Subscribe for Newsletters and Discounts
Be the first to receive our thoughtfully written
religious articles and product discounts.
Your interests (Optional)
This will help us make recommendations and send discounts and sale information at times.
By registering, you may receive account related information, our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
.
By subscribing, you will receive our email newsletters and product updates, no more than twice a month. All emails will be sent by Exotic India using the email address info@exoticindia.com.

Please read our Privacy Policy for details.
|6
Sign In  |  Sign up
Your Cart (0)
Best Deals
Share our website with your friends.
Email this page to a friend
Books > Language and Literature > History > Educating Muslim Girls (A Comparison of Five Indian Cities)
Subscribe to our newsletter and discounts
Educating Muslim Girls (A Comparison of Five Indian Cities)
Educating Muslim Girls (A Comparison of Five Indian Cities)
Description
About the Book

This examination of the several considerations and factors that influence the schooling of Muslim girls is the first of its kind, based on first hand information from interviews, documents and reports, and empirical studies. It argues that state policies and initiatives on education, regional location, social and economic compulsions, as well as changing community perceptions are critical to our understanding of why the educational attainment of Muslim girls education, based on data collected across the country, to present a macro consideration of the complex factors that influence Muslim girls experience of five distinct locations Delhi, Aligarh, Calcutta, Hyderabad and analysis of these factors, identifying some critical elements that determine their educational status. By doing so they succeed in dispelling prevalent misperceptions regarding community conservation and resistance to change and advocate more proactive affirmative action by the state.

About the Author

Zoya Hasan is professor at the centre for political studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi. She has published widely in academic journals and periodicals and is the author of dominance & mobilization: rural politics in western Uttar Pradesh (1989) and quest for power: oppositional movements and post with ritu menon she is co editor with her of in a minority essays on Muslim women in India (2005). Ritu Menon is a publisher and writer she is co-author of borders and boundaries: women in India’s partition and unequal citizens: a study of Muslim women in india; and editor, no women’s land: women from Pakistan, india and Bangladesh write on the partition of india. She has also dited severeral anthologies of stories by Indian women.

Introduction

If development is about more than numbers, and empowerment not merely a struggle for representation in public and private domains; if economic growth is to be people-centric, just and humane, then it is important for us to focus attention on empowerment through education, or what some have called education for equality. In a developing society like India, only the state can make available the scale of investment required for the universalisation of education. For this to happen, the state and other organizations that claim to represent the underprivileged must recognise the connection between universal education and social justice; in other words, investment in education is a means of social empowerment and creating capabilities. At the same time, the state must recognise disparities in educational attainment and availability across regions, communities and genders. One critical issue that needs to be addressed is the role of the state in the promotion of minority education, especially that of Muslim girls, to enable them to overcome those barriers that systematically prevent their social and economic betterment.

The constitutional promise of universal primary education by the 1960s has, over 50 years later, remained stubbornly elusive for the majority of Indian women. Decadal censuses since the 1950s have tracked educational shortfalls, gains, improvements and, importantly, gender disparities by state and region. The educational status of girls in India has improved, but very slowly, and till the 2001 census enumeration, available data reported overall, rather than community disaggregated, data. Other surveys like the National Sample Survey and the National Family Health Survey 1st and 2nd rounds) did process their findings by community, and the latter co-related them with other variables such as class, age at marriage, and so on. Despite these, however, and notwithstanding the fact that scattered micro studies on the educational attainment of Muslim girls have been attempted, a more sustained enquiry into their persistently low educational status seemed called for. An enquiry that would combine empirical and statistical information; study regional variations; look at important differences between, and within, castes and communities; at educational infrastructure and the accessibility or otherwise of schools; at government initiatives and affirmative action; at social and economic compulsions; at gender differences; at trends and changes, and the role of community initiative in influencing educational outcomes.

To this end, we undertook a nationwide survey of 10,000 Muslim and Hindu women in 2000-2001, in 42 districts of India, with the objective of determining their actual status by community, class and region. The Survey (henceforth Muslim Women's Surveyor MWS) covered ten major areas of concern: socio-economic status of households; education; work; marriage; mobility; decision-making; violence; political participation; access to welfare; and access to media. The findings and analysis are presented in our book, Unequal Citizens: A Study of Muslim Women in India. The MWS found that close to 60 per cent of Muslim women self-reported themselves to be illiterate - lower than scheduled castes and tribes but higher than other backward castes (OBCS). In the rural north, this figure rises to 85 per cent but at the other end of the spectrum is the urban south, where illiteracy is only 22 percent. In other words, Muslim women in rural north and urban south are so differently situated on the educational scale partly because they are differently located, regionally. Their regional location is again significant for levels of illiteracy in the rural east and west of India, where the patterns are similar to those at the national level. Other major differences reported were between urban and rural, and Hindu and Muslim women. Overall, illiteracy is much lower in the urban north than rural north; but community differences are striking 75 per cent of Muslim com- pared to 26 per cent of Hindu women (or three times as many) is illiterate. Broadly speaking, urban and rural south India report high literacy for Muslim women; rural north, east and west, the lowest.

As far as enrolment and educational attainment are concerned, the MWS indicates that schooling is poor for Muslim girls. Their enrolment rate is 40.6 per cent, well below that of Hindu upper caste women - 63.2 per cent, but higher than that of the scheduled castes, at 30.2 per cent. Community differences apart, the sharpest disparities are regional: rural and urban north report 13.5 and 23.1 per cent, respectively, while rural and urban south are an impressive 75 and 77.2 percent - or higher than the national average for all women. The third area of real difference is in the respondents' socioeconomic status: the poorer the household, the less likely the chances of daughters acquiring a formal education. The found that only 16.1 per cent of girls from poor households attended school, compared to more that 70 per cent of those from high SES ones. But here, too, the south is an exception, with minor differences in enrolment being reported only between socio-economic classes. Among those who ever attended school, 98 per cent Muslim women went to government or private schools, and only two per cent to madrasas - the majority of these being from very poor families.

Less than 17 per cent of Muslim girls completed the minimum of eight years of schooling; and less than 10 per cent finished their higher secondary. Here again their educational attainment in the north is abysmal for middle and high school 4.5 and 4.75 percent, respectively, compared to the national average of 17.8 and 11.4 per cent respectively. The average number of years of schooling that Indian women receive is distressingly low: 2.7 years for Muslim women and 3.8 years for Hindus; for Muslims, this figure is lower than that of scheduled castes at the regional and national levels, and indicates high dropout rates among them, certainly in the north where the number of years in school is again half that of the south. Our attempt in this monograph is to relate the macro data from our Survey to micro experiences on the ground, by undertaking a comparative study of five cities located in significantly diverse historical, regional and socio-political contexts, in order to afford a meaningful comparison. The five cities are: Delhi, Aligarh, Hyderabad, Calcutta and Calicut. In order to explain the rationale for this choice of cities and our enquiry and methodology against the backdrop of our Survey findings, a brief discussion of Muslim women's education in the colonial and post-colonial periods may be desirable.

Contents

Introductory Notevii
1Pre-Independence context1
2Post-Independence policies19
3On the ground: Comparing five cities33
4Creating an enabling environment144
Index171

Sample Pages









Educating Muslim Girls (A Comparison of Five Indian Cities)

Item Code:
NAG073
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2005
Publisher:
ISBN:
8188965162
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
194
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 406 gms
Price:
$30.00
Discounted:
$22.50   Shipping Free
You Save:
$7.50 (25%)
Add to Wishlist
Send as e-card
Send as free online greeting card
Educating Muslim Girls (A Comparison of Five Indian Cities)

Verify the characters on the left

From:
Edit     
You will be informed as and when your card is viewed. Please note that your card will be active in the system for 30 days.

Viewed 3413 times since 7th Mar, 2016
About the Book

This examination of the several considerations and factors that influence the schooling of Muslim girls is the first of its kind, based on first hand information from interviews, documents and reports, and empirical studies. It argues that state policies and initiatives on education, regional location, social and economic compulsions, as well as changing community perceptions are critical to our understanding of why the educational attainment of Muslim girls education, based on data collected across the country, to present a macro consideration of the complex factors that influence Muslim girls experience of five distinct locations Delhi, Aligarh, Calcutta, Hyderabad and analysis of these factors, identifying some critical elements that determine their educational status. By doing so they succeed in dispelling prevalent misperceptions regarding community conservation and resistance to change and advocate more proactive affirmative action by the state.

About the Author

Zoya Hasan is professor at the centre for political studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi. She has published widely in academic journals and periodicals and is the author of dominance & mobilization: rural politics in western Uttar Pradesh (1989) and quest for power: oppositional movements and post with ritu menon she is co editor with her of in a minority essays on Muslim women in India (2005). Ritu Menon is a publisher and writer she is co-author of borders and boundaries: women in India’s partition and unequal citizens: a study of Muslim women in india; and editor, no women’s land: women from Pakistan, india and Bangladesh write on the partition of india. She has also dited severeral anthologies of stories by Indian women.

Introduction

If development is about more than numbers, and empowerment not merely a struggle for representation in public and private domains; if economic growth is to be people-centric, just and humane, then it is important for us to focus attention on empowerment through education, or what some have called education for equality. In a developing society like India, only the state can make available the scale of investment required for the universalisation of education. For this to happen, the state and other organizations that claim to represent the underprivileged must recognise the connection between universal education and social justice; in other words, investment in education is a means of social empowerment and creating capabilities. At the same time, the state must recognise disparities in educational attainment and availability across regions, communities and genders. One critical issue that needs to be addressed is the role of the state in the promotion of minority education, especially that of Muslim girls, to enable them to overcome those barriers that systematically prevent their social and economic betterment.

The constitutional promise of universal primary education by the 1960s has, over 50 years later, remained stubbornly elusive for the majority of Indian women. Decadal censuses since the 1950s have tracked educational shortfalls, gains, improvements and, importantly, gender disparities by state and region. The educational status of girls in India has improved, but very slowly, and till the 2001 census enumeration, available data reported overall, rather than community disaggregated, data. Other surveys like the National Sample Survey and the National Family Health Survey 1st and 2nd rounds) did process their findings by community, and the latter co-related them with other variables such as class, age at marriage, and so on. Despite these, however, and notwithstanding the fact that scattered micro studies on the educational attainment of Muslim girls have been attempted, a more sustained enquiry into their persistently low educational status seemed called for. An enquiry that would combine empirical and statistical information; study regional variations; look at important differences between, and within, castes and communities; at educational infrastructure and the accessibility or otherwise of schools; at government initiatives and affirmative action; at social and economic compulsions; at gender differences; at trends and changes, and the role of community initiative in influencing educational outcomes.

To this end, we undertook a nationwide survey of 10,000 Muslim and Hindu women in 2000-2001, in 42 districts of India, with the objective of determining their actual status by community, class and region. The Survey (henceforth Muslim Women's Surveyor MWS) covered ten major areas of concern: socio-economic status of households; education; work; marriage; mobility; decision-making; violence; political participation; access to welfare; and access to media. The findings and analysis are presented in our book, Unequal Citizens: A Study of Muslim Women in India. The MWS found that close to 60 per cent of Muslim women self-reported themselves to be illiterate - lower than scheduled castes and tribes but higher than other backward castes (OBCS). In the rural north, this figure rises to 85 per cent but at the other end of the spectrum is the urban south, where illiteracy is only 22 percent. In other words, Muslim women in rural north and urban south are so differently situated on the educational scale partly because they are differently located, regionally. Their regional location is again significant for levels of illiteracy in the rural east and west of India, where the patterns are similar to those at the national level. Other major differences reported were between urban and rural, and Hindu and Muslim women. Overall, illiteracy is much lower in the urban north than rural north; but community differences are striking 75 per cent of Muslim com- pared to 26 per cent of Hindu women (or three times as many) is illiterate. Broadly speaking, urban and rural south India report high literacy for Muslim women; rural north, east and west, the lowest.

As far as enrolment and educational attainment are concerned, the MWS indicates that schooling is poor for Muslim girls. Their enrolment rate is 40.6 per cent, well below that of Hindu upper caste women - 63.2 per cent, but higher than that of the scheduled castes, at 30.2 per cent. Community differences apart, the sharpest disparities are regional: rural and urban north report 13.5 and 23.1 per cent, respectively, while rural and urban south are an impressive 75 and 77.2 percent - or higher than the national average for all women. The third area of real difference is in the respondents' socioeconomic status: the poorer the household, the less likely the chances of daughters acquiring a formal education. The found that only 16.1 per cent of girls from poor households attended school, compared to more that 70 per cent of those from high SES ones. But here, too, the south is an exception, with minor differences in enrolment being reported only between socio-economic classes. Among those who ever attended school, 98 per cent Muslim women went to government or private schools, and only two per cent to madrasas - the majority of these being from very poor families.

Less than 17 per cent of Muslim girls completed the minimum of eight years of schooling; and less than 10 per cent finished their higher secondary. Here again their educational attainment in the north is abysmal for middle and high school 4.5 and 4.75 percent, respectively, compared to the national average of 17.8 and 11.4 per cent respectively. The average number of years of schooling that Indian women receive is distressingly low: 2.7 years for Muslim women and 3.8 years for Hindus; for Muslims, this figure is lower than that of scheduled castes at the regional and national levels, and indicates high dropout rates among them, certainly in the north where the number of years in school is again half that of the south. Our attempt in this monograph is to relate the macro data from our Survey to micro experiences on the ground, by undertaking a comparative study of five cities located in significantly diverse historical, regional and socio-political contexts, in order to afford a meaningful comparison. The five cities are: Delhi, Aligarh, Hyderabad, Calcutta and Calicut. In order to explain the rationale for this choice of cities and our enquiry and methodology against the backdrop of our Survey findings, a brief discussion of Muslim women's education in the colonial and post-colonial periods may be desirable.

Contents

Introductory Notevii
1Pre-Independence context1
2Post-Independence policies19
3On the ground: Comparing five cities33
4Creating an enabling environment144
Index171

Sample Pages









Post a Comment
 
Post Review
Post a Query
For privacy concerns, please view our Privacy Policy
Based on your browsing history
Loading... Please wait

Items Related to Educating Muslim Girls (A Comparison of Five Indian Cities) (Language and Literature | Books)

Nautch Girls of The Raj
by Pran Nevile
Paperback (Edition: 2009)
Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAF309
$15.00$11.25
You save: $3.75 (25%)
SOLD
Loved and unloved: The Girl Child in the Family
Item Code: IDF582
$30.00$22.50
You save: $7.50 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
The Status of Muslim Women in Medieval India
by Sudha Sharma
Hardcover (Edition: 2016)
Sage Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAM267
$30.00$22.50
You save: $7.50 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Gender, Language, and Learning (Essays in Indo-Muslim Cultural History)
by Gail Minault
Hardcover (Edition: 2009)
Permanent Black
Item Code: NAI017
$45.00$33.75
You save: $11.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Muslims of Calcutta
Item Code: IHL829
$25.00$18.75
You save: $6.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Lessons For Muslim Women
Item Code: IDF238
$15.00$11.25
You save: $3.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
IMAGE AND REPRESENTATION (Stories of Muslim Lives in India)
Item Code: IDD642
$27.00$20.25
You save: $6.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
From Mathura to Manorama (Resisting Violence Against Women in India)
Item Code: NAJ219
$18.00$13.50
You save: $4.50 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
A Dream Turns Seventy Five (Modern School)
Item Code: NAG138
$30.00$22.50
You save: $7.50 (25%)
SOLD
Jyotiba Phule (A Modern Indian Philosopher)
by Archana Malik-Goure
Paperback (Edition: 2013)
Suryodaya Books
Item Code: NAF080
$20.00$15.00
You save: $5.00 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Social and Political Thought in Modern India
Paperback (Edition: 2004)
Indira Gandhi National Open University
Item Code: NAF536
$25.00$18.75
You save: $6.25 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
GANDHI ON WOMEN: Collection of Mahatma Gandhi's Writings and Speeches on Women
by Pushpa Joshi
Hardcover (Edition: 2002)
Navajivan Publishing House
Item Code: IDF556
$27.50$20.62
You save: $6.88 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
March Towards Modernity Bengali Women
by Sunita Bandyopadhyay
Hardcover (Edition: 2006)
Dolphin, Kolkata
Item Code: IDK361
$23.00$17.25
You save: $5.75 (25%)
Add to Cart
Buy Now
Testimonials
The statues arrived yesterday. They are beautiful! Thank you!
Gregory Hancock Dance Theatre, Indiana
I have purchased several items from Exotic India: Bronze and wood statues, books and apparel. I have been very pleased with all the items. Their delivery is prompt, packaging very secure and the price reasonable.
Heramba, USA
Exotic India you are great! It's my third order and i'm very pleased with you. I'm intrested in Yoga,Meditation,Vedanta ,Upanishads,so,i'm naturally happy i found many rare titles in your unique garden! Thanks!!!
Fotis, Greece
I've just received the shawl and love it already!! Thank you so much,
Ina, Germany
The books arrived today and I have to congratulate you on such a WONDERFUL packing job! I have never, ever, received such beautifully and carefully packed items from India in all my years of ordering. Each and every book arrived in perfect shape--thanks to the extreme care you all took in double-boxing them and using very strong boxes. (Oh how I wished that other businesses in India would learn to do the same! You won't believe what some items have looked like when they've arrived!) Again, thank you very much. And rest assured that I will soon order more books. And I will also let everyone that I know, at every opportunity, how great your business and service has been for me. Truly very appreciated, Namaste.
B. Werts, USA
Very good service. Very speed and fine. I recommand
Laure, France
Thank you! As always, I can count on Exotic India to find treasures not found in stores in my area.
Florence, USA
Thank you very much. It was very easy ordering from the website. I hope to do future purchases from you. Thanks again.
Santiago, USA
Thank you for great service in the past. I am a returning customer and have purchased many Puranas from your firm. Please continue the great service on this order also.
Raghavan, USA
Excellent service. I feel that there is genuine concern for the welfare of customers and there orders. Many thanks
Jones, United Kingdom
Language:
Currency:
All rights reserved. Copyright 2018 © Exotic India