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Item Code: IDD588
Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
Language: English
Edition: 1985
ISBN: 0895818191
Pages: 697
Cover: Hardcover
Other Details: 9" X 6"
About the Book:

The work is mainly an analytical study of Sukracharya's code, so that the data of Hindu Sociology collected here reflect generally those phases of Indian cultural evolution which have influenced the authors of the Sukra cycle. This Positive Background of Hindu Sociology, therefore, is more or less a statical picture, and represents chiefly such landmarks in the culture-history of the Hindus as are embodied in the single document Sukraniti.

The introduction to Sukraniti has been called the Positive Background of Hindu Sociology, because Sukraniti as a Nitisastra, Arthasastra, Dharmasastra, or Dharmasutra deals mainly with the topics implied by such Hindu Categories as Dharma (morals), Artha (interests) and Kama (desires and passions) as opposed to Moksa (salvation); and hence a study in Sukraniti should properly be a study in the nonmoksa or non-transcendental and non-mystical i.e., the secular, worldly, materialistic and 'positive' elements of Hindu social economy.

About the Author:

Professor Benoy Kumar Sarkar was the founder and organizer of National Council of Education, Bengal established in 1906. He was a Professor at the Bengal National College, Calcutta. In 1907 he founded the Maldaha Jatiya Siksa Samiti which used to run a number of primary and secondary schools. Professor Sarkar was a pioneer in the field of Education. He write profusely in a number of Indian and Western languages continuously for four decades and served the society wholeheartedly as an author, educationist and a social reformer. He travelled almost the entire West and devoted a book in Bengali to each country that he visited.

Publisher's Preface By Dr. Lalit Mohan Basu, M.B.
Author's Preface to the Second Edition
Positivism in Hindu Culture
From Comte to Tonnies
The Historico-Comparative Method
The Synthesis of the Transcendental and the Positive in Hindu Institutions and Ideals
What is the Positive?
The Positivistic Strands in Hindu Literature
The Place of the Sukraniti in Positivism
The Sociology of Muller, Senart and Weber Under Challenge
The Dualism of Pareto, Fichte and Del Vecchio Acceptable in Social Philosophy
"Back to Kant"
Sorokin's Denunciations of Monism and Avoidance of Racial Obsessions in Sociology
India's Affinities with Eur-America in Sorokin's Analysis
Recognition of the Positive Background by Formichi, Bottazzi, Hillebrandt, Meyer, Breloe and Keith
The "New Indology" in Luders and von Glasenapp
Secularization of Hindu Politics in Masson Oursel and Berr
Survivals of Traditional Indology.

Hindu Culture and Sociology in Sukraniti
Nitisastra as Social Science
The Four Branches of Human Science in Hindu Thought
Universality and Relativity of the Sukraniti

Landmarks in the History of Hindu
Political Development
"Greater India" comprised in the Geography of Hindu Culture
Cultural Developments down to the MohenjoDara Complex (c. B.C. 5000-2500)
The Vedic-Hindu Epochs (c. B.C. 2500-600 B.C.)
Hindu Republics
Maurya India (B.C. 322-185)
De la Vallee Poussin and Foucher on the Problem of Unity
Haushofer and Wust on the Unreality of "Higher" Units
From the Andhras and Kusans to the Senas and Cholas (c. B.C. 240-1310 A.C.)
The Gujara-Pratiharas (c. 800-1200) and Kleinstaaterei
The Moslem Question
A Parallel Between Asia and Europe
Vaidya on c.1000 A.C.
Kasmir (650-1339)
Vijayanagara (1336-1565) and the Marathas (1640-1818)
The Sikhs
Reassertion of the Hindus as Political Powers (c. 1650-c. 1850)
The Geopolitics of Culture-Contact and Social Mobility
  1. Mixture with Non-Indian Races
  2. The Impact of the Lower Orders
  3. Vratya and Varnasamkara
  4. The Paretian Doctrine of the Circulation of Elites Modified
  5. The Race-Pessimism of Today Unjustifiable
  6. Contemporary Vertical Mobilities

The Diversity of the Nitisastras

Mohenjo Dara Monuments vis-a-vis Vedic
Texts (c. 3500-2000 B.C.)
Mohenjo Dara Monuments vis-a-vis Vedic Texts (c.3500-2000 B.C.)

Vedic Ideology (c. 2500-600 B.C.)
The Categories and Chronology of Vedic Literature
Vedic Positivism
The Perspectives of Vedic Political Thought
The Pluralistic Make-up of the Vedic Culture-Complex
The Purusa -Sukta No Index to Caste Origins or Social Order
The Vaisya in the Taittiriya "Social Award"
Non-Aryans, "Lower Classes" and Sudras in Vedic Polity
The Vratya in the Vedic Milieu
Sakya the Buddha, a Risi with a non-Vedic Upanisad
Divinity due to Kingship, Not Kingship due to Divinity
Vedic Origins of Hindu Political Speculation
Vedic Ethics through Western Eyes
Pali Literature As a Source of Studies in
Economics, Politics and Sociology
(c. B.C. 600-300)
The Secular Aspects of Pali Texts
The Buddha-Kautalya Complex
The Dharma, Artha and Niti Sastras of the Buddhists
Buddhist Institutions and Ideals vis-a-vis Vedic Complex
Sakyan Positivism
Sakya as Remaker of Man
Law and Constitution in the Vinaya
The Social Institutions and Theories of the Nikayas
Asoka's Political Philosophy
The Dynamics of Buddhist Thought

The Dharma-Artha-Kana Speculations
in a Pluralistic Universe
(c. 600-300 B.C.)
Non-Sakyan and Anti-Sakyan Forces
Jaina Teachings
The Dharma-Sutras
The Chronology of Dharma Literature according to Meyer
The Arthasastras
The Kamasastras
The Culture-Complex and "Old Masters"

The Kautalya Question
Kautaliya Arthasastra
Shamasastry, 1905
Smith, 1908
Hillebrandt, 1908
Hertel, 1910-14
Mookerji-Law-Jayaswal-Sarkar, 1910-14
Jacobi, 1911-12
Jolly, 1911-16
Formichi, 1914
Bottazzi, 1914
Smith, 1914-19
Vallauri, 1915
Shamasastry, 1915
Fleet, 1915
Keith, 1916
K.V.R. Aiyangar, 1916-35
Thomas, 1916-22
Sarkar, 1918-22
R.G. Bhandarkar, 1919
Sastri, 1920-23
Winternitz, 1921-24
Hopkins, 1922
Pargiter, 1922
Charpentier, 1922
Stein, 1922
    The Reliability of Megasthenes Questionable
    The Fortification of Pataliputra
    Building Materials in Maurya India
    Pataliputra Not Mentioned in the Arthasastra
    Kautalya on Forts Objective but Theoretical
Hillebrandt, 1923
Jolly, 1923-25
Ganapati Sastri, 1924-25
Jayaswal, 1924
Law, 1924
Monahan, 1925
Meyer, 1926-27
    Arthasastra the Work of One Person
    The New Indology
    Kautilya, a Title of Honour
    Statesmanship vs. Scholarship in Kautalya
    Compilation and Originality in the Arthasastra
    Fourth Century, B.C
    . Arthasastra not Younger than Dharmasastra
    Arthasastra not Condemned by the Rsis
    Mahabharata Politics later than Arthasastra
    Chemical and Metallurgical Knowledge in the Arthasastra
    The Megasthenes Question
    Kautalya and Vatsyayana
Keith, 1928
S.K. Aiyangar, 1929
D.R. Bhandarkar, 1929
Johnston, 1929
Pran Nath 1929-31
Kane, 1930
De la Vallee Poussin, 1930
Dikshitar, 1932
Breloer, 1934
    Indian Tradition as Starting Point
    Megasthenes in Agreement with Kautalya
    Kautalya as Chancellor of Chandragupta
    Arthasastra as Document of Planned Economy
    Kautalya = Tribonian
    Arthasastra as a Comprehensive Document of Hindu Polity for All Ages
    The Problem of Variations in Hindu Polity
    The Welfare-State of Kautalya
    Climate as Alleged Determinant in Hindu Polity
    Planned Economy Old and New
    Doses of Economic Freedom in the Arthasastra
    Society and State in Hindu Politics
Kautalya and His Boswell
From Kautalya to Varahamihira
(c. B.C. 300-600 A.C.)
Mahayana Humanism
The Positivism of the Jaina Siddhanta
Dharmasastras (Smritis)
The Tamil Classics
The Joy of Life in Literature
The Eighteen Puranas
The Epics
The Varttasastras
The Silpa Sastras
Hindu, Positivism in Indo-China, Insulindia, Tibet and China
From Epicurus to Gregory the Great
From Harsa to Hemadri (c. 600-1300)
Six Fundamental Formative Forces in Positicism Bhasyas and Nibandhas of Smritisastras
  1. Medhatihi and Visvarupa
  2. Srikara
  3. Jitendriya, Balaka and Yogloka
  4. Vijnanesvara
  5. Gopala and Laksmidhara
  6. Jimutavahana and Ballalasena
  7. Hemadri
  1. Brihaspati's Sutra
  2. Somadeva's Nitivakyamrita
  3. Bhoja's Yuktikalpataru
  4. Laksmidhara's Rajanitikalpataru and
  5. Gopala's Rajanitikamadhenu
  6. Hemachandra's Laghu Arhanniti
  7. Somesvara's Manasollasa
Silpasastras and Vastusastras
Hindu Positivism in South Eastern Asia, Tibet, China and Moslem Asia

From Chandesvara to Rammohun
(c. 1300-1833)
Hindu Impacts on Islam
The Humanism of the Modern Indian Languages
Democratic Strnads in Hindu Social Thought
The Positivism of Bengali Poetry
The Doctrine of Political Deliverers as Yugavataras in Vijayanagara
The Hindu Tradition in Maratha Politics
    The Anti-Foreign and Democratic Tendencies
    The Positivism of the Dasabodha
    Ramdas's Utopia of Anandavanabhuvana
    The Pluralistic World of Sivaji
The Cultural Nationalism of Sivaji
Sivaji as Avatara in the Siva-Bharata Rajaniti
  1. Chandesvara's Rajanitiratnakara
  2. Madhava's Rajadharmaprakarana of Parasara-Samhita
  3. Vaisampayana's Nitiprakasika
  4. Abul Fazl's Ain-iAkbari as a Semi-Moslem and Semi-Hindu Nitisastra
  5. Nilakantha's Nitimayukha
  6. Mitra-Misra's Rajanitiprakasa
  7. Ramadas's Maharastradharma Barhwawa
  8. The Marathi Rajaniti of Ramachandrapant (1716)
    The Fundamental Defect in Ramachandrapant's Positivism
    The Niti Tradition in Ramachandrapant
  9. The Peshwa's Diaries (1708-1817)
  10. The Last Text of Nitisastra: Chitnis's Marathi Rajaniti (1810)
Smriti Nibandhas
    Law Scholars of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries
    Legal Thought of the Seventeenth Century
    Balambhatta and Jagannatha
Rammohun (1772-1833)
    The Realism of Rammohun as Champion of Vedanta, Puranas, and Tantras
    The Smriti and Niti Sastras of Rammohun
Hindu Philosophy's Contributions to Positivism
The "Sensate" and the "Ideational"
The Geometry of "Between-men" Relations in the Dharma and Artha Sastras
The Variables and the Constants in Hindu Positivism

Index I. Persons
Index II. Subjects

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