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Linguistics Traditions of Kashmir
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Linguistics Traditions of Kashmir
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About the Book

The present volume mainly consists of original research papers. It is not a collection or anthology in which specialists of the different aspects of Kashmirian use or study of language were invited to write essays surveying the aspects best known to them or to produce state-of-the-art reports about the scholarly study of the aspects. An effort, however, has been made in the Introduction to provide the general background that a reader may need in order to situate the papers in the proper intellectual and historical context. The Introduction further outlines the themes that could and should be particularly explored to lead us to a fuller and sharper understanding of Kashmir’s analytical engagement with language. The appendices toward the end of the volume then complement the Introduction by presenting objective and practical information about the manuscripts etc. of works in Sanskrit.

The volume could connect the results of the work done in the past with the work to be done in the future by adding to knowledge in the present because of the articles it attracted from veteran as well as upcoming researchers. The reader will find here discussions bearing upon texts, as well as discussions bearing upon the authors of texts; discussions devoted to elucidating single passages, as well as discussions exploring instances of intertextuality; and discussions exclusively addressing individual grammars, as well as discussions engaging in the relation of one grammatical school with another.

About the Author

Mrinal Kaul earned his M.A. degree in Sanskrit from St Stephen’s College, University of Delhi and M. St. degree in Oriental Studies (Classical Indology) from the University of Oxford. He also studied Indian Logic and Manuscript- ology in the University of Pune. He maintains his interest in Indian Philosophical literatures and Kashmirian Saiva schools.

Ashok Aklujkar received his M.A. degree in Sanskrit and Pali from the University of Poona and his PhD degree in Sanskrit and Indian Studies from Harvard University. He taught courses in Sanskrit language and in the related mythological and philosophical literatures (occasionally also in Indian belles lettres in general) at the University of British Columbia from 1969 to 2006. His published research is mostly in the areas of Sanskrit linguistic tradition and poetics. Advanced students have worked under his guidance in the areas of Buddhist and Brahmanical philosophy, religion and mythology.

Foreword

This volume titled the Linguistic Traditions of Kashmir covers a subject which, as a single theme or collectivity, is probably unknown to Indology so far. Kashmir served as a cultural confluence for many centuries. It attracted scholars of diverse disciplines, religions and faiths. There was a vigorous intellectual tradition in many fields. Through the early medieval period from cz 800 to 1300 we witness a tremendous intellectual activity going on in Kashmir focusing especially an the Tantric schools of Saivism and on language. However, Kashmir’s contributions to the study of language have not received as much collective attention as its Saivism. Kashmirian schools of grammar were not non-Paninian branches of the Sanskrit grammatical tradition. They survived as more extended versions of the Paninian school in the form of Katantra, Samanvaya and other traditions. The most recent trend of a bilingual approach towards traditional learning of grammar is also exhibited in the Kasmirasabdamrta of Iévara Kaula, which adds a new dimension to the study of language.

Slowly and carefully I have gone through the pages of this volume. Its purpose is to study a unique complex of linguistic sciences and to suggest an outline for future research. The study of language is not confined to grammar alone. Thus Some fundamental issues have been raised in the Introduction of the volume which are pertinent not only to the field of grammar and linguistics but also to many other domains of knowledge in the Indian tradition. The "epistemology" presupposed in Kashmir’s traditions is distinctive and is inter- or multi-disciplinary in its very structure. This allows for various interpretations, which fits the method and nature of "traditional commentaries."

I am truly impressed with the detailed research the contributors have done in putting forward various important theories in the form of subtle discussions, in talking about a range of grammarians, and in identifying and locating hitherto unpublished manuscripts relating to the broad field of "srammar". The last is in itself a painstaking and laborious task which few scholars would have the tenacity to undertake. The editors have assiduously gleaned the relevant details of the unpublished material and drawn attention to the corpus of material of linguistic nature in the appendices to the volume. This material should help in attracting the attention of scholars in the future. The descriptions and listing clearly prove that, despite the earlier efforts to identify and catalogue the unpublished material, there remains a monumental task of cataloguing as also of publication and critical evaluation of the available manuscript material. It is hoped that, either individually or institutionally, there will be a continuation of the editors’ work. Identification, listing, cataloguing, annotating and publishing is time-consuming and not adequately supported. In the case of the Kashmiri manuscripts there is an urgent task to undertake.

The essays of the several distinguished scholars — some who have spent a lifetime studying grammar and linguistics such as George Cardona and Ashok Aklujkar, and others who have reflected for a long time on the interpenetration of Philosophic speculation, "word", sound, meaning and structure as Bettina Baumer — have given the volume a multilayered texture. All these valuable contributions are commendable and welcome. I feel the volume is a contribution of great significance. In addition, the articles in it make the reader aware of the rich material that still demands careful study.

Finally, the single-pointed pursuit to unfold a field as a commemoration of the great but little-known Sanskrit scholar Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa is a praiseworthy act. May the "spirit" which permeates Kashmirian consciousness at its highest and subtlest lead to the distilled wisdom of a knowledge system which will guide the students of Indian traditions despite the outer mala of contemporary Kashmir. I have no doubt that the volume will receive sustained attention of scholars and students in the field.

Preface

The present volume mainly consists of original research papers. It is not a collection or anthology in which specialists of the different aspects of Kashmirian use or study of language were invited to survey the aspects best known to them or to produce a state-of-the-art report about the scholarly study of the aspects. An effort, however, has been made in the Introduction to provide the general background that a reader may need in order to situate the papers in the proper intellectual and historical context. The Introduction further outlines the themes that could and should be particularly explored to lead us to a fuller and sharper understanding of Kashmir’s analytical engagement with language. The appen-dices toward the end of the volume then complement the Introduction by presenting objective and practical information about the manuscripts, etc. of works in Sanskrit.

The volume could connect the results of the work done in the past with the work to be done in the future by adding to Knowledge in the present because of the articles it attracted ‘tom veteran as well as upcoming researchers. No limit was Put on what they could write about, as long as what they wrote about fell in the frame formed by language and Kashmir. They were also free to submit more than one article, as long as the themes of the articles concerned language and Kashmir.

Nor was any exclusive disciplinary focus chosen. As a result, the reader would find here discussions bearing upon texts, as well as discussions bearing upon the authors of texts; discussions devoted to elucidating single passages, as well as discussions exploring instances of intertextuality; and discussions exclusively addressing individual grammars, as well as discussions engaging in the relation of one grammatical school with another.

For the reason indicated above, the papers constituting the present volume have not been arranged in thematic sections. They follow the alphabetical order of the last names of authors. Further, the authors have been given freedom to follow their individual preferences in the matter of abbreviations, use of italic typeface, etc. without sacrificing the uniformity in margins, indentation, etc. that the aesthetics of printing requires.

I have come to be associated with the project of preparing this volume rather late. Originally, my participation was limited to making suggestions to Mrinal Kaul as to which of the researchers known to me were likely to be interested in contributing articles to his projected volume Grammatical Traditions of Kashmir (which later saw a replacement of Grammatical by Linguistic). As the correspondence progressed, my impression of Mrinal initially formed on 13" December 2001, gradually strengthened. I found in him (only through correspondence, for I have not yet met him in person or talked with him on the telephone) a rare young Indian who had an informed passion for Sanskrit and for studying Kashmir’s intellectual heritage and who was capable of making unceasing systematic efforts to put his noble passion to work. At a time in which, unfortunately, very few intellectually gifted Indians turn to Sanskrit studies and even fewer have the vision and the determination to seek out scholars who can help them in improving their qualifications, Mrinal came across as a precious young man deserving all encouragement and guidance. It also occurred to me that it was very important to ensure that Mrinal’s inexperience did not cause failure or denting of a thoroughly justified and timely volume he had initiated. For these reasons, and also because I had a long-standing interest in the linguistic contributions of several Kashmirian authors, the volume project gradually attracted more and more comment from me. My involvement slowly (and recently) reached a point at which taking the step of listing my name as one of the editors began to make sense. The major credit for putting the project together, contacting potential contributors, handling negotiations with promising publishers, reading the proofs, etc., however, must go to Mrinal.

I do not support all of the conclusions arrived at in the articles printed on the subsequent pages. However, I am confident that they will make the readers think and lead to a chiselling of the issues. Such chiselling of the issues sharpens the mind as it brightens the prospects for a resolution of the Issues. I hope that sister volumes offering such resolution will begin to appear before long.

It cannot be doubted that Kashmir’s contribution, through grammar, poetics, philosophy, etc., to thought about language is extraordinary, in fact, unparalleled in other parts of India. Therefore, I would also like to express the hope that the present volume will make Kashmirians think about what it was in the past of their region that enabled their ancestors to reach the pinnacles of intellectual achievement.

Success in meeting the basic needs of most of the populace and maintenance of a generally civil and peaceful society are obviously a precondition in any part of the world if intellectual advancement is to take place. Beyond this, not only tolerance but also a positive interest in preserving diversity seems necessary. Kashmir of the first millennium ce had followers of Vedism/Brahmanism and Buddhism interacting with each other. It had nothing that exactly corresponded to "religion", but it had abundance of religiosity — a combination of spirituality and ethics. What it had that we could include in our modern concept of religion was also largely porous and non-exclusivistic in practice. Philosophical differences, even when strongly articulated and steadfastly held, did not commonly prevent acceptance of different practices for different purposes. There was no suppression of skepticism or of articulation of different view points, which were in some cases diagonally opposite of each other, as in the case of atma- vadins and andtma-vadins or Tantra and non-Tantra ways of thinking. The politics did not consist of unimplementable promises of equality but rested on the robust realism that persons differ in their capabilities and inclinations; the best a society can do is to strive constantly toward fairness. There was near unanimity that if something must be accepted on faith, it was better to repose that faith in living spiritual persons than in some scriptures or claims of historicity and that if scriptures must be accepted, only those interpretations of them were to be accepted which did not militate against the basic values of compassion and honesty.

Introduction

BEFORE coming to the introduction proper I should apologize to the world of linguists and Sanskrit grammarians and confess that I am not a linguist or grammarian. It is only because of my strong wish to ensure that language studies do not die out in Kashmir that I have taken upon myself the compiling and editing of this volume. I am not sufficiently competent in Sanskrit linguistics and am aware that I have no right to work on a topic to which I may not be able to do justice. It is only because I had the full support of Professors Ashok Aklujkar and George Cardona that I have embarked upon this venture. After I pressed very hard, the former accepted to be a co- editor of this volume. I would not be surprised if some scholars wonder at his being the co-editor and not the editor. Before I invited him to be the editor of the volume he was guiding me as a member of the board of advisors for this volume. Even though I had started the project, I realized betore long that I would need the help of a scholar of language-based sciences in editing the volume. Professor Aklujkar was his polite self in accepting the "co-editorship" and not the "editorship". I feel guilty of immodesty in having his name juxtaposed with mine, but I have no other choice in the matter.

The thought of initiating the volume project occurred to me when Pandit Dinanath Yaksa (Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa), a doyen in the field of Sanskrit grammatical exegesis in Kashmir, passed away suddenly on 4" October, 2004. I strongly felt that in his passing away the tradition of grammatical studies in Kashmir had come to a sudden halt. I planned then to bring out a volume focusing on the traditions of language study in Kashmir and dedicate it to the memory of Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa. Before starting the work on my plan, I was quite ignorant about what actually constituted the grammatical tradition of Kashmir and what the planned volume should comprise. All I knew were the words of Dinanatha Yaksa; "Till very recently we were mostly taught Katantra grammar in the traditional Sanskrit schools of Srinagar, and Panini was not given much importance. Only a few teachers taught the Laghu-(vaiyakarana)-siddhantakaumudi or Vaiyakarana- siddhantakaumudi." This statement proved to be a mantra for me.

I started a search and, in the course of it, came across an impressive body of literature on language and grammar produced in Kashmir. My principal sources were the works of Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar, Shripad Krishna Belvalkar, Yudhisthira Mimarhsaka, Harold G. Coward and K. Kunjunni Raja (the last two are to be understood together). In addition, I studied Georg Biihler’s Kashmir Report carefully. It throws much light on what pandits usually studied in the latter half of the nineteenth century in Kashmir. The first hand information gleaned by Biihler from the pandits of his time in Kashmir speaks volumes about the then living tradition in Kashmir. The information is indirectly confirmed to some extent by his acquisition of manuscripts. I was wonders truck when I discovered that there is still much literature either understudied or unpublished. As a consequence, I also listed some topics that might interest the scholars of posterity. Initially, I thought that my main objective should be to highlight all the major grammarians of Kashmir and the works they produced. The title chosen for the volume, therefore, was "Grammatical Traditions of Kashmir." I reasoned that such a volume would be very useful to future students and researchers as a work with which they could start their study of attention paid to the grammatical study of language in Kashmir. As I contacted the veterans of the field and received their contributions, however, I realized that a greater service to Kashmir studies, Sanskrit studies and Indology, and hence a more fitting tribute to the late Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa, would result from combining original research papers with a surveying introduction and informative appendices contributed by me. The title of the volume was, then, accordingly changed to reflect its broader scope.

**Contents and Sample Pages**















Linguistics Traditions of Kashmir

Item Code:
NAW060
Cover:
HARDCOVER
Edition:
2008
ISBN:
9788124604403
Language:
English
Size:
10.00 X 7.00 inch
Pages:
610
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 1.1 Kg
Price:
$65.00   Shipping Free - 4 to 6 days
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About the Book

The present volume mainly consists of original research papers. It is not a collection or anthology in which specialists of the different aspects of Kashmirian use or study of language were invited to write essays surveying the aspects best known to them or to produce state-of-the-art reports about the scholarly study of the aspects. An effort, however, has been made in the Introduction to provide the general background that a reader may need in order to situate the papers in the proper intellectual and historical context. The Introduction further outlines the themes that could and should be particularly explored to lead us to a fuller and sharper understanding of Kashmir’s analytical engagement with language. The appendices toward the end of the volume then complement the Introduction by presenting objective and practical information about the manuscripts etc. of works in Sanskrit.

The volume could connect the results of the work done in the past with the work to be done in the future by adding to knowledge in the present because of the articles it attracted from veteran as well as upcoming researchers. The reader will find here discussions bearing upon texts, as well as discussions bearing upon the authors of texts; discussions devoted to elucidating single passages, as well as discussions exploring instances of intertextuality; and discussions exclusively addressing individual grammars, as well as discussions engaging in the relation of one grammatical school with another.

About the Author

Mrinal Kaul earned his M.A. degree in Sanskrit from St Stephen’s College, University of Delhi and M. St. degree in Oriental Studies (Classical Indology) from the University of Oxford. He also studied Indian Logic and Manuscript- ology in the University of Pune. He maintains his interest in Indian Philosophical literatures and Kashmirian Saiva schools.

Ashok Aklujkar received his M.A. degree in Sanskrit and Pali from the University of Poona and his PhD degree in Sanskrit and Indian Studies from Harvard University. He taught courses in Sanskrit language and in the related mythological and philosophical literatures (occasionally also in Indian belles lettres in general) at the University of British Columbia from 1969 to 2006. His published research is mostly in the areas of Sanskrit linguistic tradition and poetics. Advanced students have worked under his guidance in the areas of Buddhist and Brahmanical philosophy, religion and mythology.

Foreword

This volume titled the Linguistic Traditions of Kashmir covers a subject which, as a single theme or collectivity, is probably unknown to Indology so far. Kashmir served as a cultural confluence for many centuries. It attracted scholars of diverse disciplines, religions and faiths. There was a vigorous intellectual tradition in many fields. Through the early medieval period from cz 800 to 1300 we witness a tremendous intellectual activity going on in Kashmir focusing especially an the Tantric schools of Saivism and on language. However, Kashmir’s contributions to the study of language have not received as much collective attention as its Saivism. Kashmirian schools of grammar were not non-Paninian branches of the Sanskrit grammatical tradition. They survived as more extended versions of the Paninian school in the form of Katantra, Samanvaya and other traditions. The most recent trend of a bilingual approach towards traditional learning of grammar is also exhibited in the Kasmirasabdamrta of Iévara Kaula, which adds a new dimension to the study of language.

Slowly and carefully I have gone through the pages of this volume. Its purpose is to study a unique complex of linguistic sciences and to suggest an outline for future research. The study of language is not confined to grammar alone. Thus Some fundamental issues have been raised in the Introduction of the volume which are pertinent not only to the field of grammar and linguistics but also to many other domains of knowledge in the Indian tradition. The "epistemology" presupposed in Kashmir’s traditions is distinctive and is inter- or multi-disciplinary in its very structure. This allows for various interpretations, which fits the method and nature of "traditional commentaries."

I am truly impressed with the detailed research the contributors have done in putting forward various important theories in the form of subtle discussions, in talking about a range of grammarians, and in identifying and locating hitherto unpublished manuscripts relating to the broad field of "srammar". The last is in itself a painstaking and laborious task which few scholars would have the tenacity to undertake. The editors have assiduously gleaned the relevant details of the unpublished material and drawn attention to the corpus of material of linguistic nature in the appendices to the volume. This material should help in attracting the attention of scholars in the future. The descriptions and listing clearly prove that, despite the earlier efforts to identify and catalogue the unpublished material, there remains a monumental task of cataloguing as also of publication and critical evaluation of the available manuscript material. It is hoped that, either individually or institutionally, there will be a continuation of the editors’ work. Identification, listing, cataloguing, annotating and publishing is time-consuming and not adequately supported. In the case of the Kashmiri manuscripts there is an urgent task to undertake.

The essays of the several distinguished scholars — some who have spent a lifetime studying grammar and linguistics such as George Cardona and Ashok Aklujkar, and others who have reflected for a long time on the interpenetration of Philosophic speculation, "word", sound, meaning and structure as Bettina Baumer — have given the volume a multilayered texture. All these valuable contributions are commendable and welcome. I feel the volume is a contribution of great significance. In addition, the articles in it make the reader aware of the rich material that still demands careful study.

Finally, the single-pointed pursuit to unfold a field as a commemoration of the great but little-known Sanskrit scholar Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa is a praiseworthy act. May the "spirit" which permeates Kashmirian consciousness at its highest and subtlest lead to the distilled wisdom of a knowledge system which will guide the students of Indian traditions despite the outer mala of contemporary Kashmir. I have no doubt that the volume will receive sustained attention of scholars and students in the field.

Preface

The present volume mainly consists of original research papers. It is not a collection or anthology in which specialists of the different aspects of Kashmirian use or study of language were invited to survey the aspects best known to them or to produce a state-of-the-art report about the scholarly study of the aspects. An effort, however, has been made in the Introduction to provide the general background that a reader may need in order to situate the papers in the proper intellectual and historical context. The Introduction further outlines the themes that could and should be particularly explored to lead us to a fuller and sharper understanding of Kashmir’s analytical engagement with language. The appen-dices toward the end of the volume then complement the Introduction by presenting objective and practical information about the manuscripts, etc. of works in Sanskrit.

The volume could connect the results of the work done in the past with the work to be done in the future by adding to Knowledge in the present because of the articles it attracted ‘tom veteran as well as upcoming researchers. No limit was Put on what they could write about, as long as what they wrote about fell in the frame formed by language and Kashmir. They were also free to submit more than one article, as long as the themes of the articles concerned language and Kashmir.

Nor was any exclusive disciplinary focus chosen. As a result, the reader would find here discussions bearing upon texts, as well as discussions bearing upon the authors of texts; discussions devoted to elucidating single passages, as well as discussions exploring instances of intertextuality; and discussions exclusively addressing individual grammars, as well as discussions engaging in the relation of one grammatical school with another.

For the reason indicated above, the papers constituting the present volume have not been arranged in thematic sections. They follow the alphabetical order of the last names of authors. Further, the authors have been given freedom to follow their individual preferences in the matter of abbreviations, use of italic typeface, etc. without sacrificing the uniformity in margins, indentation, etc. that the aesthetics of printing requires.

I have come to be associated with the project of preparing this volume rather late. Originally, my participation was limited to making suggestions to Mrinal Kaul as to which of the researchers known to me were likely to be interested in contributing articles to his projected volume Grammatical Traditions of Kashmir (which later saw a replacement of Grammatical by Linguistic). As the correspondence progressed, my impression of Mrinal initially formed on 13" December 2001, gradually strengthened. I found in him (only through correspondence, for I have not yet met him in person or talked with him on the telephone) a rare young Indian who had an informed passion for Sanskrit and for studying Kashmir’s intellectual heritage and who was capable of making unceasing systematic efforts to put his noble passion to work. At a time in which, unfortunately, very few intellectually gifted Indians turn to Sanskrit studies and even fewer have the vision and the determination to seek out scholars who can help them in improving their qualifications, Mrinal came across as a precious young man deserving all encouragement and guidance. It also occurred to me that it was very important to ensure that Mrinal’s inexperience did not cause failure or denting of a thoroughly justified and timely volume he had initiated. For these reasons, and also because I had a long-standing interest in the linguistic contributions of several Kashmirian authors, the volume project gradually attracted more and more comment from me. My involvement slowly (and recently) reached a point at which taking the step of listing my name as one of the editors began to make sense. The major credit for putting the project together, contacting potential contributors, handling negotiations with promising publishers, reading the proofs, etc., however, must go to Mrinal.

I do not support all of the conclusions arrived at in the articles printed on the subsequent pages. However, I am confident that they will make the readers think and lead to a chiselling of the issues. Such chiselling of the issues sharpens the mind as it brightens the prospects for a resolution of the Issues. I hope that sister volumes offering such resolution will begin to appear before long.

It cannot be doubted that Kashmir’s contribution, through grammar, poetics, philosophy, etc., to thought about language is extraordinary, in fact, unparalleled in other parts of India. Therefore, I would also like to express the hope that the present volume will make Kashmirians think about what it was in the past of their region that enabled their ancestors to reach the pinnacles of intellectual achievement.

Success in meeting the basic needs of most of the populace and maintenance of a generally civil and peaceful society are obviously a precondition in any part of the world if intellectual advancement is to take place. Beyond this, not only tolerance but also a positive interest in preserving diversity seems necessary. Kashmir of the first millennium ce had followers of Vedism/Brahmanism and Buddhism interacting with each other. It had nothing that exactly corresponded to "religion", but it had abundance of religiosity — a combination of spirituality and ethics. What it had that we could include in our modern concept of religion was also largely porous and non-exclusivistic in practice. Philosophical differences, even when strongly articulated and steadfastly held, did not commonly prevent acceptance of different practices for different purposes. There was no suppression of skepticism or of articulation of different view points, which were in some cases diagonally opposite of each other, as in the case of atma- vadins and andtma-vadins or Tantra and non-Tantra ways of thinking. The politics did not consist of unimplementable promises of equality but rested on the robust realism that persons differ in their capabilities and inclinations; the best a society can do is to strive constantly toward fairness. There was near unanimity that if something must be accepted on faith, it was better to repose that faith in living spiritual persons than in some scriptures or claims of historicity and that if scriptures must be accepted, only those interpretations of them were to be accepted which did not militate against the basic values of compassion and honesty.

Introduction

BEFORE coming to the introduction proper I should apologize to the world of linguists and Sanskrit grammarians and confess that I am not a linguist or grammarian. It is only because of my strong wish to ensure that language studies do not die out in Kashmir that I have taken upon myself the compiling and editing of this volume. I am not sufficiently competent in Sanskrit linguistics and am aware that I have no right to work on a topic to which I may not be able to do justice. It is only because I had the full support of Professors Ashok Aklujkar and George Cardona that I have embarked upon this venture. After I pressed very hard, the former accepted to be a co- editor of this volume. I would not be surprised if some scholars wonder at his being the co-editor and not the editor. Before I invited him to be the editor of the volume he was guiding me as a member of the board of advisors for this volume. Even though I had started the project, I realized betore long that I would need the help of a scholar of language-based sciences in editing the volume. Professor Aklujkar was his polite self in accepting the "co-editorship" and not the "editorship". I feel guilty of immodesty in having his name juxtaposed with mine, but I have no other choice in the matter.

The thought of initiating the volume project occurred to me when Pandit Dinanath Yaksa (Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa), a doyen in the field of Sanskrit grammatical exegesis in Kashmir, passed away suddenly on 4" October, 2004. I strongly felt that in his passing away the tradition of grammatical studies in Kashmir had come to a sudden halt. I planned then to bring out a volume focusing on the traditions of language study in Kashmir and dedicate it to the memory of Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa. Before starting the work on my plan, I was quite ignorant about what actually constituted the grammatical tradition of Kashmir and what the planned volume should comprise. All I knew were the words of Dinanatha Yaksa; "Till very recently we were mostly taught Katantra grammar in the traditional Sanskrit schools of Srinagar, and Panini was not given much importance. Only a few teachers taught the Laghu-(vaiyakarana)-siddhantakaumudi or Vaiyakarana- siddhantakaumudi." This statement proved to be a mantra for me.

I started a search and, in the course of it, came across an impressive body of literature on language and grammar produced in Kashmir. My principal sources were the works of Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar, Shripad Krishna Belvalkar, Yudhisthira Mimarhsaka, Harold G. Coward and K. Kunjunni Raja (the last two are to be understood together). In addition, I studied Georg Biihler’s Kashmir Report carefully. It throws much light on what pandits usually studied in the latter half of the nineteenth century in Kashmir. The first hand information gleaned by Biihler from the pandits of his time in Kashmir speaks volumes about the then living tradition in Kashmir. The information is indirectly confirmed to some extent by his acquisition of manuscripts. I was wonders truck when I discovered that there is still much literature either understudied or unpublished. As a consequence, I also listed some topics that might interest the scholars of posterity. Initially, I thought that my main objective should be to highlight all the major grammarians of Kashmir and the works they produced. The title chosen for the volume, therefore, was "Grammatical Traditions of Kashmir." I reasoned that such a volume would be very useful to future students and researchers as a work with which they could start their study of attention paid to the grammatical study of language in Kashmir. As I contacted the veterans of the field and received their contributions, however, I realized that a greater service to Kashmir studies, Sanskrit studies and Indology, and hence a more fitting tribute to the late Pandit Dinanatha Yaksa, would result from combining original research papers with a surveying introduction and informative appendices contributed by me. The title of the volume was, then, accordingly changed to reflect its broader scope.

**Contents and Sample Pages**















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I was very happy to find these great Hindu texts of the ancient times. Been a fan of both Mahabhratham and Ramayanam since I was a small boy. Now the whole family can enjoy these very important cultural texts at home.
Amaranath
Very old customer. service very good.
D K Mishra, USA
I want to switch from Amazon to Exotic India Art. Please keep up good job and competitive prices so that INDIAN community find a value in this website.
Sanjay, USA
I have received my parcel from postman. Very good service. So, Once again heartfully thank you so much to Exotic India.
Parag, India
My previous purchasing order has safely arrived. I'm impressed. My trust and confidence in your business still firmly, highly maintained. I've now become your regular customer, and looking forward to ordering some more in the near future.
Chamras, Thailand
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