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Books > Language and Literature > Panini > La Grammaire Panineenne Par Ses Exemples: Paninian Grammar Though its Examples (Vol. III.2 Le Livre Des Formes Conjuguees 2 )
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La Grammaire Panineenne Par Ses Exemples: Paninian Grammar Though its Examples (Vol. III.2 Le Livre Des Formes Conjuguees 2 )
La Grammaire Panineenne Par Ses Exemples: Paninian Grammar Though its Examples (Vol. III.2 Le Livre Des Formes Conjuguees 2 )
Description
Back of the Book

Ce volume presente, sous la forme d'un dictionnaire, les exemples de formes verbales conjuguees que Bhattoji Diksita donne dans sa Siddhiintakaumudi dans les chapitres ou il traite du causatif, du desideratif, de l'intensif, du denorninatif, de la combinaison possible de ces conjugaisons, de la voix moyenne, de la voix active, de l'impersonnel, du passif et du reflechi, A ces exemples, au nombre de mille quatre cent quarante neuf, soixante huit autres ont ete ajoutes, empruntes au Mahabhdsya, a la Kiisikavrtti et a la Bhasiivrtti. Chaque exemple constitue l'entree d'un article fournissant, entre autres, sa derivation complete ainsi que des notes. Six index permettent d'acceder aussi .aux exemples : un index des siitra de l'A~!iidhyiiyf auxquels sont rattaches les exemples, un index des vartika et des ganasutra mentionnes dans les articles, un index des racines sur lesquelles sent formes les exemples, un index des termes techniques associes aux categories de formes verbales conjuguees dont il est traite dans ce volume, un index des exernples par chapitre de la Siddhiintakaumudi, un index des exemples classes par temps et modes.

This volume presents, in the form of a dictionary, the examples of conjugated verbal forms given by Bhattoji Diksita in his Siddhantakaumudi in the chapters in which he deals with the causative, the desiderative, the intensive, the denominative, the possible combinations of these conjugations, the middle voice, the active voice, the impersonal, the passive and the reflexive. To these examples, numbering one thousand four hundred and forty-nine, sixty-eight are added, borrowed from the Mahabhasya, the Kasikavrtti, and the Bhasavrtti. Each example constitutes the entry of an article providing, amongst other things, its complete derivation along with notes, Examples may also be accessed through six indexes: index of the sutra-s to which the examples are attached; index of the vartika-s and the ganasutra-s referred to in the articles; index of the roots on which the examples are formed; index of technical terms associated with the categories of conjugated verbal forms dealt with in this volume; index of examples by chapter of the Siddhantakaumudi, index of examples classified by tense and mood.

Foreword

It is a matter of immense pleasure to write a few words in way of foreword to Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa- Vol.III.2.. This volume, like the previous ones, has been prepared by scholars of the French Institute of Asian Studies and of the French Institute of Pondicherry in collaboration with our Institution, Rashtriya Sanskrit University ofTirupati.

The purpose of the Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa-is to show in a concrete and methodical way, from examples found in the Mahabhiisya, the Kiisikiivrui, the Bhiisiivrtti and the Siddhiintakaumudi, the content and the function of the Paninian grammatical system. As a part of this major project, this volume deals with the examples given by Bhattoji Diksita in the second half of the long section dealing with conjugated verbal forms (Ii/ionIa) of his Siddhiintakaumudi.

The salient feature of each volume including the present one in the series is to present these examples systematically in the form of a dictionary. Each example is the entry of an article providing, in addition to its references and its French and English translation, a complete derivation iprakriyav followed by notes (JiPPWll). Indexes allow the examples to be reached according to different search criteria.

The contribution of Maharsi Panini who flourished in the fourth century B.C. to the field of Sanskrit in particular and linguistics in general is well-known to the world of scholars. On the A~!adhyiiy[, his magnum opus, a number of commentaries have been composed in later periods by many eminent scholars including Pataiijali, Vamana, Jayaditya. Purusottama and Bhattoji Diksita. In order to explain the aphorisms isiitra-s) of the Astiidhyayi, a number of examples and counter examples have been given by these commentators to further elucidate the grammatical process. These illustrations assume particular significance since they retlect the socio-cultural and socio-political conditions prevailing at the time. Hence, it was necessary to collect all these examples and utilise them to provide easy access to the rules formulated by Panini.

The first two volumes of this Kosa. prepared by the scholars of these French Institutes with care and expertise, have gained unprecedented popularity and appreciation among scholars of this country and abroad and there has been a great demand for the publication of the subsequent volumes. Requests have been received from both western and eastern scholars for the printed version of the remaining volumes. Accordingly, the scholars 01" the French Institutes: F. Grirnal, V. Venkataraja Sanna and S. Lakshminarasimham, have prepared the third volume in the same systematic and methodical manner as they prepared the earlier volumes. These three scholars are well-known in the field oflndology and Paninian Grammar in particular, and have many invaluable publications to their credit. I avai I mysel f of this opportunity to congratulate all them on their work preparing and publishing this volume at a time when it is needed by scholars.

The Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, a Centre of Excellence for Traditional Sastras as recognized by the U.G.c. and accredited with A+ Grade by the N.A.A.C., is indeed honoured to publish this volume under the Centre of Excellence Programme. I am contident that this book will definitely earn wide appreciation as the previous ones and cater to the needs of those for whom it is intended. I am happier to mention that this volume is published as our revered institution is celebrating its Golden Jubilee Year - 2010.

I pray that Lord Venkateswara may strengthen the bonds between the R..S Vidyapeetha, Tirupati and the French Institutes in Pondicherry, so as to enable us to generate many more works of high order in the years to come.

Introduction

According to the plan adopted for the second volume of the Paninian Grammar through its Examples this volume is presented in the form of a dictionary whose entries are the examples given by Bhattoji Diksita in a part of his Siddhiintakaumudi, in this case in the second half of the long section dealing with conjugated verbal forms (tinantai'

This second half comprises the prakarana-s (chapters) 53-64 treating successively of the causative (53: nicprakarana, siitra 2575/1.4.55 to 2607/2.4.46), the desiderative (54: sanprakarana, siitra 2608/3.1.7 to 2628/8.3.62), the intensive (55-56: yanprakarana, satra \ 2629/3.1.22 to 264917.4.22 and yanlukprakarana, siitra 2650/2.4.74 to 2656/1.1.4), the denominative (57-58: namadhiituprakarana, siitra 2657/3.1.8 to 2677/3.1.21 and kandvddi-prakarana, satra 2678/3.1.27), of the possible combinations of these derived conjugations (59: pratyayamiilaprakaranay, of the middle voice (60: iumanepadaprakarana; siitra 2679/1.3.13 to 2744/1.3.77), of the acti\e voice (61: parasmaipadaprakarana, siitra 274511.3.79 to 2755/1.3.89), of the impersonal and of the passive (62: bhiivakarmatinprakarana, sutra 2756/3.1.67 to 276517.1.69), of the reflexive (63: karmakartrtin- prakarana, siitra 2766/3.1.87 to 2772/3.1.90), and of the meaning of tenses and moods (64: iakiuiirthaprakarana; siitra 2773/3.2.112 to 2828/3.4.5)?

In this volume are presented the examples given by Bhattoji in prakarana-s 53 to 63.3 These examples number 1449 and we have added 68 others borrowed from the three other commentaries."

Structure des articles
An article comprises the following parts.

The entry. The entry is the example, in the present case the conjugated verbal form alone. This is followed by the reference of the siitra under which the example is given in the commentaries. This reference is to the A~!iidhyiiyf (A.) and then, after a slash, comes the reference to the Siddhiinia- kaumudi (SK). After this, there is the reference of the commentary (or references of commentaries) where the example appears: first the SK., then the Mahabhiisya (M.), then the Kiisikavrtti (K.), and then the Bhiisiivrtti (BhY.). These references are to volumes and pages of the editions used (see below p. xvii). These indications end with the figure (1), (2) or (3) in brackets. The figure (l) indicates a direct example, (2) a counter-example and (3) an incidental example. By "incidental example" it should be understood that the example is not directly connected with the siitra under which it appears in the editions used. It may be an example (or counter-example) of a viirtika complementing the siitra, viirtika which is mentioned in the body of the article, either in the prakriyii (derivation) or in the tippani (notes) or in both. An example may also appear as incidental due to the very composition of the commentary, particularly in the SK.5

When the example is given under more than one siura, the same sequence is repeated after the sign -.

Second part. If the example is accompanied in a commentary by one or several words, and thus has a context, we have reproduced the whole followed, where necessary, by the mention of the commentary where it is found.

The third part is the analysis (vigraha) of the example. The roots at the beginning of this analysis are cited with their markers (anubandha-s), their meanings and their numbers as they appear in the dhdtupdtha of the edition of the SK.6 In order to facilitate their identification in the dictionaries we have inserted, between the roots thus given and their meanings, their form without anubandha. The three indications which follow, specifying whether the root is transitive (sakarmaka) or intransitive (akarmaka), provided or not with the accrement i (set or aniti, conjugated in the active voice (parasmaipadin) or in the middle (iitmanepadin) or in both (ubhayapadin), are borrowed from the Krdantariipamdlii/ The morphological characterization of the conjugated form follows this.

Fourth part. The example is translated into both French and English. When the example of the SK. has a context the translation of the word or words’ constituting the context is given between brackets. Additions between square brackets are to help comprehension where necessary. Such additions are sometimes borrowed from commentaries other than the SK. when they cite the same example for the same reason but more explicitly.

Translating these examples calls for some arbitrary choices, for instance: between meanings of the root when several meanings are given; between genders for the pronoun subject, where we have systematically chosen the masculine except when the subject is more obviously feminine or neuter for the "impersonal" forms; and lastly, between the meanings of the denominatives explained by the viirtika "Tad dcaste tat karoti": here we have chosen the meaning tad iicaste and translated it by "he describes that"."

Again, due to the absence of context and to the fact that the meanings of these past tenses which are IaJi("imperfect"), lun ("aorist"), and lit ("perfect"), correspond not at all or only in part to our past tenses we have translated these three tenses by the passe compose in French and by the preterite in English. Moreover, the aim of being as literal as possible from the grammatical point of view has led us to push translations to the limits of correctitude, We have translated literally the forms called "impersonal", that is, those forms whose endings express the meaning only of the root (bhiiva). To do this we have translated the meaning of the root by the infinitive in French and by the gerund in English and the temporal determination by the expression « il y a » ("there is") in the requisite tense, thus for the aorist "impersonal" ajiigiiri : « il y a eu 'se reveiller' » ("there was 'awakening:"), etc.

The fifth part consists of a complete prakriyii (derivation), that is, the sequence of every operation to be successively carried out so as to reach the actual conjugated form. One line is given to each operation and this line is made up of three parts. The entire or abridged text of the siitra or viirtika that prescribes the operation is at the centre. There follows the reference to the siitra in the A. and in the SK., or a serial number in the case of a viirtika. The operation in schematic form is shown on the left. The different constitutive elements of the word are precisely separated here," without their markers (anubandha). The transformations prescribed by each rule are thus clearly shown. The operation is very briefly described on the right, the markers appearing here as they also appear in the notes.

The sixth and last part consists of notes (tippalJl). These notes first of all provide, where necessary, complementary explanations for a deeper understanding of the prakriyii. Thus, as regards the desiderative bubhusati ("he wants to be"), the tippani explains what the prakriya does not, that is, why, according to siitra 7.2.12 "Sani grahaguhos ca", that form of a root set does not have the accrement i. The tippani also explains why that same form is a counter-example for satra 1.3.62 "Piirvavat sanah" according to the SK. and a counter-example as well for siitra 7.4.80 "O~ puyanjy apare" according to the KV. and the BhV.

Similarly, it is the notes that show the successive stages necessary to arrive at forms such as iirohayate in Arohayate hasti ("The elephant allows itself to be mounted") or darsayate in Darsayate Bhavah ("Bhava appears of himself [to the devotees)"), examples for siitra 1.3.67 "Ner a~au yat karma ~au eet sa kartiinddhyiine", These stages cannot appear in the prakriyii.

The optional forms are cited and explained in the notes under each of the forms concerned. Thus, under carikarti, carikarti, carkariti and earkarti - plus carikariti and carikariti, which are not amongst the examples given by Bhattoji - are cited and explained the six optional forms of the intensive with the suffix dropped of the root KlJ.- ("he does intensely or repeatedly"), optional forms according to siitra 7.4.92 "Rtas ea" and 7.3.94 "Yatio va". In the same way, in the tippani of each of the three examples sapatiyate, sapatniiyate and sapatnfyate, different forms with different meanings but derived from the same noun sapatnf with the same suffix kyan, all these three forms are mentioned and their differences explained.

The notes also explain the meaning of certain technical terms concerning the notions treated in this volume, for instance, kriydsamabhihiira, karmakartr, etc.

They explain the meaning of some examples when the case warrants it.

Index
This volume has six indices.

An alphabetical index of the 198 sutra-s of the A. which constitute the structure of the prakarana-s of the SK. under consideration here and with which the examples are connected (see note 5 on page xiv above). These siitra-s are followed by their examples and counter-examples.

An index of the viirtika-s and the ganasiitra-s which appear in the prakriyii-s and in the tippani- s. These viirtika-s and ganasiitra-s are classified in this index according to those serial numbers attributed to them in the edition of the SK. used and reproduced in the prakriya-s and the tippani-s. On the origin of these serial numbers see below p. xvii. In the articles in this dictionary viirtika-s are cited in the form they take in the M. and it is in this form that they are given first of all in this index. When it happens that the text of a viirtika is different in the SK. we give its form in that text, separated by a slash from the form it has in the M. Vartika-s and ganasiitra-s are followed by mention of the examples that concern them.

An alphabetical index of the roots from which the examples are formed: first the roots belonging to the ten classes of the dhdtupiitha. then those of the group kandviidi, and finally the other denominative roots. The first are cited with their grammatical indices (anubandha-s), their meaning and their numbers as they appear in the dhiitupiitha of the edition of the SK. used. The roots of the second group are cited as in prakarana 58 of the same SK. The roots are followed by the examples that concern them.

An alphabetical index of technical terms with reference to the siitra-s concerned. In this index only those technical terms associated with the categories of conjugated verbal forms considered in this volume appear.

An alphabetical index of examples by prakarana.

An alphabetical index of examples classified b'j ten'i>e'i> and moods.

References
The editions of the four commentaries to which we refer are the same as those mentioned in the preceding volumes:

Vyiikara,!-amahiibhii~ya with the Bhasyapradipa and the Bhasyapradipoddyota, Varanasi. Vol. I edited by Bharavasastrin, 1987; vol. II and III edited by Sivadattasarrnan, 1987 and 1988; vol. IV and V edited by Bhargavasastrin, 1988; vol. VI edited by Dadhiramasarrnan, 1988. For the examples given in the first two ahnika of the Mahdbhdsya references are to the pages of the edition mentioned. References in this edition to the eighth adhyiiya are preceded by an asterisk. Kiisikiivrtti with the Padamaiijari and the Nyiisa, edited by Dvarikadasasastrin and

Kalikaprasadasukla. Varanast, Vol. I and II, 1983; vol. III and IV, 1984; vol. V and VI, 1985.

Bhiisiivrtti, edited by Snsacandracakravartibhattacarya. Rajshahi, 1918.

Vaiyakaranasiddhantakaumudi with the Biilamanoramd and the Tattvabodhini, edited by Giridharasarrnan. varanasr. Vol. 1,1998; vol. II, 1997; vol. III, 1989; vol. IV, 1987.

The numeration of the siitra-s in the A. as in the SK. is that of the edition of the SK. mentioned above.

The serial numbers of the viirtika-s are reproduced from the list given in the edition of the Siddhiintakaumudi under the title: siddhiintakaumudi nama mahiimahopiidhyayasrfbha!!(}jidfk~ita- viracitii pdniniyavyiikaranasiitravrttih. parabopiihvapii,!-ljurangiitmajakiiSfniithasanna':lii samsodhitii t ... 1 Mumbayyiim tattvavivecakdkhyayantrdlaye mudriiksarair ankitah sake 1815 vatsarc.

La Grammaire Panineenne Par Ses Exemples: Paninian Grammar Though its Examples (Vol. III.2 Le Livre Des Formes Conjuguees 2 )

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2010
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Back of the Book

Ce volume presente, sous la forme d'un dictionnaire, les exemples de formes verbales conjuguees que Bhattoji Diksita donne dans sa Siddhiintakaumudi dans les chapitres ou il traite du causatif, du desideratif, de l'intensif, du denorninatif, de la combinaison possible de ces conjugaisons, de la voix moyenne, de la voix active, de l'impersonnel, du passif et du reflechi, A ces exemples, au nombre de mille quatre cent quarante neuf, soixante huit autres ont ete ajoutes, empruntes au Mahabhdsya, a la Kiisikavrtti et a la Bhasiivrtti. Chaque exemple constitue l'entree d'un article fournissant, entre autres, sa derivation complete ainsi que des notes. Six index permettent d'acceder aussi .aux exemples : un index des siitra de l'A~!iidhyiiyf auxquels sont rattaches les exemples, un index des vartika et des ganasutra mentionnes dans les articles, un index des racines sur lesquelles sent formes les exemples, un index des termes techniques associes aux categories de formes verbales conjuguees dont il est traite dans ce volume, un index des exernples par chapitre de la Siddhiintakaumudi, un index des exemples classes par temps et modes.

This volume presents, in the form of a dictionary, the examples of conjugated verbal forms given by Bhattoji Diksita in his Siddhantakaumudi in the chapters in which he deals with the causative, the desiderative, the intensive, the denominative, the possible combinations of these conjugations, the middle voice, the active voice, the impersonal, the passive and the reflexive. To these examples, numbering one thousand four hundred and forty-nine, sixty-eight are added, borrowed from the Mahabhasya, the Kasikavrtti, and the Bhasavrtti. Each example constitutes the entry of an article providing, amongst other things, its complete derivation along with notes, Examples may also be accessed through six indexes: index of the sutra-s to which the examples are attached; index of the vartika-s and the ganasutra-s referred to in the articles; index of the roots on which the examples are formed; index of technical terms associated with the categories of conjugated verbal forms dealt with in this volume; index of examples by chapter of the Siddhantakaumudi, index of examples classified by tense and mood.

Foreword

It is a matter of immense pleasure to write a few words in way of foreword to Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa- Vol.III.2.. This volume, like the previous ones, has been prepared by scholars of the French Institute of Asian Studies and of the French Institute of Pondicherry in collaboration with our Institution, Rashtriya Sanskrit University ofTirupati.

The purpose of the Paniniyavyakaranodaharanakosa-is to show in a concrete and methodical way, from examples found in the Mahabhiisya, the Kiisikiivrui, the Bhiisiivrtti and the Siddhiintakaumudi, the content and the function of the Paninian grammatical system. As a part of this major project, this volume deals with the examples given by Bhattoji Diksita in the second half of the long section dealing with conjugated verbal forms (Ii/ionIa) of his Siddhiintakaumudi.

The salient feature of each volume including the present one in the series is to present these examples systematically in the form of a dictionary. Each example is the entry of an article providing, in addition to its references and its French and English translation, a complete derivation iprakriyav followed by notes (JiPPWll). Indexes allow the examples to be reached according to different search criteria.

The contribution of Maharsi Panini who flourished in the fourth century B.C. to the field of Sanskrit in particular and linguistics in general is well-known to the world of scholars. On the A~!adhyiiy[, his magnum opus, a number of commentaries have been composed in later periods by many eminent scholars including Pataiijali, Vamana, Jayaditya. Purusottama and Bhattoji Diksita. In order to explain the aphorisms isiitra-s) of the Astiidhyayi, a number of examples and counter examples have been given by these commentators to further elucidate the grammatical process. These illustrations assume particular significance since they retlect the socio-cultural and socio-political conditions prevailing at the time. Hence, it was necessary to collect all these examples and utilise them to provide easy access to the rules formulated by Panini.

The first two volumes of this Kosa. prepared by the scholars of these French Institutes with care and expertise, have gained unprecedented popularity and appreciation among scholars of this country and abroad and there has been a great demand for the publication of the subsequent volumes. Requests have been received from both western and eastern scholars for the printed version of the remaining volumes. Accordingly, the scholars 01" the French Institutes: F. Grirnal, V. Venkataraja Sanna and S. Lakshminarasimham, have prepared the third volume in the same systematic and methodical manner as they prepared the earlier volumes. These three scholars are well-known in the field oflndology and Paninian Grammar in particular, and have many invaluable publications to their credit. I avai I mysel f of this opportunity to congratulate all them on their work preparing and publishing this volume at a time when it is needed by scholars.

The Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati, a Centre of Excellence for Traditional Sastras as recognized by the U.G.c. and accredited with A+ Grade by the N.A.A.C., is indeed honoured to publish this volume under the Centre of Excellence Programme. I am contident that this book will definitely earn wide appreciation as the previous ones and cater to the needs of those for whom it is intended. I am happier to mention that this volume is published as our revered institution is celebrating its Golden Jubilee Year - 2010.

I pray that Lord Venkateswara may strengthen the bonds between the R..S Vidyapeetha, Tirupati and the French Institutes in Pondicherry, so as to enable us to generate many more works of high order in the years to come.

Introduction

According to the plan adopted for the second volume of the Paninian Grammar through its Examples this volume is presented in the form of a dictionary whose entries are the examples given by Bhattoji Diksita in a part of his Siddhiintakaumudi, in this case in the second half of the long section dealing with conjugated verbal forms (tinantai'

This second half comprises the prakarana-s (chapters) 53-64 treating successively of the causative (53: nicprakarana, siitra 2575/1.4.55 to 2607/2.4.46), the desiderative (54: sanprakarana, siitra 2608/3.1.7 to 2628/8.3.62), the intensive (55-56: yanprakarana, satra \ 2629/3.1.22 to 264917.4.22 and yanlukprakarana, siitra 2650/2.4.74 to 2656/1.1.4), the denominative (57-58: namadhiituprakarana, siitra 2657/3.1.8 to 2677/3.1.21 and kandvddi-prakarana, satra 2678/3.1.27), of the possible combinations of these derived conjugations (59: pratyayamiilaprakaranay, of the middle voice (60: iumanepadaprakarana; siitra 2679/1.3.13 to 2744/1.3.77), of the acti\e voice (61: parasmaipadaprakarana, siitra 274511.3.79 to 2755/1.3.89), of the impersonal and of the passive (62: bhiivakarmatinprakarana, sutra 2756/3.1.67 to 276517.1.69), of the reflexive (63: karmakartrtin- prakarana, siitra 2766/3.1.87 to 2772/3.1.90), and of the meaning of tenses and moods (64: iakiuiirthaprakarana; siitra 2773/3.2.112 to 2828/3.4.5)?

In this volume are presented the examples given by Bhattoji in prakarana-s 53 to 63.3 These examples number 1449 and we have added 68 others borrowed from the three other commentaries."

Structure des articles
An article comprises the following parts.

The entry. The entry is the example, in the present case the conjugated verbal form alone. This is followed by the reference of the siitra under which the example is given in the commentaries. This reference is to the A~!iidhyiiyf (A.) and then, after a slash, comes the reference to the Siddhiinia- kaumudi (SK). After this, there is the reference of the commentary (or references of commentaries) where the example appears: first the SK., then the Mahabhiisya (M.), then the Kiisikavrtti (K.), and then the Bhiisiivrtti (BhY.). These references are to volumes and pages of the editions used (see below p. xvii). These indications end with the figure (1), (2) or (3) in brackets. The figure (l) indicates a direct example, (2) a counter-example and (3) an incidental example. By "incidental example" it should be understood that the example is not directly connected with the siitra under which it appears in the editions used. It may be an example (or counter-example) of a viirtika complementing the siitra, viirtika which is mentioned in the body of the article, either in the prakriyii (derivation) or in the tippani (notes) or in both. An example may also appear as incidental due to the very composition of the commentary, particularly in the SK.5

When the example is given under more than one siura, the same sequence is repeated after the sign -.

Second part. If the example is accompanied in a commentary by one or several words, and thus has a context, we have reproduced the whole followed, where necessary, by the mention of the commentary where it is found.

The third part is the analysis (vigraha) of the example. The roots at the beginning of this analysis are cited with their markers (anubandha-s), their meanings and their numbers as they appear in the dhdtupdtha of the edition of the SK.6 In order to facilitate their identification in the dictionaries we have inserted, between the roots thus given and their meanings, their form without anubandha. The three indications which follow, specifying whether the root is transitive (sakarmaka) or intransitive (akarmaka), provided or not with the accrement i (set or aniti, conjugated in the active voice (parasmaipadin) or in the middle (iitmanepadin) or in both (ubhayapadin), are borrowed from the Krdantariipamdlii/ The morphological characterization of the conjugated form follows this.

Fourth part. The example is translated into both French and English. When the example of the SK. has a context the translation of the word or words’ constituting the context is given between brackets. Additions between square brackets are to help comprehension where necessary. Such additions are sometimes borrowed from commentaries other than the SK. when they cite the same example for the same reason but more explicitly.

Translating these examples calls for some arbitrary choices, for instance: between meanings of the root when several meanings are given; between genders for the pronoun subject, where we have systematically chosen the masculine except when the subject is more obviously feminine or neuter for the "impersonal" forms; and lastly, between the meanings of the denominatives explained by the viirtika "Tad dcaste tat karoti": here we have chosen the meaning tad iicaste and translated it by "he describes that"."

Again, due to the absence of context and to the fact that the meanings of these past tenses which are IaJi("imperfect"), lun ("aorist"), and lit ("perfect"), correspond not at all or only in part to our past tenses we have translated these three tenses by the passe compose in French and by the preterite in English. Moreover, the aim of being as literal as possible from the grammatical point of view has led us to push translations to the limits of correctitude, We have translated literally the forms called "impersonal", that is, those forms whose endings express the meaning only of the root (bhiiva). To do this we have translated the meaning of the root by the infinitive in French and by the gerund in English and the temporal determination by the expression « il y a » ("there is") in the requisite tense, thus for the aorist "impersonal" ajiigiiri : « il y a eu 'se reveiller' » ("there was 'awakening:"), etc.

The fifth part consists of a complete prakriyii (derivation), that is, the sequence of every operation to be successively carried out so as to reach the actual conjugated form. One line is given to each operation and this line is made up of three parts. The entire or abridged text of the siitra or viirtika that prescribes the operation is at the centre. There follows the reference to the siitra in the A. and in the SK., or a serial number in the case of a viirtika. The operation in schematic form is shown on the left. The different constitutive elements of the word are precisely separated here," without their markers (anubandha). The transformations prescribed by each rule are thus clearly shown. The operation is very briefly described on the right, the markers appearing here as they also appear in the notes.

The sixth and last part consists of notes (tippalJl). These notes first of all provide, where necessary, complementary explanations for a deeper understanding of the prakriyii. Thus, as regards the desiderative bubhusati ("he wants to be"), the tippani explains what the prakriya does not, that is, why, according to siitra 7.2.12 "Sani grahaguhos ca", that form of a root set does not have the accrement i. The tippani also explains why that same form is a counter-example for satra 1.3.62 "Piirvavat sanah" according to the SK. and a counter-example as well for siitra 7.4.80 "O~ puyanjy apare" according to the KV. and the BhV.

Similarly, it is the notes that show the successive stages necessary to arrive at forms such as iirohayate in Arohayate hasti ("The elephant allows itself to be mounted") or darsayate in Darsayate Bhavah ("Bhava appears of himself [to the devotees)"), examples for siitra 1.3.67 "Ner a~au yat karma ~au eet sa kartiinddhyiine", These stages cannot appear in the prakriyii.

The optional forms are cited and explained in the notes under each of the forms concerned. Thus, under carikarti, carikarti, carkariti and earkarti - plus carikariti and carikariti, which are not amongst the examples given by Bhattoji - are cited and explained the six optional forms of the intensive with the suffix dropped of the root KlJ.- ("he does intensely or repeatedly"), optional forms according to siitra 7.4.92 "Rtas ea" and 7.3.94 "Yatio va". In the same way, in the tippani of each of the three examples sapatiyate, sapatniiyate and sapatnfyate, different forms with different meanings but derived from the same noun sapatnf with the same suffix kyan, all these three forms are mentioned and their differences explained.

The notes also explain the meaning of certain technical terms concerning the notions treated in this volume, for instance, kriydsamabhihiira, karmakartr, etc.

They explain the meaning of some examples when the case warrants it.

Index
This volume has six indices.

An alphabetical index of the 198 sutra-s of the A. which constitute the structure of the prakarana-s of the SK. under consideration here and with which the examples are connected (see note 5 on page xiv above). These siitra-s are followed by their examples and counter-examples.

An index of the viirtika-s and the ganasiitra-s which appear in the prakriyii-s and in the tippani- s. These viirtika-s and ganasiitra-s are classified in this index according to those serial numbers attributed to them in the edition of the SK. used and reproduced in the prakriya-s and the tippani-s. On the origin of these serial numbers see below p. xvii. In the articles in this dictionary viirtika-s are cited in the form they take in the M. and it is in this form that they are given first of all in this index. When it happens that the text of a viirtika is different in the SK. we give its form in that text, separated by a slash from the form it has in the M. Vartika-s and ganasiitra-s are followed by mention of the examples that concern them.

An alphabetical index of the roots from which the examples are formed: first the roots belonging to the ten classes of the dhdtupiitha. then those of the group kandviidi, and finally the other denominative roots. The first are cited with their grammatical indices (anubandha-s), their meaning and their numbers as they appear in the dhiitupiitha of the edition of the SK. used. The roots of the second group are cited as in prakarana 58 of the same SK. The roots are followed by the examples that concern them.

An alphabetical index of technical terms with reference to the siitra-s concerned. In this index only those technical terms associated with the categories of conjugated verbal forms considered in this volume appear.

An alphabetical index of examples by prakarana.

An alphabetical index of examples classified b'j ten'i>e'i> and moods.

References
The editions of the four commentaries to which we refer are the same as those mentioned in the preceding volumes:

Vyiikara,!-amahiibhii~ya with the Bhasyapradipa and the Bhasyapradipoddyota, Varanasi. Vol. I edited by Bharavasastrin, 1987; vol. II and III edited by Sivadattasarrnan, 1987 and 1988; vol. IV and V edited by Bhargavasastrin, 1988; vol. VI edited by Dadhiramasarrnan, 1988. For the examples given in the first two ahnika of the Mahdbhdsya references are to the pages of the edition mentioned. References in this edition to the eighth adhyiiya are preceded by an asterisk. Kiisikiivrtti with the Padamaiijari and the Nyiisa, edited by Dvarikadasasastrin and

Kalikaprasadasukla. Varanast, Vol. I and II, 1983; vol. III and IV, 1984; vol. V and VI, 1985.

Bhiisiivrtti, edited by Snsacandracakravartibhattacarya. Rajshahi, 1918.

Vaiyakaranasiddhantakaumudi with the Biilamanoramd and the Tattvabodhini, edited by Giridharasarrnan. varanasr. Vol. 1,1998; vol. II, 1997; vol. III, 1989; vol. IV, 1987.

The numeration of the siitra-s in the A. as in the SK. is that of the edition of the SK. mentioned above.

The serial numbers of the viirtika-s are reproduced from the list given in the edition of the Siddhiintakaumudi under the title: siddhiintakaumudi nama mahiimahopiidhyayasrfbha!!(}jidfk~ita- viracitii pdniniyavyiikaranasiitravrttih. parabopiihvapii,!-ljurangiitmajakiiSfniithasanna':lii samsodhitii t ... 1 Mumbayyiim tattvavivecakdkhyayantrdlaye mudriiksarair ankitah sake 1815 vatsarc.

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