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The Evolution of the Samkhya School of Thought

The Evolution of the Samkhya School of Thought
Item Code: IDC097
Author: Anima Sen Gupta
Publisher: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Edition: 1986
ISBN: 8121500192
Pages: 196
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 8.8" X 5.8"
From the Jacket :

This is a comprehensive exposition of the Evolution of the Samkhya School of Thought. The school owes its origin to the dualistic teaching of the Upanishads, and passing through various stages (both theistic and atheistic) it has assumed its present classical form. The Samkhya concepts and idea are present not only in the Upanishads but also in the Mahabharata, the Gita, the Puranas, the books on Ayurveda etc. and this shows that as a philosophical school, Samkhya has exerted a very forceful and profound influence on the life of man in almost all the fields of Indian intellectual history. The author has successfully brought all these texts into relation with each other and has traced and connected the different lines of Samkhya thought in a very commendable manner. The book is thoroughly documented with bibliography and index.


Preface to the Second Edition viii

Preface to the First Edition ix

Introduction 1

Dawn of the Philosophic Quest 1; Real Philosophic Speculation in the Upanishads and the Identity of Brahman and Atman 4; Two Selves 4; Status of the World 4; Emergence of the Samkhya Dualism 5; Cardinal Doctrine of Samkhya Philosophy 6; Forms and Stages of the Samkhya School 8.

Samkhya Metaphysics, as Outlined in the Samkhyakarika,
and Pravacana Bhasya 12

Section A - Samkhya approach based on an analysis of human experience 12; Theory of the Gunas 13; Prakrti and the Disturbance of the Prakrti-State 18; Purusa and its Union with Prakriti 22
Section B - Evolution 28; The Samkhya Theory of Causation 36
Section C - Samkhya-atheism 39; Liberation as Expounded in the Philosophy of Samkhya 43; Re-capitualation 46

Samkhya in the Upanisads 48

Dualistic Ideas in the Upahishads 48; The Transcendental Purusa 49 Reality of the Supreme Transcendental Self 50; The Objective World 50; The Concept of Self: Individual Soul and the Supreme and Transcendental Spirit 52; Categories of the Samkhya 53; Distinction between the Great Self and Buddhi 54; The Concept of Tanmatras 54; Further Evolution 55; The Theory of the Gunas 57; Separate Existence of the Purusa 58; Elucidation of the ideas of the Highest or Transcendental Self, the Phenomenal Self and also of the Intelligisation of the Buddhi by the Consciousness of Self 59; The Samkhya Theory of Causation 60; Findings in the Upanisads 61.

Samkhya in the Mahabharata 64
Theistic Account 64; Purusa, Prakrti and the Purusotama 64; The Ksetra, the Ksetrajna and their Duality 65; The Gunas 68; Buddhi or Intelligence-stufff 68; The Categories 69; Empirical Plurality and Transcendental Unity of the Souls 69; The Concept of Time 70; Findings 70; Teaching of Pancasikha on Atheistic Line 71.

Samkhya in the Bhagavadgita75
Meaning of the Word Samkhya in the Gita 75; Purusottama, Prakrti and Atman 77; The Ksetra and the Ksetrajna 77; Ksarapurusa, Aksarapurusa and Purusottam 80; The Entanglement of Purusa and the Wordly life of Pleasure and Pains 81; The Gunas 81; The Theory of Satkaryavada 82; Conclusion 82

Manusmrti and Some of the Older Puranas 86
The Visnu Purana 86; Visnu, Purusa, Prakrti and Kala 86; The Process of Creation 87; The Kurma Purana 88; The Markandeya Purana 88; Conclusion 89; The Manusmrti 89.

The Bhagvata Purana 91
Purusa and Prakrti 91; The Concept of Time 92; Evolution of Categories 93; Transcendental Self and Jivas 93; Other Schools of Samkhya 95; Kapila, the Founder of the Samkhya Philosophy 96.

The Ahirbudhnya Samhita 97
The Ultimate Reality 97; His Power and its Various Forms98; Avyakta 99 Purusa and Kala 99; Purusa 100; Times or Kala 101; Evolution 101; Kapila and Sastitantra 102; Conclusion 104.

The Carak-Samhita 106
Different senses of the term Purusa and the sense in which Caraka Samhita has used it 106; Sense-organs and the acquisition of knowledge 106; Organs of Action, Mahabhutas and their qualities 107; Conglomeration of Categories and the existence of the Abiding Self 108; Elucidation of the Concept of Self 108; The Ksetranjna and the Ksetra 109; Empirical Selves and the Pure Self 109; The Category of Avyakta 110; Caraka and Pancasikha 111; The Order of Emergence of Categories from the Avyakta 111; The State of Liberation 112; The Gunas and their Effects on life and Actions 112; Atheism in Caraka 113; Conclusion 113; Buddha-Carita 115.

Conclusion 118
Section A - The Three Stages in the Evolution of the Samkhya School of Thought 118.
Section B - Summing up with a special reference to the Transition of the Samkhya School of Thought from the Idealistic to the Realistic Position 140

Some Important Samkhya Concept and Terms Clarified 146
Avaykta 146; Buddhi 149; Ahamkara 150; The Three Gunas 152; Time 155; Purusa 156.

Does man Really Seek Relief from Pain?165
The Samkhya-yoga View 160; Ignorance and Mental Impurity - the Causes of Sufferings 161; Evils of Life: How to Overcome Them 162

The Samkhya-yoga Conception of Personality 165
Samkhya-yoga View 165; Analysis of the Empirical Personality 168 The Operation of the Antahkaranas 169; Development of the Human Personality as a Citizen of the World 176

The Concept of Divine Grace in Samkhya-yoga 173
Grace and Devotion 173; Man and the Saving Grace of God 173; Samkhya-yoga and the Divine Grace 174; Conclusion 178.
Bibliography 180

Index 182

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