I hope that the publication of the said report would be certainly beneficial to the
scholars, researchers and students particularly on Harappa studies.
In our Endeavour to bring out this detailed and well illustrated excavation report
in a presentable form, I record my deep appreciation of my colleagues Dr. Urmila Sant,
Joint Director General, ASI Dr. K. Lourdusamy, Director (Pub.) for their co-operation.
My special thanks are due towards Dr. Manuel Joseph and Shri Abinash Mohanty,
Dy. S.A. (Pub.); Shri Vishnu Kant, Dy. S.A. (Retired), Delhi Circle and Shri Hoshiar
Singh, Production Officer, ASI (Retired) for their persistent and un stinted efforts. I would
like to thank Miss Viba Press Pvt. Ltd. for publishing this report.
In all, 25 sites having Harappa remains were explored in Mansa taluk along the
Ghaggar and its tributaries, covering an area of about 1250 Sq. Km. The whole area
shows a very important zone of Harappa Culture. The mounds at Dhalewan, Gurnikalan,
Baglan De Theh, Lakhmirwala and Hasanpur are the bigger sites, in this area and situated
closely at a distance of 3 to 5 km. Dhalewan is located on the western side of the present
Sirhind Canal, which possibly made on the old depression of Sirhind, a tributary of
The Ghaggar and its tributaries consisted of the important 'Economic Pocket',
which mobilized the internal trade and communication with their resources of northern
region of the lower Himalayas and further transported to Bahawalpur area via Kalibangan
(Rajasthan) and to other Harappa sites in Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan. Along the
same Ghaggar, M.R.Mughal reported 250 Early and Mature Harappa sites in an area
of 1000 Sq. Km. in Bahawalpur Region.
On considering the view of the archaeological importance of Dhalewan, the field
work at the site has been carried out in two field seasons in 1999-2000 and 2001-2002
by the team of Excavation Branch-II under my direction. The site revealed the remains
of Harappa settlement on virgin soil as first occupants and after a considerable gap of
time, the site was re-occupied by Kushans and continued up to the Gupta Period. The
re-occupation by Kushans on Harappa mounds is noticeable as a common feature in
Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. This feature most likely existed on those mounds, which
particularly fall on ancient trade routes.
The excavation at Dhalewan produced ample evidence of structures, antiquities,
pottery, etc. of Harappa assemblage. The lower deposits were divided into three sub-
periods i.e. Early Harappa Period (Period IA), Transition Period (Period IB) and Mature
Harappa Period (Period IC). All excavated material of Harappa assemblage has tried
to be fully analyzed and side-by-side a comparative data presented thereon with a full
concentrative approach of study. A good attempt has also been made to throw some light
on the development from Early Harappa to Mature Harappa from one stage to another
stage locally while reporting the material of Harappa assemblages carefully. Similarly,
the early historical material belongs to Kushan (Period II) and Gupta (Period III) revealed
from upper deposits (re-occupational deposits) has also studied and reported without
ignoring their importance. The report is divided into two parts, Part I deals with the Early
Harappa and Harappa material in first 14 Chapters along with the reports on scientific
studies of Harappa pottery and copper samples in Chapter 15 and animal bones in
Chapter 16. The first four chapters of the report are' commonly dealing with the material
of Harappa assemblages, Kushan and Gupta Periods. The Part II of the report deals
the material of Kushan and Gupta Periods, which covers next 8 chapters from Chapters
17 to 24.
I hope the readers will fully enjoy and gain a broad idea about the archaeology
of the site with this illustrative report, which is supported with more than 200 excellent
photographs and 180 line drawings.
I would like to express my special gratitude to Shri Jagat Pati Joshi, former
Director General of Archaeological Survey of India for inspiring me to select this site
I must express my gratitude to the Director Generals of Archaeological Survey
of India, Shri Ajay Shankar Srivastava, IAS, for giving me an opportunity to execute
excavation at the site and to Smt. Anshu Vaish, IAS, Shri K.N. Srivastava, IAS and Shri
Gautam Sengupta, for providing me all facilities particularly after my retirement from
the Survey w.e.f. 31.03.2009 to till date to complete the report for publication.
Book's Contents and Sample Pages
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