According to the Pratyabhijna school of Saivism the whole universe is nothing but power, inherent in Siva, the universal consciousness, in various forms. By his free will he limits himself as the universe, soul, etc. Man bound by body, pleasure, etc. Cannot understand his real nature and attain liberation. In the Pratyabhijnahrdayam Ksemaraja gives various means like the blossoming or opening of samvid, the centre; meditation on ‘Sivatattva; etc. They help man to recognize his divinity, and his identity with God and the universe and attain liberation.
The Adyar Library and research centre was founded in 1886 by Henry Steel Olcott, first President of the Theosophical Society, for research in Eastern Civilization, Philosophy and Religion. Its aim is to promote understanding among the peoples of the world through knowledge of the higher aspects of their respective cultures.
The collections of the Library consist of about 18,000 manuscripts, containing about 45,000 printed volumes. The manuscripts are mostly from Indian and in Sanskrit. The printed books include old and rare Indological works and also a fine collection of books on the different religions and philosophies, in Sanskrit, English, and various other languages, eastern and western; and volumes of important Indological journals.
Brahmavidya, The Adyar Library Bulletin is being published annually since 1937, presenting papers and studies on religion, philosophy and various aspects of Sanskrit and other oriental literature as well as editions of ancient texts and translations.
The present authorized translation of the Prathyabhijnahrdayam with notes by Dr. Kurt F. Leidecker, M.A., Ph.D., is based upon the translation of the work in German by Dr. Emil Baer, Ph.D.
Going through the typescript sent by Dr. Leidecker, (for the extremely neat and beautiful way in which it had been prepared for the Press, one could not feel sufficiently grateful), I noticed that he had given only the English translation of each sultra and not the original Samskrt text also. It occurred to me that the public may be served better if the original text of each sutra was given along with its English translation; and I wrote to Mr. Leidecker enquiring if he was agreeable to the suggestion and offering, if he was agreeable, to undertake the work of incorporating the original Samskrt text. He agreed enthusiastically stating that “it will materially enhance the usefulness and appeal of the volume.” Thus it is that the Samskrt text of each sutra is now seen in this work alongside of its English translation.
From the published catalogues of the various Libraries where oriental manuscripts and printed works are collected and preserved, it is gathered that the available MSS. of the Pratyabhijnahrdayam are as follows:
Aufrecht, Catalogues Catalagorum, Vol. 1, page 61a:
Pratyabhijnahrdaya of Ksemaraja. Nos. L. 2587.
Report XXX. Oudh XI, 20. XVI, 124.
I bid., II, page 12a:
Devi Prasad, 79, 50. India office (Eggeling), 1256. Stein, 220. Manuscripts mentioned by Dr. Raghavan, catalogus Catalagorum office, Madras University. 18b, Serampore College, Serampore, Bengal. The Trivandrum palace manuscript no. 54 in the Curator’s list for 1091-2, M E.
In this work, however, the text adopted is mainly that of the Kashmir edition- edited in the Kashmir series by J.C. Chatterjee, B.A. (Cantab.), Vidya-varidhi, Director of the Archaeological and research Department, Jammu and Kashmir, 1911- as the translator had used this edition for his translation. I have also utilized the under mentioned manuscript and printed edition which are not mentioned by the editor of the Kashmir text, but which became available to us, thanks to the kindness of M.R.Ry. Vaidyaraja Dvibhasyam Venkateswarulu Garu, Chintaluru, Alamur Post, East Godavari district, to whom my grateful thanks are due:
A paper manuscript in Telugu of the Pratyabhijnahrdayam, from M.R.Ry. Mantha Lakshminarasimham Garu, Pleader, Indupalli, East Godavari District.
A Telugu edition of the work with the commentary of Purnananda, Printed as part of the bigger work Sivasaktyaikyadarpanamu and edited by the same Lakshminarasimham Garu. These have been used for purposes of collation; and the variations found are given in separate notes.
I. Editing Religious-Philosophic Texts Symptomatic of an Indian Renaissance
The ancient cultures of the east are in a state of ferment. The west has acted the part of a leaven among the stagnating masses. Political and social movements are, for the Occidental observer, in the foreground. But accompanying them there are spiritual movements of no less importance.
In the latter we notice two tendencies of which one or the other at different times becomes more prominent. The watchword of the one is assimilation to Western culture by surrendering ancient heritage, that of the other the rejuvenation of the highest values of one’s own past. Both these tendencies seem to be incompatible, though in reality they enter into a variety of combinations.
What we have said holds true for the Islamic world and the Far East, but probably most of all with respect to India. And here, it seems, the second of the tendencies just mentioned is especially marked. India of old experiences a kind of renaissance. Stirred by Western culture, encouraged by the interest wide circles of the occident show in India, challenged, on the other hand, by the growing successes of Christianity in India, the Indian is reminded of his past and spiritual powers rise from a millennial sleep.
It is not solely the zeal of European scholars that brings to light the literary treasures of India which their guardians once attempted to withhold. The Indians themselves edit them and thus try to mobilize the powers of the past against the growing influence of the west.
In this connection must be mentioned the edition of Texts and Studies prepared since 1911 in Srinagar by the Archaeological and Research Department of Kashmir State, under the auspices of the Maharaja of Kashmir. It appears that one branch of the great tree of Shivaism wakens to new life. It flowered in Kashmir from the 9th until about the 14th century of our era. In the first half of that period Shivaism produced, in respect of content and volume, a not insignificant religious-philosophical literature. However, losing power it vegetated side by side with Islam in the mountain valley of Srinagar until a short time ago. If there were, up to that time, only a few Kashmirian Brahmans who still read the old manuscripts (most of them were satisfied with two single small compendiums), we have today already a considerable series of texts, beautifully printed, edited and collated with the best available codices by Indians, and, in part, by men trained in Europe.
II. Importance of the Texts for the Science of Missions and Indology
From two points of view these texts appear to be noteworthy, this is, from the missionary point of view on the one hand, and that of the Indologist on the other.
The Christian missionary ought to acquaint himself with this form of Shivaism; but not he alone. ‘For,’ as Schomerus rightly remarks, ‘if the mission in India is to solve its task, it needs the help of scientific theology. Just as Christianity had to discuss in a scientific manner views of the Greek and Roman world in order to establish itself in the Old World, so it has to discuss scientifically the Indian worldview, if it is to rule in India.’
Such a discussion will be the more necessary the higher and more dignified the forms are in which the Hindu religious spirit expresses itself. But exactly with such, indeed, we have to do in Kashmir Shivaism. Closely related to the Southern Shivaism of the Tamuls it represents, together with the latter, the noblest development of the otherwise rather frequently repelling Shivaitic Hinduism.
On the other hand, the Kashmir texts demand to a high degree the interest of Indologists as sources for the history of Indian religion and philosophy. Barnett, who is one of the few Europeans who know Kashmir Shivaism, says in the introduction to the Lalla-vakyani which appeared in 1920: ‘Very little is yet known in Europe concerning the tenets of this form of Hinduism. But again, in his preface he points to the strong influence which this system at one time exercised over the whole peninsula from that far-off corner of Northwestern India. In a letter to me of the 23rd of October, 1922, he writes: ‘I am convinced that it is immensely important for the literary history of India.
Thus, the present work may be of use to the Christian mission in India as well as to research workers in the Occident. In this lies its justification. But because the work addresses itself also to non-indologists, many an explanation is made necessary which may appear superfluous to the specialist.
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