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History of India: A New Approach
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History of India: A New Approach
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From the Jacket:

History, as it has generally been conceived and written in modern times, has limited itself to the outer narration and interpretation of events and ignored the psychological forces and factors that affected human life. This predominance of external events has been so great that most modern historians and political thinkers have concluded that objective necessities are by law of Nature, the only really determining forces; all else is result or superficial accidents of these forces. Scientific history has been conceived as if it must be a record and appreciation of the environmental motives of political action of the play of economic forces and developments and the course of institutional evolution.

Indian history in particular loses all its true significance when looked from this purely external viewpoint. For the Indian mind and temperament is naturally inward looking. This book is an attempt to look at Indian history from the psychological and inner angle. It is an attempt to place in proper perspective, the deeper psychological and spiritual elements even in the outer life of the Indian nation. It starts from the pulsating spiritual beginnings of the Vedic and Upanishadic times and traces the evolution of India to the building of empires; it is followed by a description of the invasions both Muslim and English and the psychological impact that they had on the people of India. Next there is a detailed description of the Freedom Movement with special emphasis on the psychological forces that were in play till the attainment of Independence in 1947. Finally it concludes with a vision for the future of India.

We hope that this book will give a greater insight and lead to a true understanding of Indian culture and civilization. This book is particularly aimed at the young, not only to those who are young in body but also in the heart.

About The Author

Kittu Reddy was born in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh in 1936. He is the nephew of former President of India, Late Sanjiv Reddy.

Kittu Reddy lived in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram from the age of five in 1941. He had all his education at the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education and graduated in 1957. Since 1958 he has been teaching History, Political Science, Social Science and Indian culture in the same institution.

Since 1991 he has been closely associated with the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. He was appointed by the Late Chief of Army Staff General B.C.Joshi as advisor to the Army Welfare Education Society and has held a series of workshops both at the training centres and in Pondicherry -on motivation, leadership and Ethics for the Indian army and has travelled extensively in India.

His publications include: 1. A Vision of United India Problems and Solutions; 2. History of India A New Approach; 3. Bravest of the Brave; 4. Mera Bharat Itihasa Aur Sanskriti Monographs: 1. Kargil the manifestation of a deeper problem; 2. Secularism, Religion and Spirituality For the last few years he has been delivering talks at various universities and institutions in India. These talks are on Social Science and World Unity, Education in India and such allied topics.

Foreword

Kittu Reddy presents in this book a new way of looking at the history of India. It is a rapid account of the most significant movements of the inner journey of India from the earliest times up to the attainment of independence in 1947. It provides a refreshing review of the spiritual genius of India as also important elements of its robust intellectuality as also a marvellous vitality.

History, as it has been generally taught all over the world, stresses usually on the objective and external events of human life, ignoring the psychological events. Not surprisingly, therefore, great importance has been given to external data, laws, situations, economic, social and political factors, while the deeper psychological elements so important in the activities in the mental, emotional and ideative aspects of human life have been neglected. Happily, there is today a new trend to recognise the importance of psychological forces in the shaping of civilisation and culture.

This book is an attempt to present Indian history at a deeper and at a psychological level. It breaks a new ground and the author deserves to be congratulated for insights that he has provided to the understanding of a number of aspects of the development of the Indian people.

This is a first attempt of its kind, and considering the author's continuing study of India and the world, this attempt will prove to be a forerunner to similar attempts in providing psychological insights into the secrets of the development of the civilisation and culture of India as also, eventually of the world.

Introduction

It was in February 1973. Three teachers of the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education were having a discussion with the Mother on education. During the discussion Mother remarked that it was necessary that the books on History and more particularly on Indian History be written in the light of Sri Aurobindo. She looked at me and suggested that I could take up this work. That is the genesis of this book.

Many years earlier, Sri Aurobindo had written in The Human Cycle:
The objective view of society has reigned throughout the historical period of humanity in the West; it has been sufficiently strong though not absolutely engrossing in the East. Rulers, people, and thinkers alike have understood by their national existence a political status, the extent of their borders, their economic well-being and expansion, their laws, institutions and the working of these things. For this reason political and economic motives have everywhere predominated on the surface and history has been a record of their operations and influence. The one subjective and psychological force consciously admitted and with difficulty deniable has been that of the individual. This predominance is so great that most modern historians and some political thinkers have concluded that objective necessities are by law of Nature the only really determining forces; all else is result or superficial accidents of these forces. Scientific history has been conceived as if it must be a record and appreciation of the environmental motives of political action, of the play of economic forces and developments and the course of institutional evolution. The few who still valued the psychological element have kept their eye fixed on individuals and are not far from conceiving of history as a mass of biographies. The truer and more comprehensive science of the future will see that these conditions only apply to the imperfectly self-conscious period of national development. Even then there was always a greater subjective force working behind individuals, policies, economic movements and the change of institutions; but it worked for the most part subconsciously, more as a subliminal self than as a conscious mind,'

This book is an attempt to write the history of India from the subjective viewpoint, without in any way distracting from the external events; on the contrary, it will enhance greatly and give meaning to the objective narration of external events that took place. The Indian people are by nature subjective in their approach to life; the stress in India has always been more on the inside than on the outside. This inwardness has been one of the striking features of Indian culture. An India without the great Vedic and Upanishadic scriptures and the spiritual personalities of Rama and Krishna would not be India any more. A study and appreciation of Indian history, therefore, demands more particularly a subjective understanding and appreciation. It may even be said that the study of Indian history demands an approach that values the impact of the highest truths and thought found in India's greatest scriptures, literature and mythology as well as the influence of the ideals lived and taught by Rama, Krishna, Buddha and a long list of Rishis and Saints. The impact of such inner forces in shaping the outer history of India is thus a key topic of inquiry for this book.

Secondly, it is evident to serious thinkers that all human behaviour, whether on the individual or the collective plane, is the direct consequence of the inner psychological state. In this book an attempt has been made to interpret the events of Indian history 'from a psychological point of view. This does not mean that external events are any less important; rather they gain greater importance when seen in the light of the inner psychological vision and deeper forces behind them. The significance of external events lies in the meaning that a true subjectivism and an inward approach to knowledge alone can give.

One of the most powerful subjective forces in history has been that of the individual. There have been times in the history of a nation when events have revolved around an individual personality. This book lays much stress on the impact of individual personalities.

It must however be mentioned that this book does not cover all the details of Indian history; that was not the intention. It gives a general overview of Indian history with emphasis on the subjective element.

It is hoped that this book will help in giving a direction to the study of history from the inner point of view and will lead to a deeper understanding of the role of history. I take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to Sri Aurobindo's Action and its editor, Shyamsundar Jhunjunwala, who encouraged me to publish various chapters from this book as separate articles in the journal before bringing them out in a book form.

I also express my profound thanks to Kireet Joshi for the encouragement he gave me and for going through the whole book in great detail and making valuable comments and suggestions. These comments and suggestions have been invaluable in preparing the final draft of the book.

Finally, I would like to convey my thanks to all my friends and well-wishers who have helped in innumerable ways in bringing out this book and been a source of encouragement.

Contents

Forewordix
Introductionxi
PART I
1.The Study of History3
2.The Origins of Indian History10
3.The Vedas19
4.The Upanishads30
5.Mohenjodaro and Harappa39
6.The Great Epics46
7.The Indian Social System57
8.The Coming of the Buddha65
9.Chanakya71
10.The First Invasions79
11.Ancient Indian Polity - Part 183
12.Ancient Indian Polity - Part 290
13.The Age of Empires95
14.The South Indian Kingdoms101
15.Shankaracharya112
16.The Devotional Movements119
17.The Muslim Invasions122
18.The Hindu Revival- Part 1133
19.The Hindu Revival- Part 2140
20.Summary and Retrospect148
21.The Mughal Empire - Part 1157
22.The Mughal Empire - Part 2165
23.Shivaji173
24.The Bhakti Movement182
25.The Advent of the Sikhs191
26.The Coming of the British201
67.Two Indian Heroes: Tipu Sultan and Ranjit Singh213
28.The Indian Renaissance222
PART II
29.The First War of Independence235
30.The Indian National Congress245
31.The Partition of Bengal256
32.The Surat Congress264
33.The Early Revolutionaries275
34.Minto-Morley Reforms285
35.The Home Rule Movement293
36.The Non-Cooperation Movement - Part 1299
37.The Non-Cooperation Movement - Part 2307
38.The Civil Disobedience Movement - Part 1314
39.The Civil Disobedience Movement - Part 2322
40.Two Revolutionaries329
41.The Government of India Act and the Second World War337
42.The Cripps Mission and the Quit India Movement350
43.A Divided Freedom359
44.Summary and Conclusion371
APPENDIX
Messages on the Partition of India383
Religion and Philosophy389
Indian Art398
Science and Technology in India405
Index411

Sample Pages

































History of India: A New Approach

Item Code:
IDE491
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2015
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ISBN:
978818747912
Language:
English
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8.8" X 6.0"
Pages:
503
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Weight of the Book: 655 gms
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From the Jacket:

History, as it has generally been conceived and written in modern times, has limited itself to the outer narration and interpretation of events and ignored the psychological forces and factors that affected human life. This predominance of external events has been so great that most modern historians and political thinkers have concluded that objective necessities are by law of Nature, the only really determining forces; all else is result or superficial accidents of these forces. Scientific history has been conceived as if it must be a record and appreciation of the environmental motives of political action of the play of economic forces and developments and the course of institutional evolution.

Indian history in particular loses all its true significance when looked from this purely external viewpoint. For the Indian mind and temperament is naturally inward looking. This book is an attempt to look at Indian history from the psychological and inner angle. It is an attempt to place in proper perspective, the deeper psychological and spiritual elements even in the outer life of the Indian nation. It starts from the pulsating spiritual beginnings of the Vedic and Upanishadic times and traces the evolution of India to the building of empires; it is followed by a description of the invasions both Muslim and English and the psychological impact that they had on the people of India. Next there is a detailed description of the Freedom Movement with special emphasis on the psychological forces that were in play till the attainment of Independence in 1947. Finally it concludes with a vision for the future of India.

We hope that this book will give a greater insight and lead to a true understanding of Indian culture and civilization. This book is particularly aimed at the young, not only to those who are young in body but also in the heart.

About The Author

Kittu Reddy was born in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh in 1936. He is the nephew of former President of India, Late Sanjiv Reddy.

Kittu Reddy lived in the Sri Aurobindo Ashram from the age of five in 1941. He had all his education at the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education and graduated in 1957. Since 1958 he has been teaching History, Political Science, Social Science and Indian culture in the same institution.

Since 1991 he has been closely associated with the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. He was appointed by the Late Chief of Army Staff General B.C.Joshi as advisor to the Army Welfare Education Society and has held a series of workshops both at the training centres and in Pondicherry -on motivation, leadership and Ethics for the Indian army and has travelled extensively in India.

His publications include: 1. A Vision of United India Problems and Solutions; 2. History of India A New Approach; 3. Bravest of the Brave; 4. Mera Bharat Itihasa Aur Sanskriti Monographs: 1. Kargil the manifestation of a deeper problem; 2. Secularism, Religion and Spirituality For the last few years he has been delivering talks at various universities and institutions in India. These talks are on Social Science and World Unity, Education in India and such allied topics.

Foreword

Kittu Reddy presents in this book a new way of looking at the history of India. It is a rapid account of the most significant movements of the inner journey of India from the earliest times up to the attainment of independence in 1947. It provides a refreshing review of the spiritual genius of India as also important elements of its robust intellectuality as also a marvellous vitality.

History, as it has been generally taught all over the world, stresses usually on the objective and external events of human life, ignoring the psychological events. Not surprisingly, therefore, great importance has been given to external data, laws, situations, economic, social and political factors, while the deeper psychological elements so important in the activities in the mental, emotional and ideative aspects of human life have been neglected. Happily, there is today a new trend to recognise the importance of psychological forces in the shaping of civilisation and culture.

This book is an attempt to present Indian history at a deeper and at a psychological level. It breaks a new ground and the author deserves to be congratulated for insights that he has provided to the understanding of a number of aspects of the development of the Indian people.

This is a first attempt of its kind, and considering the author's continuing study of India and the world, this attempt will prove to be a forerunner to similar attempts in providing psychological insights into the secrets of the development of the civilisation and culture of India as also, eventually of the world.

Introduction

It was in February 1973. Three teachers of the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education were having a discussion with the Mother on education. During the discussion Mother remarked that it was necessary that the books on History and more particularly on Indian History be written in the light of Sri Aurobindo. She looked at me and suggested that I could take up this work. That is the genesis of this book.

Many years earlier, Sri Aurobindo had written in The Human Cycle:
The objective view of society has reigned throughout the historical period of humanity in the West; it has been sufficiently strong though not absolutely engrossing in the East. Rulers, people, and thinkers alike have understood by their national existence a political status, the extent of their borders, their economic well-being and expansion, their laws, institutions and the working of these things. For this reason political and economic motives have everywhere predominated on the surface and history has been a record of their operations and influence. The one subjective and psychological force consciously admitted and with difficulty deniable has been that of the individual. This predominance is so great that most modern historians and some political thinkers have concluded that objective necessities are by law of Nature the only really determining forces; all else is result or superficial accidents of these forces. Scientific history has been conceived as if it must be a record and appreciation of the environmental motives of political action, of the play of economic forces and developments and the course of institutional evolution. The few who still valued the psychological element have kept their eye fixed on individuals and are not far from conceiving of history as a mass of biographies. The truer and more comprehensive science of the future will see that these conditions only apply to the imperfectly self-conscious period of national development. Even then there was always a greater subjective force working behind individuals, policies, economic movements and the change of institutions; but it worked for the most part subconsciously, more as a subliminal self than as a conscious mind,'

This book is an attempt to write the history of India from the subjective viewpoint, without in any way distracting from the external events; on the contrary, it will enhance greatly and give meaning to the objective narration of external events that took place. The Indian people are by nature subjective in their approach to life; the stress in India has always been more on the inside than on the outside. This inwardness has been one of the striking features of Indian culture. An India without the great Vedic and Upanishadic scriptures and the spiritual personalities of Rama and Krishna would not be India any more. A study and appreciation of Indian history, therefore, demands more particularly a subjective understanding and appreciation. It may even be said that the study of Indian history demands an approach that values the impact of the highest truths and thought found in India's greatest scriptures, literature and mythology as well as the influence of the ideals lived and taught by Rama, Krishna, Buddha and a long list of Rishis and Saints. The impact of such inner forces in shaping the outer history of India is thus a key topic of inquiry for this book.

Secondly, it is evident to serious thinkers that all human behaviour, whether on the individual or the collective plane, is the direct consequence of the inner psychological state. In this book an attempt has been made to interpret the events of Indian history 'from a psychological point of view. This does not mean that external events are any less important; rather they gain greater importance when seen in the light of the inner psychological vision and deeper forces behind them. The significance of external events lies in the meaning that a true subjectivism and an inward approach to knowledge alone can give.

One of the most powerful subjective forces in history has been that of the individual. There have been times in the history of a nation when events have revolved around an individual personality. This book lays much stress on the impact of individual personalities.

It must however be mentioned that this book does not cover all the details of Indian history; that was not the intention. It gives a general overview of Indian history with emphasis on the subjective element.

It is hoped that this book will help in giving a direction to the study of history from the inner point of view and will lead to a deeper understanding of the role of history. I take this opportunity to express my deep gratitude to Sri Aurobindo's Action and its editor, Shyamsundar Jhunjunwala, who encouraged me to publish various chapters from this book as separate articles in the journal before bringing them out in a book form.

I also express my profound thanks to Kireet Joshi for the encouragement he gave me and for going through the whole book in great detail and making valuable comments and suggestions. These comments and suggestions have been invaluable in preparing the final draft of the book.

Finally, I would like to convey my thanks to all my friends and well-wishers who have helped in innumerable ways in bringing out this book and been a source of encouragement.

Contents

Forewordix
Introductionxi
PART I
1.The Study of History3
2.The Origins of Indian History10
3.The Vedas19
4.The Upanishads30
5.Mohenjodaro and Harappa39
6.The Great Epics46
7.The Indian Social System57
8.The Coming of the Buddha65
9.Chanakya71
10.The First Invasions79
11.Ancient Indian Polity - Part 183
12.Ancient Indian Polity - Part 290
13.The Age of Empires95
14.The South Indian Kingdoms101
15.Shankaracharya112
16.The Devotional Movements119
17.The Muslim Invasions122
18.The Hindu Revival- Part 1133
19.The Hindu Revival- Part 2140
20.Summary and Retrospect148
21.The Mughal Empire - Part 1157
22.The Mughal Empire - Part 2165
23.Shivaji173
24.The Bhakti Movement182
25.The Advent of the Sikhs191
26.The Coming of the British201
67.Two Indian Heroes: Tipu Sultan and Ranjit Singh213
28.The Indian Renaissance222
PART II
29.The First War of Independence235
30.The Indian National Congress245
31.The Partition of Bengal256
32.The Surat Congress264
33.The Early Revolutionaries275
34.Minto-Morley Reforms285
35.The Home Rule Movement293
36.The Non-Cooperation Movement - Part 1299
37.The Non-Cooperation Movement - Part 2307
38.The Civil Disobedience Movement - Part 1314
39.The Civil Disobedience Movement - Part 2322
40.Two Revolutionaries329
41.The Government of India Act and the Second World War337
42.The Cripps Mission and the Quit India Movement350
43.A Divided Freedom359
44.Summary and Conclusion371
APPENDIX
Messages on the Partition of India383
Religion and Philosophy389
Indian Art398
Science and Technology in India405
Index411

Sample Pages

































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