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Books > History > Hindu Castes and Sects
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Hindu Castes and Sects
Hindu Castes and Sects
Description
About the Book

Interest in caste as well as the sects of India has increasingly been in evidence among sociologists and anthropologists all over the world. Books on caste are generally descriptions of some of the features of the institutions as observed in some part of India by the authors. Books written on the same subject by earlier historians or anthropologists generally partook of the character of encyclopedic notes, alphabetically arranged, of the origin, division and distribution of various castes in different provinces of India.

In both these cases, the details furnished were generally of an objective character and they had their own value, even when the questions asked were of rather limited range. The present book, first published in 1896, however, retains till today its essential interest and worth because it, firstly, comes from a trained jurist and, secondly, from one who has the President of Brahmin Sabha of Bengal. The author was fully conversant with the traditional, i.e., Shastric aspects of the system with which many social scientist are not so familiar today. This knowledge helped him specially to assign authoritatively the rank of different castes and of different occupations in Bengal during his time. In addition to this, the author gave the equivalents of Bengali castes in other parts of India, and wherever possible also indicated the differences in culture or in ritual practice that marked off one from the other.

About the Author

Things are changing fast today in India and some of the observations made in 1896 may not hold true at the resent time. Yet it is the only accurate account of the framework of the caste system as it existed at the end of the last century

    Contents

    HINDU CASTES

    Preface

    PART I.
    Introduction

    CHAPTER
    1. The Origin and Nature of the Hindu Caste System
    2. Whether Caste is a Religious or a Social Distinction
    3. The Regulations by which the Castes have been made Exclusive
    4. The Origin of the Additional Castes and the Sub-castes
    5. The Authorities by whom the Cat Rules are Enforced
    6. Nature of the Penalty of Exclusion from Caste

    PART II.
    The Brahmans Generally

    1. The Position of the Brahmans in Hindu Society
    2. The Brahman's Proper Professions
    3. The Modern Hindu Gurus
    4. Enquiries by which the Caste Status of a Brahman may be Ascertained
    5. The Sub-divisions among the Brahmans

      PART III.
      The Brahmans of Northern India

      1. The Brahmans of Bengal
        1. The Paschatya Vaidikas
        2. The Rarhiya Brahmans
        3. The Barendras
        4. The Dakshinatya Vaidikas
        5. The Madhya Sreni Brahmans

      2. The Brahmans of Mithila and Behar
        1. The Maithilas
        2. The Sakaldipis
      3. The Brahmans of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh
        1. The Kanoojjas
        2. The Sarujuparias
        3. Sanadhyas
      4. The Gaur Brahmans of the Kurukshetra Country
      5. The Brahmans of Kashmir, Panjab and Sindh
        1. The Brahmans of Kashmir
        2. The Brahmans of Panjab
        3. The Brahmans of Sindh
      6. The Brahmans of Assam
      7. The Brahmans of Orissa
        1. The Brahmans of Southern Orissa
          The Vaidikas
          The Adhikari, Pujari or Vaishnava Brahmans
          The Mahajan Panthis
          The Pandas
        2. The Jajpuria Brahmans
      8. The Brahmans of Rajputana
        1. The Srimalis
        2. The Pallivals
        3. The Pokaranas
      9. The Brahmans of Central India

      PART IV
      The Brahmans of Southern India

      1. Preliminary Remarks
      2. The Brahmans of Gujrat
      3. The Brahmans of Maharashtra and Kankan
        1. The Desastha Brahmins
        2. The Knkanasthas
        3. The Yajurvedis
        4. The Karthades
        5. The Shenavis of Kankan
      4. The Middle Class and inferior Brahmans of Maharashtra
      5. The Brahmans of Dravira
        1. The Smarta Brahmans
        2. The Vishnuvite Brahmans of Southern India
      6. The Brahmans of Telingana
      7. The Brahmans of the Central Provinces
      8. The Brahmans of South Kanara
      9. The Brahmans of Kerala, Cochin, Malabar and Travancore

      PART V
      The Semi-Brahmanical Castes

      1. The Bhuinhar Brahmans
      2. The Bhats and the Charanas

      PART VI
      The Degraded Brahmans

      1. The Hpssaoms amd Kivacjamdas
      2. The Pirali Tagores of Calcutta
      3. The Barna Brahmans
      4. The Brahmans connected with the public Shrines
      5. The Brahmans degraded by accepting forbidden Gifts and officiating as pad Priests at Cremations.
        The Maha-Brahmans
        The Agradanis
        The Agra Bhikshu
        The Sawalakhis
        The Bhatas
        The Maruipores
        The Acharyas of Western India
        The Sanichar alias Dakot of Rajputana
      6. The Brahmans degraded by menial Service

      PART VII
      The Military Castes

      1. The Rajputs
      2. The Kshettris
        1. The Sereen Kshettris
        2. Kukkurs
        3. The Rorhas
        4. The Banjai Kshettris
      3. The Jats
      4. The Khandaits of Orissa
      5. The Marattas
      6. The Nairs of Malabar
      7. The Maravans, Ahamdians and Kallans
      8. The Poliyas and the Koch of North Bengal
      9. The Aguris of Bengal

      PART VIII
      The Scientific Castes

      1. The Vaidyas or the Medical Caste of Bengal
      2. The Bez of Assam
      3. The Astrologer Cates of Bengal and Assam

      PART IX
      The Writer Castes

      1. The Kayasthas generally
      2. The Kayasthas of Bengal
        1. The Dakshina Rarhis of Bengal
        2. The Uttar Rarhi Kayasthas
        3. The Bangaja Kayasthas
        4. The Barendra Kayasthas
        5. The Golam Kayasthas of East Bengal
      3. The Kayastha of Upper India
        1. The Srivatsa Kayasthas
        2. The Ambastha Kayasthas
        3. The Karan Kayasthas
        4. The Sakya Seni Kayasthas
        5. The Kula Sreshti Kayasthas
        6. The Bhatnagari Kayasthas
        7. The Mathuri Kayasthas
        8. The Suryadhaja Kayasthas
        9. The Balmiki Kayasthas
        10. The Asthana Kayasthas
        11. The Nigama Kayasthas
        12. The Gaur Kayasthas
        13. The Kayasthas of Unao
      4. Writer Castes of Southern India
      5. The Prabhus of the Bombay Presidency
      6. The Kolitas of Assam

      PART X.
      The Merchantile Castes

      1. The Baniyas of Bengal
        1. The Suvarna Baniks of Bengal
        2. The Gandha Baniks of Bengal
      2. The Baniyas of Northern India
        1. The Agarwalas
        2. The Ossawals
        3. The Khandelwals
        4. The Srimali Baniyas
        5. The Palliwal Baniyas
        6. The Porawal Baniyas
        7. The Bhatiyas
        8. The Mahesri Baniyas
        9. The Agrahari Baniya
        10. The Dhunsar Baniyas
        11. The Umar Baniyas
        12. The Rastogis
        13. The Kasarwanis
        14. The Kasanadhans
        15. The Lohiya Baniyas
        16. The Soniyas
        17. The Sura Senis
        18. The Bara Senis
        19. The Baranwals
        20. The Ayodhya Basis
        21. The Jaiswars
        22. The Mahobiyas
        23. The Mahuris
        24. The Bais Baniyas
        25. The Kath Baniyas
        26. The Raoniyars
        27. The Jameyas
        28. The Lohanas
        29. The Rewaris
        30. The Kanus
      3. The Baniyas of Gujrat
      4. The Trading Castes of Southern India
      5. The Mercantle Castes of the Telegu Country
      6. The Baniyas of Orissa

      PART XI.
      The Artisan Castes Generally Recognised as Clean Sudras

      1. General Observation
      2. The Weavers
        1. The Weavers generally
        2. The Tantis of Bengal
        3. The Tatwas of Behar
        4. The Kori and Koli of Upper India
        5. The Tantis of Orissa
        6. The Koshti of the Centeral Proviences
        7. The Weavers of Gujrat
        8. The Weavers of the Dravira Country
        9. The Weaving Castes of Mysore
        10. The Weavers of the Telegu Country
        11. The Jugis
      3. The Sweetmeat-making Castes
      4. The Kumar or Potter
      5. The Ironsmiths
      6. The Goldsmiths
        1. The Sonar and Shakra of Northern India
        2. The Panchanan Varlu of the Telegu Country and the Kammallars of Dravira
      7. The Carpenters
      8. The Braziers and Coppersmiths
        1. The Kansa Baniks of Bengal
        2. The Kasaras and Thatheras of Northern India
        3. The Gejjegora and Kanchugora of Southern India
      9. The Sankha Baniks of Bengal
      10. The Grain Parhers
      11. The Dirjis or Tailors

      PART XII
      The Manufacturing and Artisan Castes That Are Regarded as Unclean Sudras

      1. The Brewers, Tadi-drawers, and Sellers of Spirituous Liquors
        1. The Sunris of Bengal and Behar
        2. The Kalwars of Northern India
        3. The Shanars and Illavars of Dravira
        4. The Bhandaris of Western India
        5. The Pasis of Behar
        6. The Tiyans of Southern India
        7. The Idigas of Mysore and the Telegu Country
        8. The Gaundla and Gamalla of the Telegu Country
      2. The Oil Manufacturers
        1. The Telis of Bengal
        2. The Kalus of Bengal
        3. The Telis and Ghanchis of Upper India
        4. The Tel Kulu Varlu of the Telegu Country
        5. The Ganigas and Vanikans of Southern India
      3. The Salt Manufacturers
      4. The Leather Workers
        1. The Chamars and Muchis of N. India
        2. The Chakilians and Madigs of S. India
        3. The Leather-working Castes of Rajputana and Central India
      5. The Ma-makers and Basket-makers

      PART XIII
      The Clean Agriculture Castes

      1. The Kurmis and Kunbis
      2. The Koeris of Northern India
      3. The Malis
      4. The Kachis
      5. The Lodhas and Lodhis
      6. The Agricultural Kaibartas of Bengal
      7. The Sadgopas
      8. Agricultural Castes of the Central Province
      9. The Agricultural Castes of the Panjab
      10. The Agricultural Castes of the Telegu Country
      11. The Agricultural Castes of Maysore
      12. The Agricultural Castes of the Dravira Country
      13. The Pan-growers
        1. The Barui
        2. The Tambuli

      PART XIV
      The Cowherds and Shepherds

      1. General Observation
      2. The Abhirs or Ahirs
      3. The Gujars
      4. The Goalas of the Lower Province
      5. The Cowherds of Southern India
      6. The Shepherd Castes

      PART XV
      The Clean and the Unclean Castes Employed in Personal and Domestic Service

      1. The Barbers
      2. The Washermen
      3. The Castes usually employed as Domestic Servants in Hindu Household
      4. The Castes of the Domestic Servant in Anglo Indian Household

      PART XVI
      Miscellaneous Castes

      1. The Fishermen and Boatmen
      2. The Criminal Tribes

      HINDU SECTS

      PART I.
      Introduction

      1. The Proper Method of Enquiry regarding Religious
      2. The Evolution of the Theocratic Art
      3. Classification of Religions
      4. Definition of Religion
      5. The True Origin of Religion
      6. Religion as a Foundation of Ethic
      7. General Observation about the Sect Founders
      8. The Inducements held out by Sect Founders to attract Followers
      9. The Methods of Priestly Operations
      10. General Character of the Hindu Sects
      11. Classification of the Sects
      12. The mode of ascertaining the Sect to which a Hindu Monk belongs

      PART II.
      The Sivites and the Semi-Sivite Sects.

      1. The Nature of the Sivite Religion and its great Prevalence
      2. Probable Origin of the Sivite Religion
      3. The Sivite-Followers of Sankara
      4. The Dandis
      5. The Sanyasis
      6. The Parama Hansas
      7. The Brahmacharis
      8. The Householder Sanyasis
      9. The Aghoris
      10. The Lingaits of Southern India
      11. The Sivite Yogis
      12. The Inferior Yogis
      13. The Sects That Practise severe Austerities

      PART III
      The Saktas

      1. The Nature of Sakti Worship
      2. The Different Class of Saktas and their Methods of Worship

      PART IV
      The Vishnuvite Sects

      1. The Ten Incarnations of Vishnu
      2. The Legends about Rama
      3. The Hero-god Krishna as a Historical Character
      4. Krishna as the God of the modern Vishnuvite Sects
      5. The Sri Vaishnavas of Southern India
      6. The Madhavacharis
      7. The Ramanandis or Ramats of Northern India
      8. Other Ram-worshipping Sects
      9. The Nimats
      10. The Ballavacharya Sect
      11. The Chaitanite Sect of Bengal
      12. The Swami Narain Sect of Gujrat
      13. Mira Bai
      14. The Mahapurushia Sect of Assam
      PART V.
      The Semi-Vishnuvite an Guru-Worshipping Sects.

      1. The Disreputable Sections of the Chaitanites
        1. The Spashta Dayaks
        2. The Sahajias
        3. The Nara Neris
        4. The Bauls
      2. The Disreputable Vishnuvite Sects of Upper India
        1. The Radha Ballabhis
        2. The Sakhi Bhavas
      3. The Disreputable Guru-worshipping Sects of Bengal
        1. The Kartabhajas
        2. The Pratapa Chandis
      4. The Disreputable Guru-worshipping Sects of Upper India
        1. The Satnamis of Oude
        2. The Paltu Dasis
        3. The Appa Panthis
        4. The Bija Margis
      5. The Minor Guru-worshipping Sects of Bengal
        1. The Bala Hari Sect
        2. The Kali Kumari Sect of East Bengal

      PART VI
      Modern Religions Intended to Bring About Union Between the Hindu and the Mahomedans

      1. The Kabir Panthis
      2. History of the Sikh Faith
      3. Nature of the Sikh Religion and its Present Condition

      PART VII
      Buddhism

      1. Personal History of Buddha
      2. The Rapid Spread of Buddhism and its Subsequent Disappearance from India
      3. Buddha's Religion
      4. The Morality of Buddha's Religion

      PART VIII
      The Jains

      1. The Relative Antiquity of Jainism and Buddhism
      2. The Nature of the Jain Religion

      INDEX AND GLOSSARY

    Hindu Castes and Sects

    Item Code:
    ISA09
    Cover:
    Hardcover
    Edition:
    1995
    ISBN:
    8121507006
    Size:
    9.0" X 6.0"
    Pages:
    510
    Price:
    $35.00   Shipping Free
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    About the Book

    Interest in caste as well as the sects of India has increasingly been in evidence among sociologists and anthropologists all over the world. Books on caste are generally descriptions of some of the features of the institutions as observed in some part of India by the authors. Books written on the same subject by earlier historians or anthropologists generally partook of the character of encyclopedic notes, alphabetically arranged, of the origin, division and distribution of various castes in different provinces of India.

    In both these cases, the details furnished were generally of an objective character and they had their own value, even when the questions asked were of rather limited range. The present book, first published in 1896, however, retains till today its essential interest and worth because it, firstly, comes from a trained jurist and, secondly, from one who has the President of Brahmin Sabha of Bengal. The author was fully conversant with the traditional, i.e., Shastric aspects of the system with which many social scientist are not so familiar today. This knowledge helped him specially to assign authoritatively the rank of different castes and of different occupations in Bengal during his time. In addition to this, the author gave the equivalents of Bengali castes in other parts of India, and wherever possible also indicated the differences in culture or in ritual practice that marked off one from the other.

    About the Author

    Things are changing fast today in India and some of the observations made in 1896 may not hold true at the resent time. Yet it is the only accurate account of the framework of the caste system as it existed at the end of the last century

      Contents

      HINDU CASTES

      Preface

      PART I.
      Introduction

      CHAPTER
      1. The Origin and Nature of the Hindu Caste System
      2. Whether Caste is a Religious or a Social Distinction
      3. The Regulations by which the Castes have been made Exclusive
      4. The Origin of the Additional Castes and the Sub-castes
      5. The Authorities by whom the Cat Rules are Enforced
      6. Nature of the Penalty of Exclusion from Caste

      PART II.
      The Brahmans Generally

      1. The Position of the Brahmans in Hindu Society
      2. The Brahman's Proper Professions
      3. The Modern Hindu Gurus
      4. Enquiries by which the Caste Status of a Brahman may be Ascertained
      5. The Sub-divisions among the Brahmans

        PART III.
        The Brahmans of Northern India

        1. The Brahmans of Bengal
          1. The Paschatya Vaidikas
          2. The Rarhiya Brahmans
          3. The Barendras
          4. The Dakshinatya Vaidikas
          5. The Madhya Sreni Brahmans

        2. The Brahmans of Mithila and Behar
          1. The Maithilas
          2. The Sakaldipis
        3. The Brahmans of the North-Western Provinces and Oudh
          1. The Kanoojjas
          2. The Sarujuparias
          3. Sanadhyas
        4. The Gaur Brahmans of the Kurukshetra Country
        5. The Brahmans of Kashmir, Panjab and Sindh
          1. The Brahmans of Kashmir
          2. The Brahmans of Panjab
          3. The Brahmans of Sindh
        6. The Brahmans of Assam
        7. The Brahmans of Orissa
          1. The Brahmans of Southern Orissa
            The Vaidikas
            The Adhikari, Pujari or Vaishnava Brahmans
            The Mahajan Panthis
            The Pandas
          2. The Jajpuria Brahmans
        8. The Brahmans of Rajputana
          1. The Srimalis
          2. The Pallivals
          3. The Pokaranas
        9. The Brahmans of Central India

        PART IV
        The Brahmans of Southern India

        1. Preliminary Remarks
        2. The Brahmans of Gujrat
        3. The Brahmans of Maharashtra and Kankan
          1. The Desastha Brahmins
          2. The Knkanasthas
          3. The Yajurvedis
          4. The Karthades
          5. The Shenavis of Kankan
        4. The Middle Class and inferior Brahmans of Maharashtra
        5. The Brahmans of Dravira
          1. The Smarta Brahmans
          2. The Vishnuvite Brahmans of Southern India
        6. The Brahmans of Telingana
        7. The Brahmans of the Central Provinces
        8. The Brahmans of South Kanara
        9. The Brahmans of Kerala, Cochin, Malabar and Travancore

        PART V
        The Semi-Brahmanical Castes

        1. The Bhuinhar Brahmans
        2. The Bhats and the Charanas

        PART VI
        The Degraded Brahmans

        1. The Hpssaoms amd Kivacjamdas
        2. The Pirali Tagores of Calcutta
        3. The Barna Brahmans
        4. The Brahmans connected with the public Shrines
        5. The Brahmans degraded by accepting forbidden Gifts and officiating as pad Priests at Cremations.
          The Maha-Brahmans
          The Agradanis
          The Agra Bhikshu
          The Sawalakhis
          The Bhatas
          The Maruipores
          The Acharyas of Western India
          The Sanichar alias Dakot of Rajputana
        6. The Brahmans degraded by menial Service

        PART VII
        The Military Castes

        1. The Rajputs
        2. The Kshettris
          1. The Sereen Kshettris
          2. Kukkurs
          3. The Rorhas
          4. The Banjai Kshettris
        3. The Jats
        4. The Khandaits of Orissa
        5. The Marattas
        6. The Nairs of Malabar
        7. The Maravans, Ahamdians and Kallans
        8. The Poliyas and the Koch of North Bengal
        9. The Aguris of Bengal

        PART VIII
        The Scientific Castes

        1. The Vaidyas or the Medical Caste of Bengal
        2. The Bez of Assam
        3. The Astrologer Cates of Bengal and Assam

        PART IX
        The Writer Castes

        1. The Kayasthas generally
        2. The Kayasthas of Bengal
          1. The Dakshina Rarhis of Bengal
          2. The Uttar Rarhi Kayasthas
          3. The Bangaja Kayasthas
          4. The Barendra Kayasthas
          5. The Golam Kayasthas of East Bengal
        3. The Kayastha of Upper India
          1. The Srivatsa Kayasthas
          2. The Ambastha Kayasthas
          3. The Karan Kayasthas
          4. The Sakya Seni Kayasthas
          5. The Kula Sreshti Kayasthas
          6. The Bhatnagari Kayasthas
          7. The Mathuri Kayasthas
          8. The Suryadhaja Kayasthas
          9. The Balmiki Kayasthas
          10. The Asthana Kayasthas
          11. The Nigama Kayasthas
          12. The Gaur Kayasthas
          13. The Kayasthas of Unao
        4. Writer Castes of Southern India
        5. The Prabhus of the Bombay Presidency
        6. The Kolitas of Assam

        PART X.
        The Merchantile Castes

        1. The Baniyas of Bengal
          1. The Suvarna Baniks of Bengal
          2. The Gandha Baniks of Bengal
        2. The Baniyas of Northern India
          1. The Agarwalas
          2. The Ossawals
          3. The Khandelwals
          4. The Srimali Baniyas
          5. The Palliwal Baniyas
          6. The Porawal Baniyas
          7. The Bhatiyas
          8. The Mahesri Baniyas
          9. The Agrahari Baniya
          10. The Dhunsar Baniyas
          11. The Umar Baniyas
          12. The Rastogis
          13. The Kasarwanis
          14. The Kasanadhans
          15. The Lohiya Baniyas
          16. The Soniyas
          17. The Sura Senis
          18. The Bara Senis
          19. The Baranwals
          20. The Ayodhya Basis
          21. The Jaiswars
          22. The Mahobiyas
          23. The Mahuris
          24. The Bais Baniyas
          25. The Kath Baniyas
          26. The Raoniyars
          27. The Jameyas
          28. The Lohanas
          29. The Rewaris
          30. The Kanus
        3. The Baniyas of Gujrat
        4. The Trading Castes of Southern India
        5. The Mercantle Castes of the Telegu Country
        6. The Baniyas of Orissa

        PART XI.
        The Artisan Castes Generally Recognised as Clean Sudras

        1. General Observation
        2. The Weavers
          1. The Weavers generally
          2. The Tantis of Bengal
          3. The Tatwas of Behar
          4. The Kori and Koli of Upper India
          5. The Tantis of Orissa
          6. The Koshti of the Centeral Proviences
          7. The Weavers of Gujrat
          8. The Weavers of the Dravira Country
          9. The Weaving Castes of Mysore
          10. The Weavers of the Telegu Country
          11. The Jugis
        3. The Sweetmeat-making Castes
        4. The Kumar or Potter
        5. The Ironsmiths
        6. The Goldsmiths
          1. The Sonar and Shakra of Northern India
          2. The Panchanan Varlu of the Telegu Country and the Kammallars of Dravira
        7. The Carpenters
        8. The Braziers and Coppersmiths
          1. The Kansa Baniks of Bengal
          2. The Kasaras and Thatheras of Northern India
          3. The Gejjegora and Kanchugora of Southern India
        9. The Sankha Baniks of Bengal
        10. The Grain Parhers
        11. The Dirjis or Tailors

        PART XII
        The Manufacturing and Artisan Castes That Are Regarded as Unclean Sudras

        1. The Brewers, Tadi-drawers, and Sellers of Spirituous Liquors
          1. The Sunris of Bengal and Behar
          2. The Kalwars of Northern India
          3. The Shanars and Illavars of Dravira
          4. The Bhandaris of Western India
          5. The Pasis of Behar
          6. The Tiyans of Southern India
          7. The Idigas of Mysore and the Telegu Country
          8. The Gaundla and Gamalla of the Telegu Country
        2. The Oil Manufacturers
          1. The Telis of Bengal
          2. The Kalus of Bengal
          3. The Telis and Ghanchis of Upper India
          4. The Tel Kulu Varlu of the Telegu Country
          5. The Ganigas and Vanikans of Southern India
        3. The Salt Manufacturers
        4. The Leather Workers
          1. The Chamars and Muchis of N. India
          2. The Chakilians and Madigs of S. India
          3. The Leather-working Castes of Rajputana and Central India
        5. The Ma-makers and Basket-makers

        PART XIII
        The Clean Agriculture Castes

        1. The Kurmis and Kunbis
        2. The Koeris of Northern India
        3. The Malis
        4. The Kachis
        5. The Lodhas and Lodhis
        6. The Agricultural Kaibartas of Bengal
        7. The Sadgopas
        8. Agricultural Castes of the Central Province
        9. The Agricultural Castes of the Panjab
        10. The Agricultural Castes of the Telegu Country
        11. The Agricultural Castes of Maysore
        12. The Agricultural Castes of the Dravira Country
        13. The Pan-growers
          1. The Barui
          2. The Tambuli

        PART XIV
        The Cowherds and Shepherds

        1. General Observation
        2. The Abhirs or Ahirs
        3. The Gujars
        4. The Goalas of the Lower Province
        5. The Cowherds of Southern India
        6. The Shepherd Castes

        PART XV
        The Clean and the Unclean Castes Employed in Personal and Domestic Service

        1. The Barbers
        2. The Washermen
        3. The Castes usually employed as Domestic Servants in Hindu Household
        4. The Castes of the Domestic Servant in Anglo Indian Household

        PART XVI
        Miscellaneous Castes

        1. The Fishermen and Boatmen
        2. The Criminal Tribes

        HINDU SECTS

        PART I.
        Introduction

        1. The Proper Method of Enquiry regarding Religious
        2. The Evolution of the Theocratic Art
        3. Classification of Religions
        4. Definition of Religion
        5. The True Origin of Religion
        6. Religion as a Foundation of Ethic
        7. General Observation about the Sect Founders
        8. The Inducements held out by Sect Founders to attract Followers
        9. The Methods of Priestly Operations
        10. General Character of the Hindu Sects
        11. Classification of the Sects
        12. The mode of ascertaining the Sect to which a Hindu Monk belongs

        PART II.
        The Sivites and the Semi-Sivite Sects.

        1. The Nature of the Sivite Religion and its great Prevalence
        2. Probable Origin of the Sivite Religion
        3. The Sivite-Followers of Sankara
        4. The Dandis
        5. The Sanyasis
        6. The Parama Hansas
        7. The Brahmacharis
        8. The Householder Sanyasis
        9. The Aghoris
        10. The Lingaits of Southern India
        11. The Sivite Yogis
        12. The Inferior Yogis
        13. The Sects That Practise severe Austerities

        PART III
        The Saktas

        1. The Nature of Sakti Worship
        2. The Different Class of Saktas and their Methods of Worship

        PART IV
        The Vishnuvite Sects

        1. The Ten Incarnations of Vishnu
        2. The Legends about Rama
        3. The Hero-god Krishna as a Historical Character
        4. Krishna as the God of the modern Vishnuvite Sects
        5. The Sri Vaishnavas of Southern India
        6. The Madhavacharis
        7. The Ramanandis or Ramats of Northern India
        8. Other Ram-worshipping Sects
        9. The Nimats
        10. The Ballavacharya Sect
        11. The Chaitanite Sect of Bengal
        12. The Swami Narain Sect of Gujrat
        13. Mira Bai
        14. The Mahapurushia Sect of Assam
        PART V.
        The Semi-Vishnuvite an Guru-Worshipping Sects.

        1. The Disreputable Sections of the Chaitanites
          1. The Spashta Dayaks
          2. The Sahajias
          3. The Nara Neris
          4. The Bauls
        2. The Disreputable Vishnuvite Sects of Upper India
          1. The Radha Ballabhis
          2. The Sakhi Bhavas
        3. The Disreputable Guru-worshipping Sects of Bengal
          1. The Kartabhajas
          2. The Pratapa Chandis
        4. The Disreputable Guru-worshipping Sects of Upper India
          1. The Satnamis of Oude
          2. The Paltu Dasis
          3. The Appa Panthis
          4. The Bija Margis
        5. The Minor Guru-worshipping Sects of Bengal
          1. The Bala Hari Sect
          2. The Kali Kumari Sect of East Bengal

        PART VI
        Modern Religions Intended to Bring About Union Between the Hindu and the Mahomedans

        1. The Kabir Panthis
        2. History of the Sikh Faith
        3. Nature of the Sikh Religion and its Present Condition

        PART VII
        Buddhism

        1. Personal History of Buddha
        2. The Rapid Spread of Buddhism and its Subsequent Disappearance from India
        3. Buddha's Religion
        4. The Morality of Buddha's Religion

        PART VIII
        The Jains

        1. The Relative Antiquity of Jainism and Buddhism
        2. The Nature of the Jain Religion

        INDEX AND GLOSSARY
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