About the Author:
Dr. C.C. Uhlenbeck, Extraordinary Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the University of Amsterdam.
The idea of publishing an English edition of my Handboek
der Indische Klankleer (Leiden , Blankenberg & Co. 1894) was
suggested to me by others; but for that suggestion this
translation certainly would not have been undertaken. In
general I have followed the Dutch text: alterations have been
made only, when there were positive inaccuracies in the Dutch
edition or when an alteration had become necessary because
of the progress of comparative philology since 1894. I have
also considerably augmented the references to the scientific
literature and somewhat enlarged the part on the accent. Some
emendations are due to the recensions of Kern, Speyer, Zubaty
[and Johansson], of whose observations and remarks I have
made a grateful use.
I further need only repeat , what I said in the preface to
the Dutch original: the purpose of my having composed this
little handbook is to introduce the student into the compara-
tive-phonetic study of Sanskrit. Though as a rule students
of Classical and Germanic philology do not read Vedic texts,
I have not hesitated to cite words and forms, which had
already become obsolete in the epic and classical language,
mentioning, of course, the fact, that such a word only oc-
curs in Vedic. In general I have avoided to cite Iranic , Li-
thuanian and Slavonic: I know, it is true, that this lessens
the scientific worth of my book, but I do not think it desi-
rable to trouble the student with several languages! which
are either quite unknown to him or which he only just begins
May this edition be of some use to the students in England,
America and India.
1. The Indogermanie family of Janguages. The great
family of languages, to which Sanskrit belongs, is called the
Indogermanic, Indoceltic or Aryan. I prefer the first. name ,
because it is the most usual, though the name Indoceltic may
claim a greater accuracy, The word Indogermanic dates from
a time, when it was not yet proved , that the Celtic dialects
also make part of our family of languages, and indicates by
the combined name of the utmost branches, Indian and Ger-
manic, the whole territory of speech, to which they belong.
Now that it is certain, that Celtic also is a member of our
family, it would be accurate to replace the word Indogermanic
by Indoceltic , because not Germanic, but Celtic is the utmost
branch to the Occident. The name Indogermanic however is
generally adopted and it. would be. impossible to supplant it
by another. By the word Aryan is generally understood a
certain subdivision of the Indogermanic family, viz. the Indo-
Iranian, and therefore it would seam unsuitable to use this
name also for the whole Indogermanic family. See G. Meyer,
Idg. forschungen 2, 125 sqq. ahd Spiegel, Die Arische periode
(Leipzig 1887) VI sq.
The Indogermunic family consists of the following nine
1. Aryan, see 2.
3. Phrygian-Thracian, only known from proper names, glos-
ses and inscriptions.
6. italic, which comprises not only ancient languages of
Italy (Latin, Oscian , Umbrian , Samnitic) , but also the mo-
dern dialects, which have sprung' from popular Latin.
7. Celtic, which is divided into Gallic (the extinct language
of ancient Galli a) , Britannian (Cymric or Welsh, Cornish,
Bas-Breton) and Gaelic (Scotch, Irish, Manx).
8. Germanic, which is commonly divided into an eastern
and a western group. The eastern comprehends Gothic and Scan-
dinavian (Icelandic, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish); to the western
belong English (ill its oldest literary period called Auglosaxon),
Frisian ana German (High- German and Low-German)
9. Balto-Slavonic , which consists of two groups, the Baltic
and the Slavonic. The former is divided into Old-Prussian ,
Lithuanian and Lettish; the latter comprehends Southern-
Slavonic (Ecclesiaetical-Slavonic , Slovenian, Servo-Croatian,
Bulgarian), Russian (Great-Russian, White-Russian, Little-
Russian) and Western-Slavonic (Polish, Wendish , Bohemian
and the extinct Polabic).
About the mutual relations of these groups see J.Schmidt,
Die verwand tschaftsverhaltnisse del' Indogermanischen sprachen
(Weimar 1872) and cf. Brugmann , Zur frage nach den ver-
wandtschaftsverhaltnissen der' Indogermanischen sprachen (Tech-
mer's Internationale Zeitschr. fur allgemeine sprachwissenschaft
1, 226 sqq.),
2. The Aryan group. The Aryan group is divided into
1. Indian, see 3.
Ancient Iranian is handed down to us in two dialects, viz.
Avestian and Old-Persian. Avestian is the language of the
Avesta , the sacred book of the Parsis. The oldest parts of
this Zoroastrian bible date back to many centuries before Christ,
and their language is more archaic than the classical dialect
of the younger Avesta. This oldest Avestian is called the
Gatha-dialect. In Old-Persian we have only the cuneiform in-
scriptions of the Achaemenidian kings, the oldest of which
is that of Darius Hystaspes at Behistan and dates from 520
before Christ. Numerous inscriptions are found on and near
the ruins of Persepolis: the youngest of them is of the middle
of the fourth century before Ghrist. See Bartholomae, Hand-
buch der Altiranischen dialekte (Leipzig 1883), Vorgeschichte
der Iranisehen sprachen (Grundriss der Iranischen philologie I);
Williams Jackson, An Avesta grammar (Part I, Stuttgart
1892) Spiegel, Die Altpersischen Keilinschriften (Leip-
PART IV. ACCENT
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