Realizing the significance, role and impact of the fauna, the study has been taken with special reference to ancient India Since Ayurveda is best source of oriental knowledge for various disciplines of medicine and approaches for preservation health of creatures including animals, the studies on veterinary medicine are simultaneously taken up. In order to make comprehensive work on the biology and medicare of animals for providing round foundation to zoological as well as veterinary sciences, with also an aim to highlight the Indian contribution which has credit for lead in the field of knowledge of arts and sciences.
Such studies for encouraging conservation, maintenance and development of fauna with priority as national wealth. Towards this object, Ayurveda plays vital role in providing, disseminating and understanding flora as well as fauna, based on most ancient sources of original, rich and valuable knowledge on plants and animals in natural habitat of India possessing biospheres ecosystem and biodiversity influencing environment. India is pioneer in laying the foundation of conservation, zoology, discipline and veterinary technology.
Presentation : The series of studies with multi-dimensional information, data and material, by their collation, analysis and recording them in order to present in the form of a standard work in precise, vivid systematic manner, with scientific vision applied for oriental knowledge, by dealing both aspects of the animals viz. faunistic and veterinary areas covering essential facets. Remarkably, this foundation exploratory, research and supplied approach will be accelerating studies in the neglected or lesser explored area in Ayurveda.
Therefore, the present contribution serves as unique manual which is a first work of its kind on account of its coverage of wide spectrum, ti1ti-horizons and multi-angled concepts.
There is most ancient ideology, since Vedic period having literary evidences, showing human-animal relationships and further this close inter-relation ramifies into plant-animal interactive streams which continue since early times having impact on society, science and literature of various areas of knowledge. Thus, the indispensability of man-animal- plants (or drugs) reciprocal connectivity in social and life routine aspects of humanity is mutually exchanged, naturally existed and practically feasible, on the basis of supplementation, utilisation and beneficiaries, with the sense of sympathy, affection and care towards animal kingdom. This is the reason that early thoughts formulating science of medicine provides proper place to animals, the integral part of society and natural component of environment or resources (belonging to animal kingdom), by giving full attention for their well-being, health and medicare.
2. The rich treasure of literature based on expositions of reknowned, erudite and great sages-the authorities (acaryas) of various disciplines of arts and sciences, pioneering Indian knowledge—have conceptualised the ideologies which later took shape of animal husbandry leading to the science of veterinary medicine and other relevant branches, dealing with different aspects of animal life, function, behaviour, maintenance and development by recognising, respecting and acknowledging their active role in social structure. In reward of service rendered by the animals, the ancient ideology from the original sources evolves concepts of veterinary medicine, based on systematic, comprehensive and applied theories as well as therapies which provide proper, perfect and viable health coverage to animal groups by putting them equal to humans in regard to healthcare, with a priority.
3. Among the several kinds and varieties of animals, certain animals (prani), have their major significance in society, in view of their utility-based importance in agriculture, economics, business or profession, religion and social customs etc., which invariably include transportation, communication, defence, customs and allied purposes, as routine convention in traditional heritage of country.
In this context, for instance, sonic animals like cow (go), horse (asva), and elephant (hasti) possess their common place of value comparatively, from utility point of view. Simultaneously, the various other animals esp. cattles and stocks etc. like camel (ustra), goat (avi), sheep (avi) as domestic animals carry their importance for various purposes. In addition, there are pet animals like dog (svana), cats (vidala), rabbit (sasa) etc. Traditionally, the pet birds, suka (parrot), are also favourite of community especially in rural and sub-urban regions since long. For professional communities (depending on cattles for livelihood), certain animals like muels (asvatara), donkey or ass (karabha), ox (vrsabha), yalk (camari) and other have more or less importance.
In rewardful return to the services of animals, the social pattern pays full attention for their good health, upkeep and medicare, in addition to extreme affection, not less than their family members. In this direction, the ancient medical science has given proper thought for developing the system of animal husbandry and veterinary medicine.
4. In these perspectives the multi-dimensional ideology systematic approach and vast subject-scope of Indian medical system makes proper consideration of veterinary science, by laying its foundation at early stage of thoughts relating health care and medical treatment of human beings. Gradual development of concepts pertaining to theory and practice on the aspect of veterinary medicine enriches informations, experiences and ideas for consolidating, systematising and formulating the system of veterinary medicine which is evidenced by a series of treatises dealing with veterinary area in medical science independently.
Various names of textual sources in ancient times are on record in fragmentary state, but with reliable literary evidences, informations and data which documentary support with firm background of veterinary medicine belonging to Indian school as knowledgeable sources in the field of medical sciences. They are creditably serving with a success towards responsible objectives for maintaining developing and treating the animals whenever ailing.
5. In the context of ancient literature on veterinary medicine, the survey of textual sources find various names of treatises dealing with veterinary medicine which later developed and its different disciplines independently, with extension to different sub-divisions comprehensively.
6. In history of polity and culture, the fragments on veterinary medicine as well animal husbandry are scattered in a number of works and treatises of ancient time. During later epochs of Indian history, the proper consideration of animals for maintenance, services, charity (as gosala, pasusula etc.) graceful treatment and medicare. As prominent instance, the emperor Moka and his inscriptions are best sources of studies on ancient literature with special reference to veterinary science. The dependable material informative records large number of references providing different kinds of information on veterinary aspects indicating knowledge, status and approach towards animals and their role in socio-religious, economical and medical areas. These references begin well from Vedic period as depicted scatteredly in textual sources of Vedas. A number of ancient scriptures evidently give due place for proper consideration on different aspects of veterinary science and related areas, which carry a diversity with wide ranging inputs relevant to veterinary field by covering it comprehensively with purposeful outlook.
7. This ancient approach of classical expounders (äcaryas) with wide, in-depth and appropriate thinking in regard to animal, has given fuller support in evolving, veterinary science, such as asväyurveda, gajayurveda, and gavayurveda, and also further development of specialities dealing with other animal groups in particular.
8. Large number of references indicating variable facets of animal, respect, life, utility and care in textual sources pertaining to veterinary sciences. For instance, the sütra literature mentions about some aspects of animals. Works belonging to series of Kalpasutra refer asvasänti, gajasanti and gosanti which show significance of these animals in contemporary social and religious traditions (e.g.. 60 gr. e. 1-18-9, 16-1/5, 02-8; Apa. srou. 20-8-2 etc.).
9. In textual sources of Ayurveda, the subject of veterinary science, particularly study of fauna animal science, potentialites of animal drugs and medical treatment of animals, has remarkably been discussed in various contexts. For instance, the subject dealing with enemata (basti) described in Caraka Samhita. The application of enema (basti) specifically for the animals is prescribed (Caraka siddhisthana, 11, 19-26) which carries applied importance in the areas of medical treatment recommended for certain groups of animals or cattles. Such textual descriptions uniquely and evidently show therapeutical approach of ancient medical science with sound scientific technicalities which give proper impetus and applied thought to veterinary area of medicine. Likewise there arc several other references give proper avenues for extension to veterinary area of medicine. Similarly there are many other references in literature pertaining to various disciplines of Ayurveda, making direct or indirect consideration of veterinary care, animal role and faunistic involvement from medical point of view.
10. Various other prominent works of ancient Indian history culture. polity, archeology and other subjects refer variously regarding animal care and administration etc. For example, Kautilya Arthasastra may specifically be referred. It describes about heads of different managing categories of animals; and such responsible persons are given status of pasu-adhyaksa (heads of animals). specifying them in accordance to their duties for caring particular group of animals viz., go-adhyaksa, asvadhyaksa and gajadhyaka, along with physicians (pasu cikitsaka) specially dealing health problems and medicare of ailing animals (Kautilya Arthasästra, 2-29, 30, 31). Various informations regarding animal husbandry and veterinary science arc also given by Megasthenese similarly by portraying contemporary state of system in veterinary field.
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