When Sir John marshall wrote on the Monuments
of india in Cambridge History of India (1922)
considering the cyclopean walls of Rajagriha to be the
ancient most monumental remains of India, expressed his ignorance about
the great monuments of Mohenjodaro underneath the stupa site.
However, in 1921 itself Harappa was established as a catholic site by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni.
In 1922 Prof. R.D. Banerji found similar chalcolothic remains at Mohanjodaro beneath a
Buddhist stupa. Ne conducted excavations at three
sites and submitted a report, bringing thus, entirely
a new civilisation to light.
But what happened to his report ? It was forgotten for long, though submitted to the then
Director General of Archaeology in about 1926.
R. D. Banerji submitted it as first report on Mohenjodaro for immediate attention and publications by
|the Department of Archaeology, Government of
India along with illustrations and photographs in profusion.
Sir John Marshall concealed the report for four
years and when he prepared his own report on
Mohenjodaro he returned it on 16th January, 1930.
He did not return the original copy by R. D. Banerji
which he retained with himself; but a type-copy
was sent to R. D. Banerji, when he left the department and joined Banaras Hindu University as Manindra Chandra Nandi Professor. The typed copy was
returned not by Marshall but by H. Hargreaves,
As the letter shows, the basis for returning the
type - script was disagreement of Marshall and
R. D. Banerji on the interpretation of antiquities.
He abused the report as diffused and irrelevant.
Even then he showed his intention that if he takes
some material from this report, he would acknowedge (which of course he never did). He also
insisted that Prof. Banerji should publish this report ,
prior to his own publication on Mohenjodaro.
But where was the time left ? He returned the.
duplicate typescript in 1930 and in 1931, he brought his own volumes Mohenjodaro and the Indus civilization.. Considering the inadequate printing
facilities during those days and the fact that the
returned report was incomplete, that span of time
of one year was too short. Moreover, the photographs submitted along with the original report by ,
R. D. Banerji were retained by Marshall himself.
Despite several requests, neither the full and
original report, nor the photographs were returned
So mere courtesy suggestion that in order to
avoid misunderstanding he should publish his report
prior to Marshall, as a matter of fact was not only
ridiculous and impractical, but also disgusting.
Now, when it is not a concealed fact that R. D.
Banerji was first to identify Mohenjodaro, as a
chalcolithic city, scholars were in hunt for the
original report of Mohenjodaro. We somehow
procured the report and in order to demonstrate its
authenticity in more faithful way, we are publishing
the report as it was available to us. Scholars are
invited to give their judgement not only on the
factual matter, but also on the whole approach of ,
Marshall towards Banerji.
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