apparently looking to relate to nature- worship, when pursued closely, reveal their precise relevance to Yoga in its various aspects to be classified subsequently as bhakti-yoga, jnana-yoga , karma-yoga, mantra-yoga, and even hatha-yoga.
The chapter on Yogic Motifs in Indus Seals bears out the close correspondence between the contents of a Rgvedic hymn and those of the Pasupati seal excavated from Mohenjo-daro and found to belong to the beginning of the third millennium B.C. The striking correspondence between these two sources, that is, the literary and the archaeological, as discovered by us, shows how Yoga was in practice even during that period of antiqutiyaboout five thousand years ago. Sitting of the Pasupati in such a difficult yogic posture as bhjadrasana in the minds of such ferocious animals as tiger, elephant, rhinoceros as well as buffalo and deer and yet having maintained perfect equipoise is a tangible evidence of attainment of high degree of proficiency in Yoga even at that time. The equivalence of the five animals surrounding Him with the five organs of sense, as mentioned by the Brahmanic texts of almost the same era, shows the cognizance of the difficulty lying in the control of those senses on the part of the authors of the idea who might have been responsible for getting the whole scenario engraved on the seal.
Inclusion of the chapter on Patanjali in this volume is meant for pointing to the limitations of his verity of Yoga as a partial deviation from the main strand as coming down from the Vedic source. Kapila who is credited to have given rise to the concepts of Prakrti and Pursa and thus to the Sankhya sustem of Indian philosophy, is really a Vedic seer and son of Angiras an d as such has considered prakarti as neither completely blind nor as absolutely independent of the Purusa but as extraordinarily sighted and daughter of Indra in the Rgvedic hym attributing the son ship of him to Angiras, as against the assumption of the later for of the system as propounded by the Sankhya karika by creating complete dichotomy between these two fundamental constituents of the later form of the system as propounded by the sankhya karika by creating complete dichotomy between these two fundamental constituents of the reality.This dichotomy in the midst of these tow constituents, having been admitted by Patanjali as his fundamental postulate, has obliged him to conceive of absolute loneliness, kaivalya, as the ultimate goal of Yoga which fall very much short of the state of final beatitude and bliss as aspired for by the Vedic seers. This deviation from the main stream made by Patanjali, though useful as a short-cut arrangement, has left the main stream made by Patanjali, though useful as a short-cut arrangement, has left the main Vedic stream of Yoga much less forceful like the canalization of the Ganga of Bhagiratha at Haridwar.
After pointing to this aberration in the Yoga in this first volume, the second one seeks to redress the same through the display of the opulence of the stream in its pristine purity. It has to do with a psychology not confined to the senses and the sense mind, as is the prevalent trend in the modern psychology but with one which has to go much deeper into these layers of the psyche which underlie and regulate the outer from within. It includes in its purview what in modern psychology is known as the area of Depth Psychology and concerns itself with the study of what it calls at unconscious part of the human psyche. That also however, is only a stepping stone to the crux of its real object of study and practice. It has further two steps to take involving the state of dreamless sleep and much beyond the same in the form of the fourth supernal state of consciousness only marginally reflected in the psychology of C.G. Jung in the form of what he calls archetype of the Self and has accorded it the position of the crown of his achievement in his psychological explorations supposed to be potent enough to solve all problems of psychic aberrations. This he could achieve through his practice of Yoga itself, as he claims, combined with data collected from his treatment of pathological cases. What is just a shadow of the fourth supernal state of consciousness in the Depth Psychic of the modern area, is the real objective of Yoga in all its substantiality along with its potentiality to explain not only the mental and vital but also the physical as a manifestation of that supernal state of consciousness not merely epistemic ally but also ontologically. Thus the discipline of Yoga shows the path to the control of the Physical through the application of the latent potentialities of the fourth state of consciousness. Its immediate benefit at least is the improvement on health preparing the way to improvement over the quality of life as a whole.
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