About the Book:
A different arrangement of Panini's Sutra was attempted by several grammarians, of which Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Dikshita very popular, in bringing together the relevant sutras bearing on a particular topic. Laghukaumudi is a suitable abridgement on the same by Varadaraja introducing the beginner to the rudiments of the Sanskrit Language.
The present book is an English version of Laghukaumudi together with comments, references and index. One of the important objects of this version is to explain each term and each process, on its first occurrence, with the fullness of illustration. Yet when a word is given as an illustration under a rule and more rules are to be referred to in forming the word there is no reference to them whatsoever in the original. This edition supplies such references so that the student should know the steps the root has taken before it has attained its present form. The book is a valuable contribution to the study of Sanskrit Grammar.
The groundwork of the grammatical literature of the Sanskrit
is comprised in Panini's eight Lectures, entitled "The Ashtadhyayi" " Each of the lectures is divided into four sections, and each
section into a number of sutras, or succinct aphorisms. On these
Mr. Colebrooke remarks :-" The studied brevity of the Paniniya
" sutras renders them in the highest degree obscure; even with
"the knowledge of the key to their interpretation, the student
"finds them ambiguous. In the application of them when under-
"stood, he discovers many seeming contradictions; and with every
"exertion of practised memory, he must experience the utmost
"difficulty in combining rules dispersed in apparent confusion
"through different portions of Panini's eight Lectures."
The same accomplished scholar adds:-the outline of panini's
"arrangement is simple; but numerous exceptions, and frequent
"disgressions, have involved it in much seeming confusion. The "first two lectures (the first section especially, which is
"manner the key of the whole grammar) contain definition in
"the three next are collected affixes, by which verbs and noun
"are inflected. Those which appertain to verbs occupy
"third lecture :-the fourth and fifth contain such as are affixed
"to nouns. The remaining three. lectures treat of the changes
"which roots and affixes undergo in special cases, or by genral
"rules of orthography, and which are all effected by the addition
"or by the substitution, of 'one or more elements. The apparent
"simplicity of the design vanishes in the perplexity of the struc-
" ture. The endless pursuit of exceptions and limitations so dis-
"joins the general precepts, that the reader cannot keep in view
"their intended connexion, and mutual relation. He wanders in
"an intricate maze, and the clew of the labyrinth is continually
"slipping from his hands."
Such a work as that above described being obviously unsuited for a beginner, a different arrangement of Panini's sutras attempted by several grammarians, "for the sake of bringing one view the rules which must be remembered in the infleclection of one word. and those which must be combined even for a single variation of a single term." This arrangement, Mr. Colebrooke adds, "is certainly preferable; but the. sutras of Panini, " detached from their context, are wholly unintelligible; without "the commentator's exposition, they are indeed, what Sir "william Jones has somewhere termed them, 'dark as the da "oracle."
Such an arrangement as that here referred to, is adopt
the Siddhanta Kaumudi of Bhattoji Dikshita and in its abridgement the Laghu Siddhanta Kaumudi of Varadaraja. One of the first objects of this edition of the Grammar is to I explain each term and each process, on its first occurrence, with something of that fulness of illustration, which the pandits think it better to defer imparting until a later stage in the pupil's course.
According to the established system, the juvenile pupil, who has
only commenced learning the language in which the grammar is
written, cannot proceed three lines in advance of the point at which
his preceptor's last lecture broke off. If he can proceed half a line
in advance of it, it is more than was to have been expected.
Another omission of the native grammars is supplied to a certain extent ill this edition. When a word is given as an example under a rule, perhaps six or eight rules have previously had a. share in bringing the radical word into the form to which the ultimate rule applies. For instance, when we wish to determine one particular pronoun, (to quote from' Mr. Wollaston's preface to his practical Grammar of the Sanskrit) "six rules are to be referred to
"in forming the word, and the student must be able to remember
" them all before he can do it, for there is no reference to them
"whatsoever. Yet such references are much more neccessary than " those that are annexed to the propositions in Euclid, because the "solution of these words is generally more complicated than that.
"of the theorems."
Reference are supplied in this edition, not to every rule required, yet to more than the attentive student is likely to have forgotten.
Conjunction of Vowels
Conjunction of Consonants
Changes of "Visarga"
Masculines ending in vowels
Feminines ending in vowels
Neuters ending in vowels
Masculines ending in consonants
Feminines ending in consonants
Neuters ending in consonants
Verbs ending in "ni"
Verbs ending in the affix "yan"
Verbs ending with a blank substituted for "yan"
The "Paramaipada" affixes
Impersonals and passives
Meanings of the tenses
Words ending with the "krit" affixes
"Avyayibhava" or indeclinable compounds
"Bahuvrthi" or attributive compounds
"Dwandwa" or aggregative compounds
The affixes which come at the end of compounds
The "Taddhita" affixes
The affixes of the feminine
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