Dhvanyaloka of Anandavardhana is an epoch-making work in the history of Indian aesthetics. This text is usually taught at the college level and hence a rather familiar text to the students of Sanskrit literature. Now a concordance or word-index to this text comes as a helpful tool of analysis for research scholars, philologists and philosophers of language who would welcome it as a means for a deeper understanding and appreciation of the text.
Why do we need a concordance at all? It may look apparently for some as a mechanical arrangement of words, counting the number of their occurrence in a given text. But a careful study of the vocabulary of a text can reveal the thought-pattern of an author and his sources of influence. Frequent use of certain verbs and rare occurrence of certain terms are indicative of the author's world of thinking, his familiarity of the language and also the historical context in which his text is situated. It is true that the theme of the text would condition the type of language an author could use but still the type of vocabulary used could also highlight the wider horizon of understanding within which an author formulates his ideas pertaining to the theme on which he is writing. Hence this concordance to the Dhvanyaloka provides a key to unravel the mind of Anandavardhana.
About the Author:
Dr. Anand Amaladass is professor of Indian philosophy and religion and at present the Director of Satya Nilayam Research Institute for Philosophy and Sanskrit, Madras. His publications include Philosophical Implications of Dhvani (Vienna, 1984), Deliver Me, My Lord - A translation of Arthiprabandham of Manavalamamuni (Delhi, 1990). He has published a number of articles and edited a few books.
The work Dhvanyaloka by Anandavardhana of Ninth Century (AD) Kashmir is a unique text in the history of Alamkarasastra and it has shaped considerably the thinking of the successive generations of writers on Indian poetics. This text has been translated into English by K. Krishnamurthy (1974) and now another translation of this text with the commentary of Abhinavagupta is available by Daniel H. H. Ingalls, J. M. Masson and M. V. Patwardhan (1990). A concordance to this Sanskrit text will enable the interested readers to analyse the language used by Anandavardhana.
The standard edition of Dhvanyaloka with Locana and Balapriya commentaries was brought out in 1940 (Chowkhamba) by Pattabhirama Sastri in the Kashi Sanskrit Series (no. 135). But this edition is not easily available now for the students. So the concordance is prepared based on the critical edition with an English translation (juxtaposed) by K. Krishnamurthy. It was first published by the Kartanak University, Dharwar in 1974 and later it was reprinted by Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi (1982).
Word-indices are available for texts like Upanishads, Bhagavadgita, Sankarabhasya and so on. Now some more indices are coming out even for puranas. But to date there is no word-index of the Dhvanyaloka, for that matter for any text on Alamkarasastra in the hands of the public. This tool of analysis is not merely a great help in the hands of the research scholars but it will give a new orientation for an interested reader to be more familiar with the text and for the understanding of its content.
Even in preparing a word-index one can already focus on what is aimed at and hence the method of presentation might vary. A word-index for instance usually lists the words and gives references to all the occurrences of a particular word in the text. Here it is not merely a reference to page and the line is given but also the phase in which a particular word occurs. The advantage is that an average reader does not have to turn the pages of the original text to check in which context a particular word occurs. So the purpose off this concordance is also to help the reader locate passages with which he/she is somewhat familiar, since Dhvanyaloka is a well-known text among the Sanskrit students at the college level. Hence it is in the form of a concordance rather than a mere a word-index.
Following are the principles according to which words have been identified and listed in this concordance:
1. The conjugational forms of a verb are entered under its root e.g. gacchati, agacchat, jagama, agamat etc. will be under the root gam. Other verbal derivatives such as infinitives, gerunds and verbal adjectives are entered alphabetically.
-A verb with a prefix is inserted in alphabetical order. However the prefix and the roots are indicated by separating them. e.g. abhi dha.
2. Nouns with all their inflections are entered in their nominative form. e.g. amsena will be entered under amsa.
3. Compound words are split and each component is listed as separate entry:
-Some compound words like arthasakti, sabdasakti, arthabhidhaya are entered as a whole and artha, abhidhaya find also separate entries.
-Compound words with upasarga are given separate entries as well as the main word of that compound. e.g. ativimala as a whole and vimala separately again.
-Compounds formed with the suffixal verbal derivatives such as krt, vid, bhuk etc. are not split up. e.g. karmakrt, krtsnavid, ksamabhuj and so on.
-Negative words are not given separately. They are given as a compound words only, ananuguna, anadhisandheya etc.
-Words like updaraga, kalindasaulatanaya give their proper meanings only in the compound words as twilight and Yamuna. So these words are not split up.
Like kab, ka, kim under kim, so too kascit, kacit, kincit words are brought under kincit.
4. If there are two different meanings for a single word, two entries are made. e.g. arjuna/tree and/ the name of a person. So too are the words like citra, guru, and so on are entered separately according to their meanings.
This volume has a long history of over ten years in its preparation. It was begun in 1980. But the process was interrupted for various reasons. It looks as if the delay had also its positive side, as it became gradually clearer concerning its format. Originally it was planned to publish it in devanagari script. But with the compute facilities it was changed to Roman script.
A few people have helped me in preparing the cards and checking the text. In a special way I must acknowledge with appreciation the contribution of Mrs. Rajeswari, who re-arranged the cards, typed them into the computer and read the proof and of Miss. Betsy Lewis, who prepared the laser printout for the press.
Anand Amaladass S. J. January, 1994.
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