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Books > Language and Literature > Sanskrit > Hitopadesa (Sanskrit Text with English Translation & Notes)
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Hitopadesa (Sanskrit Text with English Translation & Notes)
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Hitopadesa (Sanskrit Text with English Translation & Notes)
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Preface

India is now acknowledged to be the motherland of Fable Literature as she is of almost every other branch of knowledge. Sir William Jones writing as far back as in February 1786, thus expresses himself on the subject:-

"Their (the Hinduos') Niti-Sastra, or System of Ethics, is yet preserved, and the fables of Visnu-Sarma, whom we ridiculously call Pilpay, are the most beautiful, if not the most ancient, collection of apologues in the world. They were first translated from the Sanskrit, in the sixth century, by Buzerchumihr, or "Bright as the Sun," the chief physician, and afterwords the Vizier of the great Anushirwan, and are extant under various names in more than twenty languages; but their original title is Hitopadesa, or "Amicable Instruction," and as the very existence of Esop, who the Arabs believe to have been an Abyssinian, appears rather doubtful, I am not disinclined to suppose that the first moral fables which apeared in Europe were of Indian or Ethiopian origin." For a full account of the wanderings of the stores of Visausarma (the Panchatanatra) into and through the different countries of Asia and Europe, the student is referred to C. Wilkins' preface to his translation of the Hitopadesa,

The Hitopadesa belongs to that class of compositions which aim at teaching the principles of polity guided by morality as far as possible, presenting them in the more agreeable form of stories. The Panchatantra of Visnusarma referred to above is its immediate parent, though the work of Kamandaka has been largely drawn upon, and there are occasional quotations from the Mahabharata and other works. The object of the compendium is, as the author himself tells us, to train the young minds in the chief affairs of life by acquainting them with the accumulated experiences of past ages. "It (the Hitopadesa) comes to us," says Prof. H. Morley in his introduction to Wilkins' translation of the Hitopadesa, "from a far place and time, as a manual of worldly wisdom, inspired throughout by the religion of its place and time. There are in fact, so far as concerns the great forces of nature, but accidental differences betwen the cities of men or the ant-hills of today and yesterday. When allowance has been made for some real progress in civilization, as in the recognition of the place of women in society, every fable in the Hitopadesa can still be applied to human character; every maxim quoted from the wise men of two or three thousand years ago, when parted from the local accidents of form, might find its time for being quoted now in Church, at home, or upon "Change."

The present edition of the Hitopadesa is specially prepared for High School students into whose hands it, is often placed as one of the books intended for beginners. All difficult words and expressions have been explained in easy Sanskrit and English: A few slokas have been interpreted in a new way and an attempt has been made to give a meaning to a few quotations from Kamandaka, hitherto given up by commentators as knotty. All thanks are due to Dr. Peterson for discovering the fact that Narayana and not Vishnusarman, as popularly supposed till now, is the real author of the present work, I am indebted to the learned Doctor for the last two slokas as well as for a few readings which I have adopted from his edition of the Hitopadesa and which appeared decidedly to improve the sense. I hope the work will be found really useful by those for whom it is intended.

 

Contents

 

  Preface III
  Contents V
Chapter - I Introductory Verses 1-16
Chapter - II The Acquisition of Friends 17-107
1 Episode of the Crows, Tortoise, Deer and the Rat 18
2 Story of the old tiger and the passers-by 19
3 Story of the Deer, crow and the Jackal 36
4 Story of the blind Vulture, He-Cat & Birds 37
5 Story of an Ascetic & the rat-Dhanik Hiranya 55
6 Chandandass, the old merchant and His Wife Lilawati 56
7 The Bhairav Hunter, Deer, Pig, Snake & the Jackal 70
8 The Prince Tungabala, the beautiful wife of the merchant & Her husband Charudatt 81
9 Wicked Jackal and the Elephant 83
Chapter - III The Separation of Friends 108-193
  Differences among good Friends 108
1 The Merchant Vardhamana, the bull Sanjeevak, the lion Pingala and the Jackals--Damanak and karakata 108
2 Story of the Death of Monkey making cleaver tacties 117
3 Karpurpataka, the Washerman, His Wife, the Dankey and the Dog 119
4 The lion Durdanta, a Rat and the cat Dadhikama 136
5 The Monkey, Bell and the Karala Kulani 140
6 The Ascetic Kardarpaketu, a Merchant, Milk-Man and His corrupt wife 147
7 A Milk-man, His corrupt wife, Barber and His Son 153
8 The Crow pair & the Black Snake 155
9 Lion Durdanta and Hare 157
10 The Dubha Pair & the Sea 167
Chapter - IV War 194-270
  The Sepration 194
1 The Swan Hiranyagrabha, the Peacock Chitravarna and their Ministers 194
2 Story of Birds and Monkeys 197
3 Story of the donkey covered with tier-skin and the field-man 199
4 Story of the flock of elephants and the old rabbit 201
5 Story of the Swan, Crow and a Passers-by 206
6 Story of the Crow, Quail, Passers-by and the Milk-man 207
7 Story of A Carpenter, His Currupt Wife & Her paramour 208
8 Story of the Death of a Jackal Hued in blue 220
9 Story of the Prince Viravara and the Sacrifice his sons 234
10 Story of a Kstriya, a barber and a beggar 240
Chapter - V Peace 271-338
  Union  
1 Story of the Unity of the Swan and Peacock 271
2 Story of the Two Swan and their loved Tortoise 272
3 Story of the three Fishes 273
4 Story of the merchant and his currupt wife 274
5 Story of the Crane, Snake and Mungoose 277
6 Story of the Ascetic Mahatapa & A Rat 280
7 Story of the old Crane, Crab & Fish 281
8 Story of Deva Sharma, the Brahmin & the Pot-man 284
9 Story of the Demons--Sunda & Upasunda 287
10 Story of A brahmin, He-got & Three Wickeds 297
11 Story of the lion Madotkata and the Servants 298
12 Story of the Hungry Snake and Frogs 302
13 Story of the Brahmin, Madhav, His son & Snake 312
  Index of Verses 339-350

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Hitopadesa (Sanskrit Text with English Translation & Notes)

Item Code:
NAK382
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2011
ISBN:
8186702318
Language:
Sanskrit Text with English Translation
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
358
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 502 gms
Price:
$38.50
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$30.80   Shipping Free
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Preface

India is now acknowledged to be the motherland of Fable Literature as she is of almost every other branch of knowledge. Sir William Jones writing as far back as in February 1786, thus expresses himself on the subject:-

"Their (the Hinduos') Niti-Sastra, or System of Ethics, is yet preserved, and the fables of Visnu-Sarma, whom we ridiculously call Pilpay, are the most beautiful, if not the most ancient, collection of apologues in the world. They were first translated from the Sanskrit, in the sixth century, by Buzerchumihr, or "Bright as the Sun," the chief physician, and afterwords the Vizier of the great Anushirwan, and are extant under various names in more than twenty languages; but their original title is Hitopadesa, or "Amicable Instruction," and as the very existence of Esop, who the Arabs believe to have been an Abyssinian, appears rather doubtful, I am not disinclined to suppose that the first moral fables which apeared in Europe were of Indian or Ethiopian origin." For a full account of the wanderings of the stores of Visausarma (the Panchatanatra) into and through the different countries of Asia and Europe, the student is referred to C. Wilkins' preface to his translation of the Hitopadesa,

The Hitopadesa belongs to that class of compositions which aim at teaching the principles of polity guided by morality as far as possible, presenting them in the more agreeable form of stories. The Panchatantra of Visnusarma referred to above is its immediate parent, though the work of Kamandaka has been largely drawn upon, and there are occasional quotations from the Mahabharata and other works. The object of the compendium is, as the author himself tells us, to train the young minds in the chief affairs of life by acquainting them with the accumulated experiences of past ages. "It (the Hitopadesa) comes to us," says Prof. H. Morley in his introduction to Wilkins' translation of the Hitopadesa, "from a far place and time, as a manual of worldly wisdom, inspired throughout by the religion of its place and time. There are in fact, so far as concerns the great forces of nature, but accidental differences betwen the cities of men or the ant-hills of today and yesterday. When allowance has been made for some real progress in civilization, as in the recognition of the place of women in society, every fable in the Hitopadesa can still be applied to human character; every maxim quoted from the wise men of two or three thousand years ago, when parted from the local accidents of form, might find its time for being quoted now in Church, at home, or upon "Change."

The present edition of the Hitopadesa is specially prepared for High School students into whose hands it, is often placed as one of the books intended for beginners. All difficult words and expressions have been explained in easy Sanskrit and English: A few slokas have been interpreted in a new way and an attempt has been made to give a meaning to a few quotations from Kamandaka, hitherto given up by commentators as knotty. All thanks are due to Dr. Peterson for discovering the fact that Narayana and not Vishnusarman, as popularly supposed till now, is the real author of the present work, I am indebted to the learned Doctor for the last two slokas as well as for a few readings which I have adopted from his edition of the Hitopadesa and which appeared decidedly to improve the sense. I hope the work will be found really useful by those for whom it is intended.

 

Contents

 

  Preface III
  Contents V
Chapter - I Introductory Verses 1-16
Chapter - II The Acquisition of Friends 17-107
1 Episode of the Crows, Tortoise, Deer and the Rat 18
2 Story of the old tiger and the passers-by 19
3 Story of the Deer, crow and the Jackal 36
4 Story of the blind Vulture, He-Cat & Birds 37
5 Story of an Ascetic & the rat-Dhanik Hiranya 55
6 Chandandass, the old merchant and His Wife Lilawati 56
7 The Bhairav Hunter, Deer, Pig, Snake & the Jackal 70
8 The Prince Tungabala, the beautiful wife of the merchant & Her husband Charudatt 81
9 Wicked Jackal and the Elephant 83
Chapter - III The Separation of Friends 108-193
  Differences among good Friends 108
1 The Merchant Vardhamana, the bull Sanjeevak, the lion Pingala and the Jackals--Damanak and karakata 108
2 Story of the Death of Monkey making cleaver tacties 117
3 Karpurpataka, the Washerman, His Wife, the Dankey and the Dog 119
4 The lion Durdanta, a Rat and the cat Dadhikama 136
5 The Monkey, Bell and the Karala Kulani 140
6 The Ascetic Kardarpaketu, a Merchant, Milk-Man and His corrupt wife 147
7 A Milk-man, His corrupt wife, Barber and His Son 153
8 The Crow pair & the Black Snake 155
9 Lion Durdanta and Hare 157
10 The Dubha Pair & the Sea 167
Chapter - IV War 194-270
  The Sepration 194
1 The Swan Hiranyagrabha, the Peacock Chitravarna and their Ministers 194
2 Story of Birds and Monkeys 197
3 Story of the donkey covered with tier-skin and the field-man 199
4 Story of the flock of elephants and the old rabbit 201
5 Story of the Swan, Crow and a Passers-by 206
6 Story of the Crow, Quail, Passers-by and the Milk-man 207
7 Story of A Carpenter, His Currupt Wife & Her paramour 208
8 Story of the Death of a Jackal Hued in blue 220
9 Story of the Prince Viravara and the Sacrifice his sons 234
10 Story of a Kstriya, a barber and a beggar 240
Chapter - V Peace 271-338
  Union  
1 Story of the Unity of the Swan and Peacock 271
2 Story of the Two Swan and their loved Tortoise 272
3 Story of the three Fishes 273
4 Story of the merchant and his currupt wife 274
5 Story of the Crane, Snake and Mungoose 277
6 Story of the Ascetic Mahatapa & A Rat 280
7 Story of the old Crane, Crab & Fish 281
8 Story of Deva Sharma, the Brahmin & the Pot-man 284
9 Story of the Demons--Sunda & Upasunda 287
10 Story of A brahmin, He-got & Three Wickeds 297
11 Story of the lion Madotkata and the Servants 298
12 Story of the Hungry Snake and Frogs 302
13 Story of the Brahmin, Madhav, His son & Snake 312
  Index of Verses 339-350

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