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Books > History > Modern > Modern India 1857-1964 (Set of 8 Books)
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Modern India 1857-1964 (Set of 8 Books)
Modern India 1857-1964 (Set of 8 Books)
Description

About the Books

 

Book I : Imperialism Colonialism

Book II :Emergence of Organised Nationalism

Book III :Radical Trends, Nationalism and Mahatma Gandhi

Book IV :Nationalism : Inter-War Years-I

Book V : Nationalism : Inter-War Years-II

Book VI : Nationalism : Inter-War Years-III

Book VII :Towards a sovereign State

Book VIII :Independent India : Towards Development 1947-1964

 

Book I

 

Introduction

 

For nearly two hundred years the Indian people faced imperialist and colonial exploitation at the hands of the British. What led to this; What was its impact? are some questions which the historian of Modem India has to answer. For arriving at a true understanding of the transformation of India into a colony it is necessary to have a clear notion of imperialism and colonialism as a world wide phenomenon. It is equally important to analyse how these phenomena operated in particular circumstances existent in our country. The emphasis in this Block is to study these two important aspects related to modem Indian History. Different theoretical approaches to colonialism and imperialism have been reviewed in the first two units of this Block. They take into account the views of both European as well as Indian scholars on the subject. Unit 1 also takes into account the various stages and nature of colonialism in India. Unit 2, while dealing with imperialism at a theoretical level, explains its impact on Indian economy, society and polity.

 

In opposition to British policies, there emerged a national consciousness in the nineteenth century. Unit 3 deals with the various factors that contributed to the growth of this consciousness. Resistance to British rule had always existed but it was in 1857 that a combined effort was made at a national level to overthrow the British authority. Unit 4 deals with various aspects related to this great uprising of 1857 which shook the edifice of British rule. An attempt has also been made, in Unit 5, to familiarize you with the kind of administrative system that was imposed on India under the colonial regime. The administrative system was geared up to protect colonial interests and after the uprising of 1857 certain new measures\were introduced to further tighten the colonial hold In Unit 6, you will see how India became the centre-piece of an imperial system dominating a major part of Asia. This Unit discusses the frontier and foreign policies that the British Raj formulated to consolidate its position in Asia. These policies were obviously governed by the larger interests of British imperialism.

 

Besides this print material we also have for you two video programmes entitled "In Search of History" and "Historiography". There is also an audio programme entitled "Drain of Wealth". These programmes are available at the various study centres of the University'

 

Contents

 

UNIT 1

Imperialism and Colonialism : A Theoretical Perspective

7

UNIT 2

Imperialism : Its Effects

17

UNIT 3

The Rise of National Consciousness

29

UNIT 4

The Revolt of 1857

39

UNIT 5

Colonialism: The New Administrative System-Pre and Post 1857

53

UNIT 6

Consolidation of the Raj: Frontier and Foreign Policy

65

 

Book II

 

Introduction

 

After the great uprising of 1857 the British made strenuous efforts to consolidate their position in India. These efforts were aimed at suppressing any form of dissent against their rule and looking for allies within the Indian ruling class. However, resistance to British rule continued, both in an unorganised and organised form. The first form represented the popular uprisings amongst peasants, tribals, artisans and the newly emerging working class. Unit 7 deals with their struggles which were waged at regional levels. Before discussing the second form i.e. the emergence of organised nationalism, we have Unit 8. In this Unit some basic questions regarding the social reform movements are raised. The social reform movements began to gain influence from the early decades of the 19th century. Did they emerge as a result of the impact of Western ideas? Did they spring up quite independently? Or did they emerge as a sort of defence mechanism against the Western challenge? These are some of the issues raised along with discussing their impact on Indian society and polity. Unit 9 of this block deals with the various aspects related to the formation of the Indian National Congress (the phase of organised resistance). It takes into account the various theories about the foundation of the Congress. Unit 10 tells you about the evolutionary process of the Congress. It discusses the differences in the perceptions of the moderates and the extremists as well as their common objectives.

 

The first major outburst of popular resistance against the British in the 20th 'Century followed the partition of Bengal. This took the form of Swadeshi Movement.

 

Unit II deals with the extent and character of the movement: What were the limitations of the movement? What impact did this movement have on the National Movement as a whole? We have also prepared for you an audio programme entitled "Official Attitude Towards Congress 1885-1905". This will be available at the Study Centres of the University.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 7

Popular Uprisings: Second Half of the 19th Century

5

UNIT 8

Social Reforms in 19th Century' India

23

UNIT 9

Indian National Congress: Formation

31

UNIT 10

Indian National Congress: Moderates and Extremists

45

UNIT 11

Partition of Bengal and the Swadeshi Movement

57

 

Book III

 

Introduction

 

Blocks 1 and 2 of this course familiarised you with the exploitative aspects of colonial rule. You further read how the Indian National Movement was gradually taking an organised shape against this exploitation. However, we cannot study the National Movement in isolation from world events because imperialism and colonialism were a world wide phenomenon. It is' the influence of these events that you will read in the first three units (12, 13 & 14) of this Block.

 

Unit 12 attempts to familiarise you with Marxist and Socialist thought as it affected the direction of the National Movement - particularly from 1920 onwards. Tracing the history of Socialism from its earliest stages, the unit goes on to explain what is meant by scientific socialism.

 

The First World War was a result of the conflict of interest of various imperialist powers. Unit 13 deals with the causes and consequences of the First World War. A brief attempt has also been made to acquaint you with the effects of this war in India.

 

Under the influence of Marxist ideas the socialist movement had gained strength in many European countries. But it was only in 1917 that a successful socialist revolution took place in Russia. Unit 14 describes the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution. It also takes into account the impact this Revolution had on the Indian National Movement.

 

From the closing years of the 19th century there emerged certain radical trends within the Indian National Movement.

 

Unit 15 discusses the emergence of the revolutionary trend and the actions of early revolutionaries in India as well as abroad. The emphasis here has been on the activities of the Ghadar Party. The role of the Home Rule League and the Home Rule League Movement have also been discussed here.

 

Unit 16 is devoted to the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political scene. It takes into account his struggle against the racist regime in South Africa and his interaction with the peasants and workers struggles at regional levels in India. Finally this unit seeks to inform you about the ideology of Mahatma Gandhi, and how this ideology was put into action by him. In this unit we have also discussed the agitation against the Rowlatt Act and the Jalianwala incident.

 

Besides this print material we also have an audio programme related to unit 15. This will be available at the various study centres of IGNOU.

 

Contents

 


 

UNIT 12

Marxist and Socialist Thought

5

UNIT 13

The First World War: Causes and Consequences

17

UNIT 14

The Russian Revolution: Causes, Course and Significance

29

UNIT 15

Revolutionary Trends, Ghadar Party and Home Rule League

45

UNIT 16

Mahatma Gandhi: Emergence in Indian Politics and his Ideology

61

 

Book IV

 

Introduction

 

In Block 2 of this Course we discussed how the Indian National Movement took an organised shape. Gradually the demands of the National Movement increased and in Block 3 you have been introduced to certain events in the iriternational field which had their impact on the Indian National Movement. You have also seen how, with the emergence of Gandhi, the element of mass mobilisation was gradually introduced into the National Movement. In this Block we deal with the various aspects of the National Movement during the inter war years.

 

Unit 17 deals with Constitutional Reforms between 1892 and 1920. This unit introduces you to the various Acts which were passed by the British Parliament to bring about constitutional changes in India. The Unit deals with the factors responsible for these constitutional reforms; the main provisions of the Acts and the impact of these reforms on India.

 

Unit 18 discusses the Non-Cooperation and the Khilafat Movements. We introduce you to the factors responsible for launching these two movements; the shape which these movements took; the response of masses to these movements and the impact of these movements on the National Movement as a whole.

 

Units 19 and 20 are devoted to Reform Movements at regional levels. But at the same time they go on to show how certain regional movements came to be linked up with the National Movement. Unit 19 discusses the Akali Movement. It takes into account the social evils existent in the Sikh Society and the struggle for reforms. At the same time it goes on to discuss the Akali Movement which was directed against the British and had links with the National Movement.

 

Unit 20 discusses the Non-Brahmin Movement in Western and South-East India. It takes into account the social and cultural struggle against the imposition of British ideas as well as the challenges to the traditional social order of Indian society.

 

After the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement, there emerged a new trend in national politics which led to the formation of the Swaraj Party.

 

Unit 21 discusses the formation of this party; its objectives, aims and programmes; the methods adopted by the Swarajists; their work in the legislatures, and ultimately the factors responsible for the decline of the Sawraj Party. In this unit we have also taken into account the constructive work done by the Swarajists. This includes their work-in relation to the propagation of Khadi and fight against untouchability, etc. Finally in Unit 22 an attempt has been made to familiarise you with the communal problems upto 1939. This unit starts with a theoretical discussion of the meaning of communalism and its components. Then it goes on to discuss the various aspects related to this problem like the factors responsible for the emergence of communalism and its impact, etc. during the course of National Movement.

 

Contents

 

 

UNIT 17

Constitutional Reforms: 1892-1920

5

UNIT 18

Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements: 1919-1922

20

UNIT 19

The Akali Movement

36

UNIT 20

The Non-Brahmin Movement in Western and Southern India

50

UNIT 21

The Swarajists and Constructive Work: 1922-29

61

UNIT 22

Growth of Communalism up to the Second World War

78

 

Book V

 

Introduction

 

In this Block an attempt has been made to familiarise you with the various aspects of the Indian National Movement during the 1920s and the 1930s.

 

Unit 23 deals with the impact of literature on the Freedom Movement. Literature played a prominent role in creating an awareness in Indian Society not only in relation to existent social evils, but served as an impetus for national liberation as well. It is not possible to take into account the literature of all the languages that played a role in the National Movement. For the purposes of convenience, the literature of only three languages has been taken into account.

 

In Unit 24 we discuss the revolutionary and terrorist movement in the late 1920s. Here an attempt has been made to describe the objectives and ideology of the Revolutionary Organisations and how they underwent ideological transformation. It also takes into account the origin and nature of Revolutionary Organisations and goes on to discuss the factors responsible for the decline of Revolutionary Terrorism.

 

The second mass movement was launched by the Congress in 1930. Unit 25 describes the reasons for launching the Civil Disobedience Movement. It takes into account the response of various sections towards the movement as well as the pattern of response in the different regions. It also analyses the Gandhi-Irwin Pact; suspension of the movement; and its later phase.

 

Gradually socialist ideas were emerging within the Congress and Unit 26 attempts to familiarise you with the role of Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose in propagating these ideas within and outside the Congress.

 

In Unit 27 we discuss the emergence and growth of the Communist-Party of India. It takes into account the limitation of the Communist Movement and at the same time goes on to discuss its influence on the Working Class and Peasant Movements. This Unit also deals with the formation of the Congress Socialist Party, its programme, and the impact it had on national politics.

 

Unit 28 deals with the growth of Trade Unions and Peasant Movements during the 1920s and 1930s. It discusses the problems faced by the Working Class and the Peasants. It describes the attempts made by them to organise themselves and kinds of movements launched by them.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 23

Freedom Movement and Nationalist Literature

5

UNIT 24

Revolutionary and Terrorist Movement: Bhagat Singh and Chittagong Armoury Raid

19

UNIT 25

Civil Disobedience Movement - 1930 – 1934

30

UNIT 26

Indian National Congress - Socialist Ideas: Role of Nehru and Bose

44

UNIT 27

Growth of Left: Communist Party of India and Congress Socialist Party

56

UNIT 28

Growth of Trade Union and Peasant Movement: 1920s - 1930s

71

 

Book VI

 

Introduction

 

This Block starts with an attempt to familiarise you with the process of Constitutional Reforms during 1920-1935. Unit 29 seeks to examine the various constitutional aspects related to the functioning of Dyarchy in the provinces. Subsequently it deals with the attempts made by Indians for constitutional reforms: appointment of the Simon Commission and the Round Table Conferences. It also deals with the various aspects related to the Act of 1935 and its criticism by the Congress.

 

There emerged a debate within the Congress whether or not to contest the elections, and again after victory the question was whether to form ministries or not. In Unit 30. We have dealt with these aspects, and also the functions and limitations of the Congress Ministries.

 

The Indian Capitalist had their own perception of Nationalism and Unit 31 deals with the growth of Indian Capitalism and the role played by Capitalists in the Freedom Struggle.

 

The Freedom Struggle was being fought in the British Indian Provinces, but the people residing in the princely states were subject to all kinds of exploitation without any democratic rights. As a result of the Freedom Struggle popular struggles emerged in the princely states and in Unit 32 we have discussed them.

 

In September, 1939, the 2nd World War started and this had a direct bearing on India. India was dragged into the War against her wishes and the Congress strongly protested over this. In Unit 33 we have attempted to familiarize you with the causes of this War, the course of this war took and its consequences.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 29

Constitutional Reforms 1921·1935

 

UNIT 30

Elections of 1937 and Congress Ministries

 

UNIT 31

The Growth of Indian Capitalism, the Capitalist Class and the Freedom Struggle

 

UNIT 32

Popular Struggles in the Princely States

 

UNIT 33

World War II: Causes, Course and Consequences

 

 

Book VII

 

Introduction

 

In this Block we attempt to familiarise you with the political events and currents which ultimately forced the British to quit India and led to the emergence of a free India.

 

Unit 34 explains the attitude of Indians towards the Second World War, and how ultimately, the Congress launched the Quit India Movement. It goes on to explain the spread of the Movement, responses of the people towards it, the repressive measures adopted by the British and the overall impact of the Movement on India's struggle for independence. This Unit also takes into account the armed struggle waged by the Indian National Army against the British, and the importance of this struggle.

 

Unit 35 deals with two inter-related themes. Firstly, it goes on to explain the negotiations held between the British and the various Indian political parties to solve constitutional deadlocks, and find a solution for India's independence. Secondly, it takes into account the popular struggles waged by the people at regional levels during 1945-47.

 

By this time Communalism had emerged as a great force in Indian politics, and was proving to be the greatest hurdle in the transfer of power to a United Indian Government. In Unit-36 we have attempted to familiarise you with the role played by communal forces, and how this ultimately led to the partition of the country.

 

'The independence of India was a great event concerning not only India, but the whole world. This was because it unleashed the process of de-colonisation all over the world. But one must remember, that this independence had a drawback, in that it led to the partition of the country.

 

In Unit 37 we have discussed the process of establishment of a Democratic Government in India. This Unit takes into account the constitutional advances made in this field, the role of the Constituent Assembly and the prominent features of the Indian Constitution.

 

Note: The Unit on the role of women in India's Freedom Struggle has been deleted.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 34

Indian Nationalism During World War-II: Quit India Movement and INA

5

UNIT 35

Towards Independence, 1945-47

23

UNIT 36

Communalism and the Partition of British India

43

UNIT 37

Establishment of a Democratic Polity

57

 

 

 

Book VIII

 

Introduction

 

In the last Block (Block VII) we discussed how India attained independence. The attainment of independence for India was a major event related not only to India but for all the exploited colonies as such. From-here onwards started the process of decolonisation all over the world.

 

There were many problems which the leadership of independent India had to solve in order to build a strong country. The leadership took up the challenge and took the people in confidence for tackling various issues. In this Block we deal with some of the major post-1947 problems and the methods adopted to tackle them. A major task was to accomplish the industrial development of India. In Unit 38 we discuss the industrial structure of India at the time of independence, its weaknesses and constraints. The unit goes on to discuss the role of planning in industrial development and how the Five Year plans were put into operation. It also discusses the achievements and limitations of industrial development. Unit 39 discusses the problems in the field of agrarian relations, the planning for land reforms and the social implications of land reforms. The abolition of the Zamindari system was a major achievement and this has also been dealt with in the Unit. Unit 40 discusses the evolution of the Indian foreign policy (1947-64).

 

Before independence India had no independent foreign policy. The British Government persuaded a foreign policy which safeguarded imperialist interests. The Government of free India adopted an independent foreign policy - a policy which aimed at safeguarding the interests of India based on the principles of peaceful co-existence.

 

It also takes into account the relations of India with its neighbours as well as with super powers of the world. The unit also discusses the non-aligned movement and the efforts made by India in the field of disarmament.

 

Unit 41 discusses at theoretical level, the origin and evolution of secularism. it also deals with the way secularism functions in independent India. However, all the above aspects mentioned take into account the period between 1947 and 1964.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 38

Planning and Industrialization in India

5

UNIT 39

Planning and Land Reforms in India

21

UNIT 40

Foreign Policy of India

32

UNIT 41

The Theory and Practice of Secularism in India 1947-1964

50

Modern India 1857-1964 (Set of 8 Books)

Item Code:
NAH114
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Edition:
2010
Language:
English
Size:
11 inch x 8 inch
Pages:
534 (153 B/W Illustrations)
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About the Books

 

Book I : Imperialism Colonialism

Book II :Emergence of Organised Nationalism

Book III :Radical Trends, Nationalism and Mahatma Gandhi

Book IV :Nationalism : Inter-War Years-I

Book V : Nationalism : Inter-War Years-II

Book VI : Nationalism : Inter-War Years-III

Book VII :Towards a sovereign State

Book VIII :Independent India : Towards Development 1947-1964

 

Book I

 

Introduction

 

For nearly two hundred years the Indian people faced imperialist and colonial exploitation at the hands of the British. What led to this; What was its impact? are some questions which the historian of Modem India has to answer. For arriving at a true understanding of the transformation of India into a colony it is necessary to have a clear notion of imperialism and colonialism as a world wide phenomenon. It is equally important to analyse how these phenomena operated in particular circumstances existent in our country. The emphasis in this Block is to study these two important aspects related to modem Indian History. Different theoretical approaches to colonialism and imperialism have been reviewed in the first two units of this Block. They take into account the views of both European as well as Indian scholars on the subject. Unit 1 also takes into account the various stages and nature of colonialism in India. Unit 2, while dealing with imperialism at a theoretical level, explains its impact on Indian economy, society and polity.

 

In opposition to British policies, there emerged a national consciousness in the nineteenth century. Unit 3 deals with the various factors that contributed to the growth of this consciousness. Resistance to British rule had always existed but it was in 1857 that a combined effort was made at a national level to overthrow the British authority. Unit 4 deals with various aspects related to this great uprising of 1857 which shook the edifice of British rule. An attempt has also been made, in Unit 5, to familiarize you with the kind of administrative system that was imposed on India under the colonial regime. The administrative system was geared up to protect colonial interests and after the uprising of 1857 certain new measures\were introduced to further tighten the colonial hold In Unit 6, you will see how India became the centre-piece of an imperial system dominating a major part of Asia. This Unit discusses the frontier and foreign policies that the British Raj formulated to consolidate its position in Asia. These policies were obviously governed by the larger interests of British imperialism.

 

Besides this print material we also have for you two video programmes entitled "In Search of History" and "Historiography". There is also an audio programme entitled "Drain of Wealth". These programmes are available at the various study centres of the University'

 

Contents

 

UNIT 1

Imperialism and Colonialism : A Theoretical Perspective

7

UNIT 2

Imperialism : Its Effects

17

UNIT 3

The Rise of National Consciousness

29

UNIT 4

The Revolt of 1857

39

UNIT 5

Colonialism: The New Administrative System-Pre and Post 1857

53

UNIT 6

Consolidation of the Raj: Frontier and Foreign Policy

65

 

Book II

 

Introduction

 

After the great uprising of 1857 the British made strenuous efforts to consolidate their position in India. These efforts were aimed at suppressing any form of dissent against their rule and looking for allies within the Indian ruling class. However, resistance to British rule continued, both in an unorganised and organised form. The first form represented the popular uprisings amongst peasants, tribals, artisans and the newly emerging working class. Unit 7 deals with their struggles which were waged at regional levels. Before discussing the second form i.e. the emergence of organised nationalism, we have Unit 8. In this Unit some basic questions regarding the social reform movements are raised. The social reform movements began to gain influence from the early decades of the 19th century. Did they emerge as a result of the impact of Western ideas? Did they spring up quite independently? Or did they emerge as a sort of defence mechanism against the Western challenge? These are some of the issues raised along with discussing their impact on Indian society and polity. Unit 9 of this block deals with the various aspects related to the formation of the Indian National Congress (the phase of organised resistance). It takes into account the various theories about the foundation of the Congress. Unit 10 tells you about the evolutionary process of the Congress. It discusses the differences in the perceptions of the moderates and the extremists as well as their common objectives.

 

The first major outburst of popular resistance against the British in the 20th 'Century followed the partition of Bengal. This took the form of Swadeshi Movement.

 

Unit II deals with the extent and character of the movement: What were the limitations of the movement? What impact did this movement have on the National Movement as a whole? We have also prepared for you an audio programme entitled "Official Attitude Towards Congress 1885-1905". This will be available at the Study Centres of the University.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 7

Popular Uprisings: Second Half of the 19th Century

5

UNIT 8

Social Reforms in 19th Century' India

23

UNIT 9

Indian National Congress: Formation

31

UNIT 10

Indian National Congress: Moderates and Extremists

45

UNIT 11

Partition of Bengal and the Swadeshi Movement

57

 

Book III

 

Introduction

 

Blocks 1 and 2 of this course familiarised you with the exploitative aspects of colonial rule. You further read how the Indian National Movement was gradually taking an organised shape against this exploitation. However, we cannot study the National Movement in isolation from world events because imperialism and colonialism were a world wide phenomenon. It is' the influence of these events that you will read in the first three units (12, 13 & 14) of this Block.

 

Unit 12 attempts to familiarise you with Marxist and Socialist thought as it affected the direction of the National Movement - particularly from 1920 onwards. Tracing the history of Socialism from its earliest stages, the unit goes on to explain what is meant by scientific socialism.

 

The First World War was a result of the conflict of interest of various imperialist powers. Unit 13 deals with the causes and consequences of the First World War. A brief attempt has also been made to acquaint you with the effects of this war in India.

 

Under the influence of Marxist ideas the socialist movement had gained strength in many European countries. But it was only in 1917 that a successful socialist revolution took place in Russia. Unit 14 describes the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution. It also takes into account the impact this Revolution had on the Indian National Movement.

 

From the closing years of the 19th century there emerged certain radical trends within the Indian National Movement.

 

Unit 15 discusses the emergence of the revolutionary trend and the actions of early revolutionaries in India as well as abroad. The emphasis here has been on the activities of the Ghadar Party. The role of the Home Rule League and the Home Rule League Movement have also been discussed here.

 

Unit 16 is devoted to the emergence of Mahatma Gandhi on the Indian political scene. It takes into account his struggle against the racist regime in South Africa and his interaction with the peasants and workers struggles at regional levels in India. Finally this unit seeks to inform you about the ideology of Mahatma Gandhi, and how this ideology was put into action by him. In this unit we have also discussed the agitation against the Rowlatt Act and the Jalianwala incident.

 

Besides this print material we also have an audio programme related to unit 15. This will be available at the various study centres of IGNOU.

 

Contents

 


 

UNIT 12

Marxist and Socialist Thought

5

UNIT 13

The First World War: Causes and Consequences

17

UNIT 14

The Russian Revolution: Causes, Course and Significance

29

UNIT 15

Revolutionary Trends, Ghadar Party and Home Rule League

45

UNIT 16

Mahatma Gandhi: Emergence in Indian Politics and his Ideology

61

 

Book IV

 

Introduction

 

In Block 2 of this Course we discussed how the Indian National Movement took an organised shape. Gradually the demands of the National Movement increased and in Block 3 you have been introduced to certain events in the iriternational field which had their impact on the Indian National Movement. You have also seen how, with the emergence of Gandhi, the element of mass mobilisation was gradually introduced into the National Movement. In this Block we deal with the various aspects of the National Movement during the inter war years.

 

Unit 17 deals with Constitutional Reforms between 1892 and 1920. This unit introduces you to the various Acts which were passed by the British Parliament to bring about constitutional changes in India. The Unit deals with the factors responsible for these constitutional reforms; the main provisions of the Acts and the impact of these reforms on India.

 

Unit 18 discusses the Non-Cooperation and the Khilafat Movements. We introduce you to the factors responsible for launching these two movements; the shape which these movements took; the response of masses to these movements and the impact of these movements on the National Movement as a whole.

 

Units 19 and 20 are devoted to Reform Movements at regional levels. But at the same time they go on to show how certain regional movements came to be linked up with the National Movement. Unit 19 discusses the Akali Movement. It takes into account the social evils existent in the Sikh Society and the struggle for reforms. At the same time it goes on to discuss the Akali Movement which was directed against the British and had links with the National Movement.

 

Unit 20 discusses the Non-Brahmin Movement in Western and South-East India. It takes into account the social and cultural struggle against the imposition of British ideas as well as the challenges to the traditional social order of Indian society.

 

After the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement, there emerged a new trend in national politics which led to the formation of the Swaraj Party.

 

Unit 21 discusses the formation of this party; its objectives, aims and programmes; the methods adopted by the Swarajists; their work in the legislatures, and ultimately the factors responsible for the decline of the Sawraj Party. In this unit we have also taken into account the constructive work done by the Swarajists. This includes their work-in relation to the propagation of Khadi and fight against untouchability, etc. Finally in Unit 22 an attempt has been made to familiarise you with the communal problems upto 1939. This unit starts with a theoretical discussion of the meaning of communalism and its components. Then it goes on to discuss the various aspects related to this problem like the factors responsible for the emergence of communalism and its impact, etc. during the course of National Movement.

 

Contents

 

 

UNIT 17

Constitutional Reforms: 1892-1920

5

UNIT 18

Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements: 1919-1922

20

UNIT 19

The Akali Movement

36

UNIT 20

The Non-Brahmin Movement in Western and Southern India

50

UNIT 21

The Swarajists and Constructive Work: 1922-29

61

UNIT 22

Growth of Communalism up to the Second World War

78

 

Book V

 

Introduction

 

In this Block an attempt has been made to familiarise you with the various aspects of the Indian National Movement during the 1920s and the 1930s.

 

Unit 23 deals with the impact of literature on the Freedom Movement. Literature played a prominent role in creating an awareness in Indian Society not only in relation to existent social evils, but served as an impetus for national liberation as well. It is not possible to take into account the literature of all the languages that played a role in the National Movement. For the purposes of convenience, the literature of only three languages has been taken into account.

 

In Unit 24 we discuss the revolutionary and terrorist movement in the late 1920s. Here an attempt has been made to describe the objectives and ideology of the Revolutionary Organisations and how they underwent ideological transformation. It also takes into account the origin and nature of Revolutionary Organisations and goes on to discuss the factors responsible for the decline of Revolutionary Terrorism.

 

The second mass movement was launched by the Congress in 1930. Unit 25 describes the reasons for launching the Civil Disobedience Movement. It takes into account the response of various sections towards the movement as well as the pattern of response in the different regions. It also analyses the Gandhi-Irwin Pact; suspension of the movement; and its later phase.

 

Gradually socialist ideas were emerging within the Congress and Unit 26 attempts to familiarise you with the role of Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose in propagating these ideas within and outside the Congress.

 

In Unit 27 we discuss the emergence and growth of the Communist-Party of India. It takes into account the limitation of the Communist Movement and at the same time goes on to discuss its influence on the Working Class and Peasant Movements. This Unit also deals with the formation of the Congress Socialist Party, its programme, and the impact it had on national politics.

 

Unit 28 deals with the growth of Trade Unions and Peasant Movements during the 1920s and 1930s. It discusses the problems faced by the Working Class and the Peasants. It describes the attempts made by them to organise themselves and kinds of movements launched by them.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 23

Freedom Movement and Nationalist Literature

5

UNIT 24

Revolutionary and Terrorist Movement: Bhagat Singh and Chittagong Armoury Raid

19

UNIT 25

Civil Disobedience Movement - 1930 – 1934

30

UNIT 26

Indian National Congress - Socialist Ideas: Role of Nehru and Bose

44

UNIT 27

Growth of Left: Communist Party of India and Congress Socialist Party

56

UNIT 28

Growth of Trade Union and Peasant Movement: 1920s - 1930s

71

 

Book VI

 

Introduction

 

This Block starts with an attempt to familiarise you with the process of Constitutional Reforms during 1920-1935. Unit 29 seeks to examine the various constitutional aspects related to the functioning of Dyarchy in the provinces. Subsequently it deals with the attempts made by Indians for constitutional reforms: appointment of the Simon Commission and the Round Table Conferences. It also deals with the various aspects related to the Act of 1935 and its criticism by the Congress.

 

There emerged a debate within the Congress whether or not to contest the elections, and again after victory the question was whether to form ministries or not. In Unit 30. We have dealt with these aspects, and also the functions and limitations of the Congress Ministries.

 

The Indian Capitalist had their own perception of Nationalism and Unit 31 deals with the growth of Indian Capitalism and the role played by Capitalists in the Freedom Struggle.

 

The Freedom Struggle was being fought in the British Indian Provinces, but the people residing in the princely states were subject to all kinds of exploitation without any democratic rights. As a result of the Freedom Struggle popular struggles emerged in the princely states and in Unit 32 we have discussed them.

 

In September, 1939, the 2nd World War started and this had a direct bearing on India. India was dragged into the War against her wishes and the Congress strongly protested over this. In Unit 33 we have attempted to familiarize you with the causes of this War, the course of this war took and its consequences.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 29

Constitutional Reforms 1921·1935

 

UNIT 30

Elections of 1937 and Congress Ministries

 

UNIT 31

The Growth of Indian Capitalism, the Capitalist Class and the Freedom Struggle

 

UNIT 32

Popular Struggles in the Princely States

 

UNIT 33

World War II: Causes, Course and Consequences

 

 

Book VII

 

Introduction

 

In this Block we attempt to familiarise you with the political events and currents which ultimately forced the British to quit India and led to the emergence of a free India.

 

Unit 34 explains the attitude of Indians towards the Second World War, and how ultimately, the Congress launched the Quit India Movement. It goes on to explain the spread of the Movement, responses of the people towards it, the repressive measures adopted by the British and the overall impact of the Movement on India's struggle for independence. This Unit also takes into account the armed struggle waged by the Indian National Army against the British, and the importance of this struggle.

 

Unit 35 deals with two inter-related themes. Firstly, it goes on to explain the negotiations held between the British and the various Indian political parties to solve constitutional deadlocks, and find a solution for India's independence. Secondly, it takes into account the popular struggles waged by the people at regional levels during 1945-47.

 

By this time Communalism had emerged as a great force in Indian politics, and was proving to be the greatest hurdle in the transfer of power to a United Indian Government. In Unit-36 we have attempted to familiarise you with the role played by communal forces, and how this ultimately led to the partition of the country.

 

'The independence of India was a great event concerning not only India, but the whole world. This was because it unleashed the process of de-colonisation all over the world. But one must remember, that this independence had a drawback, in that it led to the partition of the country.

 

In Unit 37 we have discussed the process of establishment of a Democratic Government in India. This Unit takes into account the constitutional advances made in this field, the role of the Constituent Assembly and the prominent features of the Indian Constitution.

 

Note: The Unit on the role of women in India's Freedom Struggle has been deleted.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 34

Indian Nationalism During World War-II: Quit India Movement and INA

5

UNIT 35

Towards Independence, 1945-47

23

UNIT 36

Communalism and the Partition of British India

43

UNIT 37

Establishment of a Democratic Polity

57

 

 

 

Book VIII

 

Introduction

 

In the last Block (Block VII) we discussed how India attained independence. The attainment of independence for India was a major event related not only to India but for all the exploited colonies as such. From-here onwards started the process of decolonisation all over the world.

 

There were many problems which the leadership of independent India had to solve in order to build a strong country. The leadership took up the challenge and took the people in confidence for tackling various issues. In this Block we deal with some of the major post-1947 problems and the methods adopted to tackle them. A major task was to accomplish the industrial development of India. In Unit 38 we discuss the industrial structure of India at the time of independence, its weaknesses and constraints. The unit goes on to discuss the role of planning in industrial development and how the Five Year plans were put into operation. It also discusses the achievements and limitations of industrial development. Unit 39 discusses the problems in the field of agrarian relations, the planning for land reforms and the social implications of land reforms. The abolition of the Zamindari system was a major achievement and this has also been dealt with in the Unit. Unit 40 discusses the evolution of the Indian foreign policy (1947-64).

 

Before independence India had no independent foreign policy. The British Government persuaded a foreign policy which safeguarded imperialist interests. The Government of free India adopted an independent foreign policy - a policy which aimed at safeguarding the interests of India based on the principles of peaceful co-existence.

 

It also takes into account the relations of India with its neighbours as well as with super powers of the world. The unit also discusses the non-aligned movement and the efforts made by India in the field of disarmament.

 

Unit 41 discusses at theoretical level, the origin and evolution of secularism. it also deals with the way secularism functions in independent India. However, all the above aspects mentioned take into account the period between 1947 and 1964.

 

Contents

 

UNIT 38

Planning and Industrialization in India

5

UNIT 39

Planning and Land Reforms in India

21

UNIT 40

Foreign Policy of India

32

UNIT 41

The Theory and Practice of Secularism in India 1947-1964

50

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