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Books > Hindu > Gita > Philosophy > Ontology of Gita
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Ontology of Gita
Ontology of Gita
Description

About the Book

 

In the present study under a theoretical framework - thesis, anti - thesis and synthesis of Lord Krishna s dialogues in Gita, the conceptual clarity of ontology and epistemology has been spelled-out to acknowledge the path of Truth (sat) - Righteousness (dharma) in the human society. The concept of Self (atman) and percept of Super Self (paramatma)- as a subjective and objective stimuli of love, faith and belief system has been described as Hiranyagarbha for recycling the birth (Being) and death (Non-Being). To achieve the tangible results of supreme goal of life (salvation) positive doctrine - monism, dualism and pluralism of Eastern and Western Philosophers, Greek Naturalist, Buddhist Philosophy of Platonist in logic has been explored in moral and transcendental metaphysics. This study presents an appraisal about the unity of Supreme Absolute Truth (God) with Man.

 

This Volume on ‘Ontology of Gita, encompasses an empirical, self objective, substantial, transcendental and absolute thoughts, projects a holistic picture of the form - Jnanam (knowledge) and content-Vijnanam (science) may lead to the Self near Super-Self by creative and universally acknowledged accounting system of KARMA. The notion of ‘Freedom of Will, has been measured and rationalised by pure reason and selfless motive i.e. ‘niskamkarmayoga,. A systematic and harmonious synthesis of ‘macrocism, and ‘microcism, analysis of thought process highlights the results of examination of theosophic dimension and functional implications of Action (karma) leading towards, Being, to ‘Becoming, in a just society.

 

Hope, this book shall add a new vista of knowledge in exploring a fruitful path of resurrection of humanity. The success of this study lies in delimiting the religious nuance for preservation of nature and creating a new consciousness for prolonging human life after safeguarding the crises - ethical, moral, social, spiritual and transcendental by the humanistic and rational approach of Positive Philosophy of Action.

 

About the Author

 

Dr. B.M Verma (1935) M.A. Ph-D (Gold Medalist), Senior Fellow of Indian I Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR), (Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, New Delhi) is Known internationally as a Rural Sociologist Member of Asian Rural Sociological Working Group Gokuin University, Tokyo (Japan). An Educationalist, author of eight books including Bhagavad Gita Darshan Ka Karma Sidhanta, contributed many research papers to professional Journals and books brought out at National and International Forum. Dr. Verma imparted teaching and training to senior and middle level Civil Servants at the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. He has contributed country papers to the IX World Congress of Rural Sociology, participated in several Seminars. Conferences and Workshops organized by APDC, EROPA, ESCAP, FAO, KAF, NIDA, ODA, UNDP, and UNO

 

Foreword

 

Ontology of Gita by Dr. Bishan Mohan Verma represents a work which is deeply inspired by author,s spiritual devotion and scholarly commitment. Apart from the philosophical and metaphysical exegesis that this work offers on a very complex theme, its central message is contemporaneous. Its relevance lies in the reiteration of the acute significance that the vision enunciated in Srimad Bhagavad Gita, has for humanity today. The world and the human civilization are passing through a phase of unprecedented crises which emanates on many dimensions of human existence. The threat of global ecological decay resulting mainly from the thoughtless and rapacious uses of nature to serve hedonistic consumerism, the inter-faith distrust and violence perpetrated by the zealotry ofa few unmindful of the hurts it causes to humanity and to the basic messages of compassion and universalism which all religions and faiths share in common; the indifference of the rich and the privileged towards the poverty and miseries of the poor, the marginalized and the exploited amongst us and the increasing stresses and tensions in the lives of even those who are placed in a relatively better social and economic position in society, are some of the urgent manifestations of the contradictions and crises that we face today that call for a return to a spiritual and moral worldview of which Gita is a supreme embodiment.

 

The essential facets of Dr. Verma,s thesis could be summed up in four broad dimensions: firstly, he successfully enunciates the holistic cosmological, metaphysical and moral anchorage of the message that Gita offers to us. Its focus upon the ‘yoga, explicates the integral philosophy of universalism, humanism and integrative relationship of humans with the natural and cosmic forces. This integration must be achieved not only in the spiritual realm but also in the moral order of society and the phenomenology of human nature. Secondly, this work transcends the civilizational boundaries of the East and West in respect of its central propositions whether located in philosophy, divinity or sociology. In his analysis, Dr. Verma consistently draws parallels with works of the major western philosophers, (philosophical traditions) and contributions of prominent sociologists and social philosophers.

 

The third aspect of his contribution lies in his formulations of the ‘functional implications, of Gita for humankind at its contemporary juncture of crises. Essentially it implies the regeneration of spiritual or divine consciousness which embody the principles of harmony and unity at the multiple levels, mind and matter, spiritual and social, transcendent and here-and - now and faith and reason. The commitment to the moral order derived from these principles, according to the author, should open up a new pathway for resurrection of humanity from its contemporary travails. Finally, an attempt has been made by Dr. Verma to locate the divine message of Gita in a discourse that is multidisciplinary which, needless to say, is essential to capture the epistemology and ontology of Gita.

 

I hope that the message that author wishes to convey to a wider circle of readers would be received with empathy and enthusiasm and the contemporary relevance of this message would be fully recognized.

 

Preface

 

The present study on ontology of Gita sketches a broad dimension under its fold a scientific knowledge of theory and practice of manifest and unmanifest relationship of Atman (self) and Paramatma (supreme-self). In search of down-loaded Ultimate Reality (Truth), the subject of mind (nature) and Spirit (consciousness) depicts a holistic picture of the predicament of Lord Krishna under a gamut of Samkhya and Karma Yoga philosophy of Srimad Bhagavad Gita. This study is planned to rectify the conceptual clarity of cosmic reality and authenticity of different postulates, form part of Theosophist, Polymatics such as monism (advaita), dualism (dvaita), pluralism, absolutism, idealism, realism, theism (transcendentalism) and pantheism as propounded by the orthodox and heterodox school of thoughts. To rationalize a false or true proposition of consciousness that ‘Man Created God, is formulated as ‘God Created Man, distorts one,s own self-identity in the cosmos, but, often helps in establishing a linkage between imagination and thought-process in a time dimension is wholly governed by logic and intellectual influences. The focus of the study, therefore, is in the theoretical context within which, the inter-relationship of means (Religion) and end (Philosophy) is eminated by a noble process of metaphysics. The concept of ontology is defined in relation to epistemology to achieve the tangible results of truth (Absolute Reality). In fact, all the notions of Dharma (religion), Karma (action), Jnana (knowledge) and Bhakti (devotion) are the sole-properties of idea, ideology, faith and belief system of man. Accordingly, attitude and aptitude are formed by the notion of ‘Free- Will, of Man and ‘General Will, of God. The sum-total of different views and convictions are still struggling hard against the paradox of Truth (sat-Being) and Non-Truth (asat-Non-Being). This can be verified by philosophy, religion, history, sociology, psychology, law and ethics (morality). The apparent reality (Truth) is still existed in the minds of men, form part of social conditioning, maintaining an unique position, propagating a new culture from idealism to realism in the Absolute philosophy of life. In operative term, absolute philosophy is a reflection of real- state of consciousness, striving hard to achieve the excellence in performing ‘niskamkarmayoga, which is duly acclaimed by the commentaries of learned scholars, religious-masters, poets, lovers and philosophers.

 

It is said that man is ‘homo-fiber, (man the technician) rather than ‘homo-sapiens, (man possessor of a Consciousness and a Will). The interlocking of ‘divine interest, under the command and respect of a supremo - the highest consciousness of Super-self (Brahman - imaginative; Paramatma - imperative objective thought provoking self- objective, pure objective thought and substantial spiritual thought of Eshwara, Bhagawan or God and Absolute transcendental thought) may be nomenclatured by different names such as ‘om tat sat,, ‘saccidanand ‘, ‘tat-tavam-asi, - Thou-art-that (Chandogya Upanishad - 6), ‘ayan atma asi,.- This atman is Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad - 2), “ahaim brahmasmi, - I am Brahman (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad-1-4-10), ‘prajnain brahman, - consciousness is Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad - 5 - 3). This shows that Individual soul is identical with Absolute representing, ‘Sat yam, Shivam, Sundaram” (Truth, Love and Beauty). The soul (Atman) as a simple and single most important element in the Bhagavad- Gita is defined and recognized for conflict-resolution and call for a device of managing the action-oriented: karma ‘ (duty) in a right perspective. In other words, soul is an element of pure-consciousness often direct the mind (nature) to obey the rule of law - an inner voice of consciousness, an absolute unity and an analytical thought by meditation strategy to carry forward the subjective and objective stimuli of action in the form of religion and acts in accordance with the prescribed duty without any attachment to the fruits of action. This notion of karma (action) amongst the poor and uneducated may lead to fatalism and superstition. Orthodox school of philosophy claimed that efficacy of ‘karma, and ‘jnanan, runs through the centuries and correct performance of karma is converted into ritual activity to acclaim the ideology of transmigration. Law of ‘karma, presupposes a cause and effect relationship and may lead to desired results - wealth, off springs, heaven and immorality. In the mysticism of monistic, theistic and nihilistic philosophy, different theological streams (channels) -dialectic of Vedanticneti-neti ‘, Buddhist ‘sunyata ‘(emptiness) and Taoist - ‘namelessness, - are floating to abstrain or refrain away from genuine love to God. This shows that the concept of Hindu theology is fastly entering in the anti-node arena of theosophy (Brahma Vidhya). The concept of Absolute Truth (sat), Consciousness (cit) and Bliss (anand) still stands as a path-finder to obey the super goal of life - a source of redemption, salvation, liberation, ‘moksha,, ‘vimoksha,, ‘kaivallya, and ‘nirvana,. It should be noted that to maintain cosmic equilibrium several primordial- natural, religious, ethical moral code of conduct are to be followed. Different mode of interpretation of nature (mind) and consciousness (spirit) in the form of worshiping the Deity and Godheads failed to arrive at a positive philosophy of action (Karma) in a true form and content as prescribed in the Bhagavad-Gita. As such, different doctrines of Ontology - (Cosmic vision, God head vision, Emotional vision, Suspicious vision and Ideal vision) propagated by Scholars, Philosophers and Religious Masters without any objective and concluding evidences and also net result of the dialogues of Lord Krishna and Arjuna over the question of Karma (duty) and Dharma (religion) in their own style and life pattern, unable to generate tangible results to obey. Their one sided view of ontological and epistemological knowledge has not paid any heed on the object of infinite reality as propounded in the four Vedas - Rig, Yajur, Sam, Atharva. Even the operation of Free-Will to individual - a gift of Gita - is circumventing with the General-Will of God. Futile attempts have been made for individual self-realization, but the enlargement of self-realization of others for enlightenment of humanity, at large, in the universe has left at the mercy of Godhead. Not only this, so called spirituality of man who acclaims - Aham Brahmasmi (I am Brahma), may create fatal future results and undesirable consequences on the survival ship of society. It is striking to note that hardly any effort has been made to waive the paradoxical relationship between philosophy (Darshan) and religion (Dharma). Occult sciences preach for visible and invisible intuitive insight for perpetuating individual ‘self-dharma, by adopting different mode and manners, cult and dogmas at the wishes and whims of different ego-centric personalities at a given social and cultural milieu. In operation, the stipulated different goals of philosophy and religion cannot go together to achieve the Ultimate Reality of Absolute Truth (Brahman). “The world view is characterized by a dual quality (synthic and substitutive) adds a dialectical quality to its cognitive structure” (Singh, Yogendra - Image of Man - 1984-p25). Thus, the use of trinity - religion, knowledge and action - in isolation is still lumping under the divergent opinion of philosophy - an endless pursuit of knowledge. There seems to be an urgent need of positive approach to marry (establishing organic linkages) religion (Dharma) with philosophy (Darshan) so as the battle of God and Absolute Truth may be settled forever. To conclude, the infinitive reality in the universe can be sustained only by self-purification which may lead to a new goal to persist humanity and to reach towards a climax of culture and civilization.

 

The subject of ontology as a part and parcel of metaphysics has ever remained immortal in self-realization of the Ultimate Reality of mind and spirit. Under a theoretical framework-thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis - of the Lord Krishna,s dialogues in Gita, the conceptual clarity of the ontology has been spelled-out to acknowledge the path of truth-righteousness (Dharma) in human society. To understand the Supreme Reality (Brahman) in the Cosmos by the help of ontological and epistemological knowledge, this research study is divided into seven Chapters. In the First Chapter - ‘Introduction, - the nature and importance of ‘Brahman, - a Supreme Reality recognised by Ancient Indian Seers, as also presented in the Bhagavad-gita for conflict-resolution, has been discussed under the arena of Samkhya (knowledge) and Karma (action) Yoga Philosophy. In the Second Chapter - ‘Cosmology, - the relationship of Soul (atman) with Supreme Reality has been described as “Hlranyagarbha” for recycling the birth (Being) and death (Non-Being) to search out divinity along with the chief characteristics of Bhagavad-gita. In the Third Chapter- ‘Metaphysics, - the characteristics of cosmic reality and spiritualism have critically been analyse on the basis of postulates propounded by the orthodox and the heterodox philosophical school of thoughts for achieving the source of redemption (salvation) through implicit ‘niskamkarmayoga,. In the Fourth chapter - ‘Religions Consciousness, - the concept of , saccidanand, (sat, cit, anand) - the relationship of Absolute and Non Absolute Reality of Dharma and Karma, has been reviewed under the positive doctrine of Eastern and Westerner Philosophers to achieve the tangible results of supreme goal of life. In the Fifth Chapter - ‘An Appraisal-’ objective analysis has been made about the predicament of Lord Krishna with regard to ‘Dharma, - a notion of independent free-will, an ethical doctrine of action-orientated proclamation of Absolute Reality (God) for self-preservation, sustainance of philosophy and growth of human life in the cosmos. In the Sixth Chapter - Summation-theosophic dimension and functional implications of Ontology of Gita, is depicted in the caption of Freedom of Will. In, the Seventh Chapter - Conclusion has been drawn about true nature of mind and spirit and its interrelationship of Individual Self (atman) with Supreme Self (paramatma). In appendix, under a Positive Philosophy of Action - a synthesis of Supreme Absolute Truth (God), - Integral Yoga, Goal of Life and Path of Duty-has been presented in a broader frame of Ontological and Epistemological knowledge to reinforce rationality or positivism. In the end, the Philosophy of Devas (Dev Darshan) has been reconceptualated to acknowledge the scientific truth of the Universe for self realization.

 

Contents

 

Foreword

vii

Acknowledgements

xi

Preface

xiii

Chapters

1.

Introduction

1

2.

Cosmology

11

3.

Metaphysics

26

4.

Religious Consciousness

45

5.

An Appraisal

69

6.

Summation

90

7.

Conclusion

117

Appendices

(i)

Positive Philosophy of Action

146

(ii)

Dev Darshan (Philosophy of Devas)

172

References

190

Bibliography

195

Index

199

 

Ontology of Gita

Item Code:
NAG629
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2010
Publisher:
ISBN:
9788174876799
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
224
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 390 gms
Price:
$23.00
Discounted:
$17.25   Shipping Free
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About the Book

 

In the present study under a theoretical framework - thesis, anti - thesis and synthesis of Lord Krishna s dialogues in Gita, the conceptual clarity of ontology and epistemology has been spelled-out to acknowledge the path of Truth (sat) - Righteousness (dharma) in the human society. The concept of Self (atman) and percept of Super Self (paramatma)- as a subjective and objective stimuli of love, faith and belief system has been described as Hiranyagarbha for recycling the birth (Being) and death (Non-Being). To achieve the tangible results of supreme goal of life (salvation) positive doctrine - monism, dualism and pluralism of Eastern and Western Philosophers, Greek Naturalist, Buddhist Philosophy of Platonist in logic has been explored in moral and transcendental metaphysics. This study presents an appraisal about the unity of Supreme Absolute Truth (God) with Man.

 

This Volume on ‘Ontology of Gita, encompasses an empirical, self objective, substantial, transcendental and absolute thoughts, projects a holistic picture of the form - Jnanam (knowledge) and content-Vijnanam (science) may lead to the Self near Super-Self by creative and universally acknowledged accounting system of KARMA. The notion of ‘Freedom of Will, has been measured and rationalised by pure reason and selfless motive i.e. ‘niskamkarmayoga,. A systematic and harmonious synthesis of ‘macrocism, and ‘microcism, analysis of thought process highlights the results of examination of theosophic dimension and functional implications of Action (karma) leading towards, Being, to ‘Becoming, in a just society.

 

Hope, this book shall add a new vista of knowledge in exploring a fruitful path of resurrection of humanity. The success of this study lies in delimiting the religious nuance for preservation of nature and creating a new consciousness for prolonging human life after safeguarding the crises - ethical, moral, social, spiritual and transcendental by the humanistic and rational approach of Positive Philosophy of Action.

 

About the Author

 

Dr. B.M Verma (1935) M.A. Ph-D (Gold Medalist), Senior Fellow of Indian I Council of Social Sciences Research (ICSSR), (Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, New Delhi) is Known internationally as a Rural Sociologist Member of Asian Rural Sociological Working Group Gokuin University, Tokyo (Japan). An Educationalist, author of eight books including Bhagavad Gita Darshan Ka Karma Sidhanta, contributed many research papers to professional Journals and books brought out at National and International Forum. Dr. Verma imparted teaching and training to senior and middle level Civil Servants at the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. He has contributed country papers to the IX World Congress of Rural Sociology, participated in several Seminars. Conferences and Workshops organized by APDC, EROPA, ESCAP, FAO, KAF, NIDA, ODA, UNDP, and UNO

 

Foreword

 

Ontology of Gita by Dr. Bishan Mohan Verma represents a work which is deeply inspired by author,s spiritual devotion and scholarly commitment. Apart from the philosophical and metaphysical exegesis that this work offers on a very complex theme, its central message is contemporaneous. Its relevance lies in the reiteration of the acute significance that the vision enunciated in Srimad Bhagavad Gita, has for humanity today. The world and the human civilization are passing through a phase of unprecedented crises which emanates on many dimensions of human existence. The threat of global ecological decay resulting mainly from the thoughtless and rapacious uses of nature to serve hedonistic consumerism, the inter-faith distrust and violence perpetrated by the zealotry ofa few unmindful of the hurts it causes to humanity and to the basic messages of compassion and universalism which all religions and faiths share in common; the indifference of the rich and the privileged towards the poverty and miseries of the poor, the marginalized and the exploited amongst us and the increasing stresses and tensions in the lives of even those who are placed in a relatively better social and economic position in society, are some of the urgent manifestations of the contradictions and crises that we face today that call for a return to a spiritual and moral worldview of which Gita is a supreme embodiment.

 

The essential facets of Dr. Verma,s thesis could be summed up in four broad dimensions: firstly, he successfully enunciates the holistic cosmological, metaphysical and moral anchorage of the message that Gita offers to us. Its focus upon the ‘yoga, explicates the integral philosophy of universalism, humanism and integrative relationship of humans with the natural and cosmic forces. This integration must be achieved not only in the spiritual realm but also in the moral order of society and the phenomenology of human nature. Secondly, this work transcends the civilizational boundaries of the East and West in respect of its central propositions whether located in philosophy, divinity or sociology. In his analysis, Dr. Verma consistently draws parallels with works of the major western philosophers, (philosophical traditions) and contributions of prominent sociologists and social philosophers.

 

The third aspect of his contribution lies in his formulations of the ‘functional implications, of Gita for humankind at its contemporary juncture of crises. Essentially it implies the regeneration of spiritual or divine consciousness which embody the principles of harmony and unity at the multiple levels, mind and matter, spiritual and social, transcendent and here-and - now and faith and reason. The commitment to the moral order derived from these principles, according to the author, should open up a new pathway for resurrection of humanity from its contemporary travails. Finally, an attempt has been made by Dr. Verma to locate the divine message of Gita in a discourse that is multidisciplinary which, needless to say, is essential to capture the epistemology and ontology of Gita.

 

I hope that the message that author wishes to convey to a wider circle of readers would be received with empathy and enthusiasm and the contemporary relevance of this message would be fully recognized.

 

Preface

 

The present study on ontology of Gita sketches a broad dimension under its fold a scientific knowledge of theory and practice of manifest and unmanifest relationship of Atman (self) and Paramatma (supreme-self). In search of down-loaded Ultimate Reality (Truth), the subject of mind (nature) and Spirit (consciousness) depicts a holistic picture of the predicament of Lord Krishna under a gamut of Samkhya and Karma Yoga philosophy of Srimad Bhagavad Gita. This study is planned to rectify the conceptual clarity of cosmic reality and authenticity of different postulates, form part of Theosophist, Polymatics such as monism (advaita), dualism (dvaita), pluralism, absolutism, idealism, realism, theism (transcendentalism) and pantheism as propounded by the orthodox and heterodox school of thoughts. To rationalize a false or true proposition of consciousness that ‘Man Created God, is formulated as ‘God Created Man, distorts one,s own self-identity in the cosmos, but, often helps in establishing a linkage between imagination and thought-process in a time dimension is wholly governed by logic and intellectual influences. The focus of the study, therefore, is in the theoretical context within which, the inter-relationship of means (Religion) and end (Philosophy) is eminated by a noble process of metaphysics. The concept of ontology is defined in relation to epistemology to achieve the tangible results of truth (Absolute Reality). In fact, all the notions of Dharma (religion), Karma (action), Jnana (knowledge) and Bhakti (devotion) are the sole-properties of idea, ideology, faith and belief system of man. Accordingly, attitude and aptitude are formed by the notion of ‘Free- Will, of Man and ‘General Will, of God. The sum-total of different views and convictions are still struggling hard against the paradox of Truth (sat-Being) and Non-Truth (asat-Non-Being). This can be verified by philosophy, religion, history, sociology, psychology, law and ethics (morality). The apparent reality (Truth) is still existed in the minds of men, form part of social conditioning, maintaining an unique position, propagating a new culture from idealism to realism in the Absolute philosophy of life. In operative term, absolute philosophy is a reflection of real- state of consciousness, striving hard to achieve the excellence in performing ‘niskamkarmayoga, which is duly acclaimed by the commentaries of learned scholars, religious-masters, poets, lovers and philosophers.

 

It is said that man is ‘homo-fiber, (man the technician) rather than ‘homo-sapiens, (man possessor of a Consciousness and a Will). The interlocking of ‘divine interest, under the command and respect of a supremo - the highest consciousness of Super-self (Brahman - imaginative; Paramatma - imperative objective thought provoking self- objective, pure objective thought and substantial spiritual thought of Eshwara, Bhagawan or God and Absolute transcendental thought) may be nomenclatured by different names such as ‘om tat sat,, ‘saccidanand ‘, ‘tat-tavam-asi, - Thou-art-that (Chandogya Upanishad - 6), ‘ayan atma asi,.- This atman is Brahman (Mandukya Upanishad - 2), “ahaim brahmasmi, - I am Brahman (Brhadaranyaka Upanishad-1-4-10), ‘prajnain brahman, - consciousness is Brahman (Aitareya Upanishad - 5 - 3). This shows that Individual soul is identical with Absolute representing, ‘Sat yam, Shivam, Sundaram” (Truth, Love and Beauty). The soul (Atman) as a simple and single most important element in the Bhagavad- Gita is defined and recognized for conflict-resolution and call for a device of managing the action-oriented: karma ‘ (duty) in a right perspective. In other words, soul is an element of pure-consciousness often direct the mind (nature) to obey the rule of law - an inner voice of consciousness, an absolute unity and an analytical thought by meditation strategy to carry forward the subjective and objective stimuli of action in the form of religion and acts in accordance with the prescribed duty without any attachment to the fruits of action. This notion of karma (action) amongst the poor and uneducated may lead to fatalism and superstition. Orthodox school of philosophy claimed that efficacy of ‘karma, and ‘jnanan, runs through the centuries and correct performance of karma is converted into ritual activity to acclaim the ideology of transmigration. Law of ‘karma, presupposes a cause and effect relationship and may lead to desired results - wealth, off springs, heaven and immorality. In the mysticism of monistic, theistic and nihilistic philosophy, different theological streams (channels) -dialectic of Vedanticneti-neti ‘, Buddhist ‘sunyata ‘(emptiness) and Taoist - ‘namelessness, - are floating to abstrain or refrain away from genuine love to God. This shows that the concept of Hindu theology is fastly entering in the anti-node arena of theosophy (Brahma Vidhya). The concept of Absolute Truth (sat), Consciousness (cit) and Bliss (anand) still stands as a path-finder to obey the super goal of life - a source of redemption, salvation, liberation, ‘moksha,, ‘vimoksha,, ‘kaivallya, and ‘nirvana,. It should be noted that to maintain cosmic equilibrium several primordial- natural, religious, ethical moral code of conduct are to be followed. Different mode of interpretation of nature (mind) and consciousness (spirit) in the form of worshiping the Deity and Godheads failed to arrive at a positive philosophy of action (Karma) in a true form and content as prescribed in the Bhagavad-Gita. As such, different doctrines of Ontology - (Cosmic vision, God head vision, Emotional vision, Suspicious vision and Ideal vision) propagated by Scholars, Philosophers and Religious Masters without any objective and concluding evidences and also net result of the dialogues of Lord Krishna and Arjuna over the question of Karma (duty) and Dharma (religion) in their own style and life pattern, unable to generate tangible results to obey. Their one sided view of ontological and epistemological knowledge has not paid any heed on the object of infinite reality as propounded in the four Vedas - Rig, Yajur, Sam, Atharva. Even the operation of Free-Will to individual - a gift of Gita - is circumventing with the General-Will of God. Futile attempts have been made for individual self-realization, but the enlargement of self-realization of others for enlightenment of humanity, at large, in the universe has left at the mercy of Godhead. Not only this, so called spirituality of man who acclaims - Aham Brahmasmi (I am Brahma), may create fatal future results and undesirable consequences on the survival ship of society. It is striking to note that hardly any effort has been made to waive the paradoxical relationship between philosophy (Darshan) and religion (Dharma). Occult sciences preach for visible and invisible intuitive insight for perpetuating individual ‘self-dharma, by adopting different mode and manners, cult and dogmas at the wishes and whims of different ego-centric personalities at a given social and cultural milieu. In operation, the stipulated different goals of philosophy and religion cannot go together to achieve the Ultimate Reality of Absolute Truth (Brahman). “The world view is characterized by a dual quality (synthic and substitutive) adds a dialectical quality to its cognitive structure” (Singh, Yogendra - Image of Man - 1984-p25). Thus, the use of trinity - religion, knowledge and action - in isolation is still lumping under the divergent opinion of philosophy - an endless pursuit of knowledge. There seems to be an urgent need of positive approach to marry (establishing organic linkages) religion (Dharma) with philosophy (Darshan) so as the battle of God and Absolute Truth may be settled forever. To conclude, the infinitive reality in the universe can be sustained only by self-purification which may lead to a new goal to persist humanity and to reach towards a climax of culture and civilization.

 

The subject of ontology as a part and parcel of metaphysics has ever remained immortal in self-realization of the Ultimate Reality of mind and spirit. Under a theoretical framework-thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis - of the Lord Krishna,s dialogues in Gita, the conceptual clarity of the ontology has been spelled-out to acknowledge the path of truth-righteousness (Dharma) in human society. To understand the Supreme Reality (Brahman) in the Cosmos by the help of ontological and epistemological knowledge, this research study is divided into seven Chapters. In the First Chapter - ‘Introduction, - the nature and importance of ‘Brahman, - a Supreme Reality recognised by Ancient Indian Seers, as also presented in the Bhagavad-gita for conflict-resolution, has been discussed under the arena of Samkhya (knowledge) and Karma (action) Yoga Philosophy. In the Second Chapter - ‘Cosmology, - the relationship of Soul (atman) with Supreme Reality has been described as “Hlranyagarbha” for recycling the birth (Being) and death (Non-Being) to search out divinity along with the chief characteristics of Bhagavad-gita. In the Third Chapter- ‘Metaphysics, - the characteristics of cosmic reality and spiritualism have critically been analyse on the basis of postulates propounded by the orthodox and the heterodox philosophical school of thoughts for achieving the source of redemption (salvation) through implicit ‘niskamkarmayoga,. In the Fourth chapter - ‘Religions Consciousness, - the concept of , saccidanand, (sat, cit, anand) - the relationship of Absolute and Non Absolute Reality of Dharma and Karma, has been reviewed under the positive doctrine of Eastern and Westerner Philosophers to achieve the tangible results of supreme goal of life. In the Fifth Chapter - ‘An Appraisal-’ objective analysis has been made about the predicament of Lord Krishna with regard to ‘Dharma, - a notion of independent free-will, an ethical doctrine of action-orientated proclamation of Absolute Reality (God) for self-preservation, sustainance of philosophy and growth of human life in the cosmos. In the Sixth Chapter - Summation-theosophic dimension and functional implications of Ontology of Gita, is depicted in the caption of Freedom of Will. In, the Seventh Chapter - Conclusion has been drawn about true nature of mind and spirit and its interrelationship of Individual Self (atman) with Supreme Self (paramatma). In appendix, under a Positive Philosophy of Action - a synthesis of Supreme Absolute Truth (God), - Integral Yoga, Goal of Life and Path of Duty-has been presented in a broader frame of Ontological and Epistemological knowledge to reinforce rationality or positivism. In the end, the Philosophy of Devas (Dev Darshan) has been reconceptualated to acknowledge the scientific truth of the Universe for self realization.

 

Contents

 

Foreword

vii

Acknowledgements

xi

Preface

xiii

Chapters

1.

Introduction

1

2.

Cosmology

11

3.

Metaphysics

26

4.

Religious Consciousness

45

5.

An Appraisal

69

6.

Summation

90

7.

Conclusion

117

Appendices

(i)

Positive Philosophy of Action

146

(ii)

Dev Darshan (Philosophy of Devas)

172

References

190

Bibliography

195

Index

199

 

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