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Philosophical and Sociological Basis of Education
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Philosophical and Sociological Basis of Education
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Preface

In the new millennium, we require new orientations in various fields. All over the world, nations are embarking on policies and programmers to suit such new orientations. Education could not afford to lag behind such developments. Education is a field of human activity, which has preserved the past, made new contributions and given directions to future developments. These could not have been possible, had there not been a strong and sustained impulse behind them. In addition to many support systems, the basic motivation has been provided by philosophy-a research for meaning, a guide for action in a social context. The book, The Philosophical and Sociological Basis of Education, has been written for students of Education, pursuing B.Ed. and M.Ed. degree programmers as well as for teacher trainers at various levels of teacher education based on latest all India syllabus for these courses. The present book is divided into two parts. Part One is titled : "The Philosophical Basis of Education" and Part Two is titled : "The Sociological Basis of Education." Part One has been written with the aim of clarifying basic issues concerning philosophy, philosophy of education, traditional schools of philosophy, the Gandhian philosophy of education and eclectic trends in modern education in India. To start with, an attempt has been made to present and clarify what philosophy is, how it is perceived by the oriental and western societies.

None of them could have achieved much without a philosophy. Philosophy deals with problems relating to origin of cosmos, the nature of man, conceptions about God, purpose of the universe and the idea of 'being'. In the philosophical term, the study is called 'metaphysics'. The second problem, called "epistemology", clarifies the possibilities of knowledge, kinds of knowledge and instruments of knowledge. Thus, we understand how to use our knowledge in the apprehension of ' reality'. In our efforts to use knowledge, there is a possibility of being irrational. The third problem is tackled by a discussion of 'logic'. The methods of reasoning are illustrated with examples. Logical fallacies after Aristotle and Bacon are interesting and are of relevance to the present time. All our efforts to know about the reality, the means to do so and do it rationally bring us to the theory of value-' axiology'. Here an attempt has been made to delineate the nature of value, the realms of value, motivation behind our conduct and fields of values.

Various views about what constitutes a philosophy of education are analysed and universals in them identified. It is appreciated that we require an understanding of the aims of education, the context of education, the pupil, role of the teacher, and what and how we want schools to teach. The western type of education, substantially modified to suit our conditions, is not devoid of philosophical foundations. Over the years, philosophies like naturalism, idealism, realism, pragmatism and existentialism have had their impact on education. These philosophies are examined for their leading ideas and the relevance of such ideas. Lastly, it may be said that many Indian scholars have expressed philosophical views on education, but it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to present an indigenous philosophy of education. His ideas and ideals are examined vis-a-vis the western philosophers. The eclectic trends in the western type of education in India, with particular reference to the National Policy on Education, 1986 have also been examined.

The structure of each chapter of the book has been designed to make easier the study of what is commonly regarded as an abstract and a difficult subject. It is hoped that the sub-headings placed in strategic positions and the diagrammatic summaries will facilitate both teaching and learning. Problems are set at the end of each chapter to stimulate further discussion to enable the seeker to follow up the central questions raised, and pursue his own independent lines of enquiry.

In Part Two of the book, the sociology of education has been examined briefly but lucidly. Meanings of sociology of education have been discussed in relation to philosophy, psychology and sociology as far as these concern education. Socialization of the learner in the family, school, society and by mass media has been studied. Important agencies of educating-home, school, society, state-have been evaluated for their influence on the learner. Somewhat deeper study is made of the community in educating the children.

From the point of view of social system, the structure and functions of the school are studied for their interrelationship. It is followed by how education results in social stratification and social mobility. That education brings about social change has been examined in light of various theories on the subject. A chapter is devoted to culture and education, and the issue of acculturation. Furthermore, the role of education in turning out a good citizen is discussed. Why education is essential to ensuring emotional and national integration in a diverse society in India is studied in some detail.

The theme of positive approach to life is broadened to survey the importance of education for international understanding. Some introspection on religion and morality in education is carried out through the intentions in the recommendations of various Committees and Commissions, and difficulties in the implementation of such recommendations are highlighted. The secular nature of our polity and its implications for education are examined, followed by a contrast between democratic and totalitarian systems. Education is, then, related to economic order, socialism and socialistic patterns of society.

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Philosophical and Sociological Basis of Education

Item Code:
NAT127
Cover:
PAPERBACK
Edition:
2004
ISBN:
817198138
Language:
ENGLISH
Size:
8.50 X 5.50 inch
Pages:
302
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Weight of the Book: 0.3 Kg
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$21.00   Shipping Free
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Preface

In the new millennium, we require new orientations in various fields. All over the world, nations are embarking on policies and programmers to suit such new orientations. Education could not afford to lag behind such developments. Education is a field of human activity, which has preserved the past, made new contributions and given directions to future developments. These could not have been possible, had there not been a strong and sustained impulse behind them. In addition to many support systems, the basic motivation has been provided by philosophy-a research for meaning, a guide for action in a social context. The book, The Philosophical and Sociological Basis of Education, has been written for students of Education, pursuing B.Ed. and M.Ed. degree programmers as well as for teacher trainers at various levels of teacher education based on latest all India syllabus for these courses. The present book is divided into two parts. Part One is titled : "The Philosophical Basis of Education" and Part Two is titled : "The Sociological Basis of Education." Part One has been written with the aim of clarifying basic issues concerning philosophy, philosophy of education, traditional schools of philosophy, the Gandhian philosophy of education and eclectic trends in modern education in India. To start with, an attempt has been made to present and clarify what philosophy is, how it is perceived by the oriental and western societies.

None of them could have achieved much without a philosophy. Philosophy deals with problems relating to origin of cosmos, the nature of man, conceptions about God, purpose of the universe and the idea of 'being'. In the philosophical term, the study is called 'metaphysics'. The second problem, called "epistemology", clarifies the possibilities of knowledge, kinds of knowledge and instruments of knowledge. Thus, we understand how to use our knowledge in the apprehension of ' reality'. In our efforts to use knowledge, there is a possibility of being irrational. The third problem is tackled by a discussion of 'logic'. The methods of reasoning are illustrated with examples. Logical fallacies after Aristotle and Bacon are interesting and are of relevance to the present time. All our efforts to know about the reality, the means to do so and do it rationally bring us to the theory of value-' axiology'. Here an attempt has been made to delineate the nature of value, the realms of value, motivation behind our conduct and fields of values.

Various views about what constitutes a philosophy of education are analysed and universals in them identified. It is appreciated that we require an understanding of the aims of education, the context of education, the pupil, role of the teacher, and what and how we want schools to teach. The western type of education, substantially modified to suit our conditions, is not devoid of philosophical foundations. Over the years, philosophies like naturalism, idealism, realism, pragmatism and existentialism have had their impact on education. These philosophies are examined for their leading ideas and the relevance of such ideas. Lastly, it may be said that many Indian scholars have expressed philosophical views on education, but it was left to Mahatma Gandhi to present an indigenous philosophy of education. His ideas and ideals are examined vis-a-vis the western philosophers. The eclectic trends in the western type of education in India, with particular reference to the National Policy on Education, 1986 have also been examined.

The structure of each chapter of the book has been designed to make easier the study of what is commonly regarded as an abstract and a difficult subject. It is hoped that the sub-headings placed in strategic positions and the diagrammatic summaries will facilitate both teaching and learning. Problems are set at the end of each chapter to stimulate further discussion to enable the seeker to follow up the central questions raised, and pursue his own independent lines of enquiry.

In Part Two of the book, the sociology of education has been examined briefly but lucidly. Meanings of sociology of education have been discussed in relation to philosophy, psychology and sociology as far as these concern education. Socialization of the learner in the family, school, society and by mass media has been studied. Important agencies of educating-home, school, society, state-have been evaluated for their influence on the learner. Somewhat deeper study is made of the community in educating the children.

From the point of view of social system, the structure and functions of the school are studied for their interrelationship. It is followed by how education results in social stratification and social mobility. That education brings about social change has been examined in light of various theories on the subject. A chapter is devoted to culture and education, and the issue of acculturation. Furthermore, the role of education in turning out a good citizen is discussed. Why education is essential to ensuring emotional and national integration in a diverse society in India is studied in some detail.

The theme of positive approach to life is broadened to survey the importance of education for international understanding. Some introspection on religion and morality in education is carried out through the intentions in the recommendations of various Committees and Commissions, and difficulties in the implementation of such recommendations are highlighted. The secular nature of our polity and its implications for education are examined, followed by a contrast between democratic and totalitarian systems. Education is, then, related to economic order, socialism and socialistic patterns of society.

Sample Pages











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