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Books > Ayurveda > Ayurveda > The Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda (3 Volumes in One Bound)
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The Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda (3 Volumes in One Bound)
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Volume I

Foreword

 

I am painfully aware that my competence to write a foreword to a book on the Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda does not keep pace with my enthusiasm for the subject. My plea is that I am imbued with a genuinely reverent approach to the Vaisesika system of Natural Philosophy, which forms part of the subject matter of this book. Whether the conclusions of the Indian philosophical systems are final in themselves or whether they mark a certain stage of development in the evolution of scientific thought are points on which opinion seems to differ. Attempts have, however, been made from time to time to examine the ‘Paramanuvada’ of the Vaisesika system from the stand point of modem science. While the view points of modem science are changing from day to day as new discoveries come to light, it would be futile to correlate with the changing present with the conclusions of the ancient seers, if the same are to be considered as true for all times. On the other hand, if Indian science had been in a stage of evolution up to a time and later, ceasing to grow, came to be looked upon as of divine origin, any attempt at correlation is likely to result in “much of text-torturing and forced interpretations ..... to prove that every modem discovery had either already existed in the old doctrines or were anticipated by them.” Inspite of this dilemma, the author is intutively correct in assuming Sri Rajagopalachari’s dictum that “Truth and science are one. There can be no competetion between truth and truth, but only between truth and error. Truth runs in a single course, and prejudice firm ignorance should vanish to a minimum point. ‘In this firm belief, Sri C. Dwarakanath has put his shoulders to the gigantic task of making’ “a critical, dispassionate and scientific study of the doctrines basic to Ayurveda, so that they may be understood in a proper perspective with a view to apply the same intelligently and with advantage in practice” Such earnest efforts are bound to reveal in due course the true significance of our ancient heritage, regarding which Prof. J.B.S. Haldane has recently expressed his unbounded admiration.

 

The ancient Indian concepts of space, time and matter look complete and self-consistent in themselves but generally elude all attempts at identification with their modern counter- parts. A perusal of the Arambhavada and the Parinamavada will not fail to remind one of some of the basic modern concepts regarding the evolution of the Universe. The concepts of time and space as expressed in Vyasa Bhasya may, in some places, recall to us some fundamental ideas underlying the theory of relativity. Even the every idea of invoking a “Saksi’ to perceive the concepts-

 

“Atha Sarvepadarthasca Saksigocaram”

 

seems to correspond to the postulate of an “observer” in modem scientific thought. With all these resemblances between the ancient and the modem concepts, I must confess that the ancient picture eludes exact quantitative formulation on modern lines. Imbued with the zeal of a researcher, Sri Dwarkanath makes a bold attempt to elucidate the age old ideas and to consider them in the light of modem developments.

 

Contents

 

 

Introductory

1

1.

Philosophy, phenomenon and noumenon

9

2.

The modern concepts of matter or padartha

11

3.

The ancient Indian concepts the Arambha Vada and parinama vada

17

4.

The subject and the object

19

5.

Yoga

26

6.

The concrete and the abstract

29

7.

The Vaisesika system

31

 

Dravya

32

 

Guna or predicament

35

 

Peelupaka or chemical change

44

 

Pitarapaka or physical change

49

 

Dik or space

50

 

Karma

51

 

Samanya

53

 

Visesa

54

 

Samavaya

56

8.

The deterministic oullook of nyaya-

 
 

V aiseshlka system

56

 

Volume II

Foreword

 

I consider it a great privilege to introduce this volume to the world of Seekers of Truth. To explain the origin of the Universe and the course of its evolution has been the subject of diligent enquiry and research by Man. From time immemorial it was felt that real happiness or bliss can be attained only by securing a correct knowledge of this problem. Possibly the nearest approach to the unravelling of this mystery was made in India, earlier than in any other part of the world. Naturally, an early approach was purely materialistic-led by Kapila Muni, his teachings being later maintained by Iswara Krsna. But it was replaced by the teachings of Patanjali Rsi and others who gave a sounder explanation of the Universe on a Theistic basis. Thousands of years later, the western philosophers followed practically the same trends of thought, and among them Haecked had such immense faith in his own reasoning that he could assert that “If given water, chemicals and time, he could create a Man.” The western scientists have outlived a Haeckel in the present twentieth century and are approaching the findings of ancient India through advanced research in Physiology, Biology and Physics. They are finding that’ ‘all attempts to explain the ultimate nature of non-vital phenomenon do not lead to mechanical conceptions, but to ideas which the science of the nineteenth century would have called mystical. “The most advanced mecanistic physiological explanations fail to explain the origin of Life. Only through Samkhya Patanjala System that one may get a glimpse of an explanation of how the gulf between the inanimate and the animate may be bridged.

 

But the study of these Darsanas was, even in the earlier centuries beset with enormous difficulties-one such being subtelties of the Grammarian and the Logician who interpreted the texts just as they pleased. Later when the original concept was getting obscure, there was no limit to misinterpretation. Later stilt, when the country became a subject of invading hordes, the texts had to be stored in the memory of certain chosen people, as it was common for the invaders to set fire to libraries. This was followed by jealous hiding of the knowledge by a few gifted families, who gradually lost the real idea of the original Rsis and who could not correct their ideas by comparing notes with others who happened to have parts of the texts. Thus in diverse ways, the true knowledge of the texts and the correct interpretation was mostly lost leading to all sorts of fanciful interpretations being given. No wonder our Darsanas which form the fundamentals of Ayurveda became objects of derision by the allopaths, who had the support of the Governments in India, and who had not even heard of such Darsanas.

 

I am extremely grateful to the gifted author of this volume for his perseverant and enterprising effort to make a feast of these intellectual feats, where the main dish is the gift of the great Darsanacaryas, the side dishes are selected from authors like Alexis Carrel, the author of’ “Man-the Unknown”, R. W. Moncrieff, the author of ‘ ‘Chemical Senses’ , ; Whitehead, the author of’ ‘Science and the Modern World” ;James Jeans, the author of “The New Background of Science”; Margaret Knight, the author of’ ‘Consciousness and the Brain”; Adrian C. Moulyn, the author of “Functions of Point and Line in Time measurement” and others.

 

Further, he has written the book in a language most widely known at present, so that he can bring the ancient message to the largest public possible. He has the gift of using Key-words when he has to help the student to get over obstacles offered by new conceptions in Modern Sciences, which are parallel to or identical with old conceptions of ancient India, which without such aid would have baffled him. His apt quotations to maintain the postulate of the Samkhyas that “the Purusa not only starts the process of evolution, but also continues to be present unchanged throughout the process, both “in the evolvent and the evolute”, go a great way in making the student realise that there cannot be an un bridgeable gulf between the living and the so-called non-living. His chapter on “Tanmatras and the Quantum Theory” must make the un-enlightened critic, very often the practising allopath, to pause before he scoffs at the Fundamentals of Ayurveda.

 

There is inspiration in every page and matter for careful meditation throughout the book and I hope great good will flow from the publication of this book.

 

Contents

 

1.

Introductory

1

2.

The Aims of Enquiry

4

3.

Duhkhatraya or the threefold miseries

5

4.

The Nature of Man

12

5.

The Pramanas or the Means of Right Cognition

20

6.

Pratyaksa Pramana or observation

21

7.

The Mechanism of Pratyaksa

22

8.

Anumana Pramana or Perception gained by inference

26

9.

Sabda Pramana or Apta Vacana

27

10.

The Doctrine of Parinama or Evolution

29

11.

The Fundamental Postulate

30

12.

The Three Components of Pattern of Prakrti the Gunas and their interaction

36

13.

Purusa or Atma

44

14.

The Doctrine of the Conservation of Energy (and of Mass) and Transformation of Energy

48

15.

Pralaya or dissolution and retrocession

50

16.

The Samkhya Doctrine of Causality or Karana Karya

50

17.

Fixed order in the chain of causation

54

18.

Kala or Time and Dik or Space

56

19.

Tanmatra Srsti

65

20.

The two A vasthas or aspects of Akasa

70

21.

The order of the evolution of Tanmatras and Amis

72

22.

The Tanmatras and Quantum Theory

73

23.

Bhuta Paramanas

75

24.

The Pancabhuta Theory

79

25.

Parimana

84

26.

Chemical analysis and synthesis

84

27.

The Jaina contribution

89

28.

Atomic linking and mutual attraction

90

29.

The Subject Series

93

30.

The relation between Manas and Indriyas

94

31.

The Adaptive functions of the Indriyas

99

32.

Karma Purusa

100

33.

Pancabhutas and Tridosas

101

34.

The three Gunas-Satva, Rajas and Tamas

104

 

Volume III

Foreword

 

The present book is a serious attempt at explaining the Fundamental principles of Ayurveda to students of Modern Medical Science and as such worthy of consideration and respect for the efforts by the author.

 

Such a book has been badly wanted by such of those who cannot understand Sanskrit or Hindi and find it difficult to follow the Text from the original Sanskrit Literature. The subject has been well divided in a continuous series of sections which follow each other as a link in its part of a difficult subject.

 

It is no easy job to explain the deep meanings of some of the Ayurvedic terms which when translated into English practically destroy the sense of what originally had been meant. The temptation to do so is often very great and difficult to avoid and requires great tact and patience for the author to give the exact rendering of the sense in which the term had been used.

 

The author has attempted in some places to find equivalent renderings in Modern Medical Science of the Biological, Chemical and Pathological processes so cryptically explained in Ayurveda, and which the Sanskrit Commentators had found difficult to expound.

 

Vata, Pitta and Kapha whether they be called Dhatus or Dosas, are practically the Soul or the pivot, round which the whole sense of Ayurveda turns.

 

The Author has taken pains to impress on the readers that Ayurveda is more a book for the exposition of health rather than of diseases.

 

Special attention has been given to Dravyas and the properties which ought to make it easy for one to understand what they are, and the great part they play both in the Physiology and Pathology of the body.

 

I consider the book worthy of a place on the Library Shelf for such of those students of Modern Medical Science who desire to delve into Ancient Literature and pick out from it such gems as would form the basis for a future investigation. The literature often contains plenty of Confirmative evidence and is easily available to those who care to read it with sympathy and desire for knowledge.

 

I congratulate the Author on satisfying this desire and pointing out the place where such information might lie.

 

Contents

 

 

Foreword

i

 

Author’s Note

iii

 

SECTION I- Ayuskamiya

 

1.

Introductory

1

2.

Sutrasthana

2

3.

Obeisance to the Deity

3

4.

The term “Ayurveda’’ its meaning, scope and outlook

6

5.

The raison d’etre of health and longevity

8

6.

The legendary origin of Ayurveda

12

7.

Ayurveda-an eternal and progressive science

13

8.

Its contents - the eight limbs

15

9.

The Tridosas or the Function triad

16

10.

Their role in the maintenance and impairment of health

18

11.

The main seats of the three Dosas

19

12.

The Dosic time

20

13.

Agni and the influence of Dosas

20

14.

Prakrti or Temperament

22

15.

The characteristic properties of the Tridosas

37

16.

The Sapta-dhatus or the seven basic tissues of the boby

39

17.

Malas or the waste products

40

18.

The general principles which govern the increase and decrease of the Tridosas, Sapta-dhanis and Malas

41

19.

Sadrasas or the six tastes

42

20.

The actions of Rasas on the Tridosas

43

21.

Virya

44

22.

Vipaka

45

23.

Gunas or qualities of Dravyas

47

24.

General causes which predispose to health and disease-Asatmendriyartha samyoga and Prajnaparadha

56

25.

Disease or Roga and Health or Arogya

73

26.

Two kinds of diseases - Somatic and Psychic

76

27.

Two main seats of diseases - Soma and Psyche

76

28.

The Dosas of the Manas or Psyche

77

29.

The examination of the Rogi (Patient) and Roga (disease)

78

30.

Two kinds of Desas

80

3l.

Time factor in relation to the therapeutic effects of medicaments

82

32.

Two kinds of medicaments - Sodhana and Samana

82

33.

Main lines of Sodhana and Samana therapies in somatic disturbances

82

34.

Psycho-therapy

83

35.

Four limbs of Medicine

83

36.

The prognosis of diseases

84

37.

The type of patients to be avoided

87

 

Section II - Dravyadi Vijnana

 

38.

Introduction and definition

88

39.

Rasa or taste sensibility

95

40.

The characteristics of dravyas according to their pancabhautic constitution

141

41.

Two main classifications of dravyasurdhvagami and adhogami

143

42.

The concepts of Virya and Vipaka introduction

150

43.

Virya

153

44.

Sahaja and krtrima viryas

162

45.

Vipaka

164

46.

The relative actions of rasa, virya and vipaka

176

47.

The assessment of the value of substances in which all the five propeties are of equal strength

178

48.

Prabhava

179

49.

Vicitra and samana pratyayarabdhas

180

 

APPENDIX (Extracts from the Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus by Prof. B. N. Seal).

 

1.

Chemical action and heat

182

2.

Parispanda-resolution of all physical action into motion

186

3.

Mechanics (kinetics) - Anlaysis of motions

189

4.

Meaning of adrsta

192

5.

The concept of vega

196

6.

Cause of pressure and of impact

198

7.

Illustrations of the combination of forces

198

8.

Composition of gravity with vega (momentum) 200

 

9.

Motion of a particle in the case of a composition of forces

202

10.

Typical cases of curvilinear motion (Gamana)

203

11.

Rotatary motion

204

12.

Motion of fluids

205

13.

Interesting examples of motion ascribed to adrista

207

14.

Measurement of Motion-units of Space and Time

207

15.

Component of velocity

209

16.

Motion of three axes

 

17.

The principle of the differential calculas applied to the composition of motion (variable motion)

209

18.

Relative motion

210

19.

Serial motion

210

 

Sample Pages









The Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda (3 Volumes in One Bound)

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2009
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8121800048
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Volume I

Foreword

 

I am painfully aware that my competence to write a foreword to a book on the Fundamental Principles of Ayurveda does not keep pace with my enthusiasm for the subject. My plea is that I am imbued with a genuinely reverent approach to the Vaisesika system of Natural Philosophy, which forms part of the subject matter of this book. Whether the conclusions of the Indian philosophical systems are final in themselves or whether they mark a certain stage of development in the evolution of scientific thought are points on which opinion seems to differ. Attempts have, however, been made from time to time to examine the ‘Paramanuvada’ of the Vaisesika system from the stand point of modem science. While the view points of modem science are changing from day to day as new discoveries come to light, it would be futile to correlate with the changing present with the conclusions of the ancient seers, if the same are to be considered as true for all times. On the other hand, if Indian science had been in a stage of evolution up to a time and later, ceasing to grow, came to be looked upon as of divine origin, any attempt at correlation is likely to result in “much of text-torturing and forced interpretations ..... to prove that every modem discovery had either already existed in the old doctrines or were anticipated by them.” Inspite of this dilemma, the author is intutively correct in assuming Sri Rajagopalachari’s dictum that “Truth and science are one. There can be no competetion between truth and truth, but only between truth and error. Truth runs in a single course, and prejudice firm ignorance should vanish to a minimum point. ‘In this firm belief, Sri C. Dwarakanath has put his shoulders to the gigantic task of making’ “a critical, dispassionate and scientific study of the doctrines basic to Ayurveda, so that they may be understood in a proper perspective with a view to apply the same intelligently and with advantage in practice” Such earnest efforts are bound to reveal in due course the true significance of our ancient heritage, regarding which Prof. J.B.S. Haldane has recently expressed his unbounded admiration.

 

The ancient Indian concepts of space, time and matter look complete and self-consistent in themselves but generally elude all attempts at identification with their modern counter- parts. A perusal of the Arambhavada and the Parinamavada will not fail to remind one of some of the basic modern concepts regarding the evolution of the Universe. The concepts of time and space as expressed in Vyasa Bhasya may, in some places, recall to us some fundamental ideas underlying the theory of relativity. Even the every idea of invoking a “Saksi’ to perceive the concepts-

 

“Atha Sarvepadarthasca Saksigocaram”

 

seems to correspond to the postulate of an “observer” in modem scientific thought. With all these resemblances between the ancient and the modem concepts, I must confess that the ancient picture eludes exact quantitative formulation on modern lines. Imbued with the zeal of a researcher, Sri Dwarkanath makes a bold attempt to elucidate the age old ideas and to consider them in the light of modem developments.

 

Contents

 

 

Introductory

1

1.

Philosophy, phenomenon and noumenon

9

2.

The modern concepts of matter or padartha

11

3.

The ancient Indian concepts the Arambha Vada and parinama vada

17

4.

The subject and the object

19

5.

Yoga

26

6.

The concrete and the abstract

29

7.

The Vaisesika system

31

 

Dravya

32

 

Guna or predicament

35

 

Peelupaka or chemical change

44

 

Pitarapaka or physical change

49

 

Dik or space

50

 

Karma

51

 

Samanya

53

 

Visesa

54

 

Samavaya

56

8.

The deterministic oullook of nyaya-

 
 

V aiseshlka system

56

 

Volume II

Foreword

 

I consider it a great privilege to introduce this volume to the world of Seekers of Truth. To explain the origin of the Universe and the course of its evolution has been the subject of diligent enquiry and research by Man. From time immemorial it was felt that real happiness or bliss can be attained only by securing a correct knowledge of this problem. Possibly the nearest approach to the unravelling of this mystery was made in India, earlier than in any other part of the world. Naturally, an early approach was purely materialistic-led by Kapila Muni, his teachings being later maintained by Iswara Krsna. But it was replaced by the teachings of Patanjali Rsi and others who gave a sounder explanation of the Universe on a Theistic basis. Thousands of years later, the western philosophers followed practically the same trends of thought, and among them Haecked had such immense faith in his own reasoning that he could assert that “If given water, chemicals and time, he could create a Man.” The western scientists have outlived a Haeckel in the present twentieth century and are approaching the findings of ancient India through advanced research in Physiology, Biology and Physics. They are finding that’ ‘all attempts to explain the ultimate nature of non-vital phenomenon do not lead to mechanical conceptions, but to ideas which the science of the nineteenth century would have called mystical. “The most advanced mecanistic physiological explanations fail to explain the origin of Life. Only through Samkhya Patanjala System that one may get a glimpse of an explanation of how the gulf between the inanimate and the animate may be bridged.

 

But the study of these Darsanas was, even in the earlier centuries beset with enormous difficulties-one such being subtelties of the Grammarian and the Logician who interpreted the texts just as they pleased. Later when the original concept was getting obscure, there was no limit to misinterpretation. Later stilt, when the country became a subject of invading hordes, the texts had to be stored in the memory of certain chosen people, as it was common for the invaders to set fire to libraries. This was followed by jealous hiding of the knowledge by a few gifted families, who gradually lost the real idea of the original Rsis and who could not correct their ideas by comparing notes with others who happened to have parts of the texts. Thus in diverse ways, the true knowledge of the texts and the correct interpretation was mostly lost leading to all sorts of fanciful interpretations being given. No wonder our Darsanas which form the fundamentals of Ayurveda became objects of derision by the allopaths, who had the support of the Governments in India, and who had not even heard of such Darsanas.

 

I am extremely grateful to the gifted author of this volume for his perseverant and enterprising effort to make a feast of these intellectual feats, where the main dish is the gift of the great Darsanacaryas, the side dishes are selected from authors like Alexis Carrel, the author of’ “Man-the Unknown”, R. W. Moncrieff, the author of ‘ ‘Chemical Senses’ , ; Whitehead, the author of’ ‘Science and the Modern World” ;James Jeans, the author of “The New Background of Science”; Margaret Knight, the author of’ ‘Consciousness and the Brain”; Adrian C. Moulyn, the author of “Functions of Point and Line in Time measurement” and others.

 

Further, he has written the book in a language most widely known at present, so that he can bring the ancient message to the largest public possible. He has the gift of using Key-words when he has to help the student to get over obstacles offered by new conceptions in Modern Sciences, which are parallel to or identical with old conceptions of ancient India, which without such aid would have baffled him. His apt quotations to maintain the postulate of the Samkhyas that “the Purusa not only starts the process of evolution, but also continues to be present unchanged throughout the process, both “in the evolvent and the evolute”, go a great way in making the student realise that there cannot be an un bridgeable gulf between the living and the so-called non-living. His chapter on “Tanmatras and the Quantum Theory” must make the un-enlightened critic, very often the practising allopath, to pause before he scoffs at the Fundamentals of Ayurveda.

 

There is inspiration in every page and matter for careful meditation throughout the book and I hope great good will flow from the publication of this book.

 

Contents

 

1.

Introductory

1

2.

The Aims of Enquiry

4

3.

Duhkhatraya or the threefold miseries

5

4.

The Nature of Man

12

5.

The Pramanas or the Means of Right Cognition

20

6.

Pratyaksa Pramana or observation

21

7.

The Mechanism of Pratyaksa

22

8.

Anumana Pramana or Perception gained by inference

26

9.

Sabda Pramana or Apta Vacana

27

10.

The Doctrine of Parinama or Evolution

29

11.

The Fundamental Postulate

30

12.

The Three Components of Pattern of Prakrti the Gunas and their interaction

36

13.

Purusa or Atma

44

14.

The Doctrine of the Conservation of Energy (and of Mass) and Transformation of Energy

48

15.

Pralaya or dissolution and retrocession

50

16.

The Samkhya Doctrine of Causality or Karana Karya

50

17.

Fixed order in the chain of causation

54

18.

Kala or Time and Dik or Space

56

19.

Tanmatra Srsti

65

20.

The two A vasthas or aspects of Akasa

70

21.

The order of the evolution of Tanmatras and Amis

72

22.

The Tanmatras and Quantum Theory

73

23.

Bhuta Paramanas

75

24.

The Pancabhuta Theory

79

25.

Parimana

84

26.

Chemical analysis and synthesis

84

27.

The Jaina contribution

89

28.

Atomic linking and mutual attraction

90

29.

The Subject Series

93

30.

The relation between Manas and Indriyas

94

31.

The Adaptive functions of the Indriyas

99

32.

Karma Purusa

100

33.

Pancabhutas and Tridosas

101

34.

The three Gunas-Satva, Rajas and Tamas

104

 

Volume III

Foreword

 

The present book is a serious attempt at explaining the Fundamental principles of Ayurveda to students of Modern Medical Science and as such worthy of consideration and respect for the efforts by the author.

 

Such a book has been badly wanted by such of those who cannot understand Sanskrit or Hindi and find it difficult to follow the Text from the original Sanskrit Literature. The subject has been well divided in a continuous series of sections which follow each other as a link in its part of a difficult subject.

 

It is no easy job to explain the deep meanings of some of the Ayurvedic terms which when translated into English practically destroy the sense of what originally had been meant. The temptation to do so is often very great and difficult to avoid and requires great tact and patience for the author to give the exact rendering of the sense in which the term had been used.

 

The author has attempted in some places to find equivalent renderings in Modern Medical Science of the Biological, Chemical and Pathological processes so cryptically explained in Ayurveda, and which the Sanskrit Commentators had found difficult to expound.

 

Vata, Pitta and Kapha whether they be called Dhatus or Dosas, are practically the Soul or the pivot, round which the whole sense of Ayurveda turns.

 

The Author has taken pains to impress on the readers that Ayurveda is more a book for the exposition of health rather than of diseases.

 

Special attention has been given to Dravyas and the properties which ought to make it easy for one to understand what they are, and the great part they play both in the Physiology and Pathology of the body.

 

I consider the book worthy of a place on the Library Shelf for such of those students of Modern Medical Science who desire to delve into Ancient Literature and pick out from it such gems as would form the basis for a future investigation. The literature often contains plenty of Confirmative evidence and is easily available to those who care to read it with sympathy and desire for knowledge.

 

I congratulate the Author on satisfying this desire and pointing out the place where such information might lie.

 

Contents

 

 

Foreword

i

 

Author’s Note

iii

 

SECTION I- Ayuskamiya

 

1.

Introductory

1

2.

Sutrasthana

2

3.

Obeisance to the Deity

3

4.

The term “Ayurveda’’ its meaning, scope and outlook

6

5.

The raison d’etre of health and longevity

8

6.

The legendary origin of Ayurveda

12

7.

Ayurveda-an eternal and progressive science

13

8.

Its contents - the eight limbs

15

9.

The Tridosas or the Function triad

16

10.

Their role in the maintenance and impairment of health

18

11.

The main seats of the three Dosas

19

12.

The Dosic time

20

13.

Agni and the influence of Dosas

20

14.

Prakrti or Temperament

22

15.

The characteristic properties of the Tridosas

37

16.

The Sapta-dhatus or the seven basic tissues of the boby

39

17.

Malas or the waste products

40

18.

The general principles which govern the increase and decrease of the Tridosas, Sapta-dhanis and Malas

41

19.

Sadrasas or the six tastes

42

20.

The actions of Rasas on the Tridosas

43

21.

Virya

44

22.

Vipaka

45

23.

Gunas or qualities of Dravyas

47

24.

General causes which predispose to health and disease-Asatmendriyartha samyoga and Prajnaparadha

56

25.

Disease or Roga and Health or Arogya

73

26.

Two kinds of diseases - Somatic and Psychic

76

27.

Two main seats of diseases - Soma and Psyche

76

28.

The Dosas of the Manas or Psyche

77

29.

The examination of the Rogi (Patient) and Roga (disease)

78

30.

Two kinds of Desas

80

3l.

Time factor in relation to the therapeutic effects of medicaments

82

32.

Two kinds of medicaments - Sodhana and Samana

82

33.

Main lines of Sodhana and Samana therapies in somatic disturbances

82

34.

Psycho-therapy

83

35.

Four limbs of Medicine

83

36.

The prognosis of diseases

84

37.

The type of patients to be avoided

87

 

Section II - Dravyadi Vijnana

 

38.

Introduction and definition

88

39.

Rasa or taste sensibility

95

40.

The characteristics of dravyas according to their pancabhautic constitution

141

41.

Two main classifications of dravyasurdhvagami and adhogami

143

42.

The concepts of Virya and Vipaka introduction

150

43.

Virya

153

44.

Sahaja and krtrima viryas

162

45.

Vipaka

164

46.

The relative actions of rasa, virya and vipaka

176

47.

The assessment of the value of substances in which all the five propeties are of equal strength

178

48.

Prabhava

179

49.

Vicitra and samana pratyayarabdhas

180

 

APPENDIX (Extracts from the Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus by Prof. B. N. Seal).

 

1.

Chemical action and heat

182

2.

Parispanda-resolution of all physical action into motion

186

3.

Mechanics (kinetics) - Anlaysis of motions

189

4.

Meaning of adrsta

192

5.

The concept of vega

196

6.

Cause of pressure and of impact

198

7.

Illustrations of the combination of forces

198

8.

Composition of gravity with vega (momentum) 200

 

9.

Motion of a particle in the case of a composition of forces

202

10.

Typical cases of curvilinear motion (Gamana)

203

11.

Rotatary motion

204

12.

Motion of fluids

205

13.

Interesting examples of motion ascribed to adrista

207

14.

Measurement of Motion-units of Space and Time

207

15.

Component of velocity

209

16.

Motion of three axes

 

17.

The principle of the differential calculas applied to the composition of motion (variable motion)

209

18.

Relative motion

210

19.

Serial motion

210

 

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