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A PRIMER OF MODERN STANDARD HINDI
A PRIMER OF MODERN STANDARD HINDI
Description

This primer presents a systematic introduction to the structure of Modern Standard Hindi. It is intended to provide the student with a through foundation in the grammatical structure of that variety of Hindi that is commonly taught in Indian schools and that is the common vehicle of publication in Hindi. Although much emphasis is placed on the written language, discussion is also provided of aspects of conversational Hindi.

The core of the work contains thirty-one chapters. The first four offers discussions of the linguistic status of Hindi as well as comprehensive description of Hindi phonetics and the Devanagari syllabary in which Hindi is written. Chapter 5 through 31 each contains description of fundamental aspects of Hindi grammar. These chapters have extensive translation and grammatical exercises appended to them. The work as a whole introduces a core vocabulary of approximately fifteen hundred entries, incorporating lexical items found on most standard elementary word lists for the language.

Supplemental materials in this book include graded reading passages, a guide to further study in Hindi, and Hindi English glossary. Although the Devanagari syllabary is used throughout the book, Roman transliteration is also provided through Chapter 15.

A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi can be used in several different ways. It can be used as part of a university-level course as a text for Hindi grammar and writing. As such it will nicely supplement other materials addressing more conversational aspects of the language. It can also be used for self- study purposes by the student who does not have access to a formal instructional program.

About the Author:

Michael C. Shapiro is Associate Professor of Indian Languages and Literature at the University of Washington (Seattle, USA). He is the author of Language and Society in South Asia (with Harold F. Schiffman, MLBD Studies in Linguistics, Vol. 1), Current Trends in Hindi Syntax: A Bibliographic Survey (Studien zur Indologieund Iranistik, Monographic 5), and many studies in Hindi language, linguistic, and literature

Preface

This book arises from a sense of dissatisfaction with the teaching materials that are available for the Hindi language. Those materials written during the past three decades, particularly those published in the United States, have concentrated almost exclusively on the inculcation of oral skills in Hindi. Inadequate attention has been given to formal grammar, reading, and writing. It has been my experience that as a result of this emphasis, many students of Hindi in the United States have been seriously deficient in basic literacy skills. Other Hindi instructors with whom I am acquainted like- wise have decried the lack of emphasis on written skills in available language courses, grammars, and the like. There has been a growing sentiment among Hindi teachers that instruction in the language should effect a more even balance among reading, writing, and speaking skills than it currently does.

The title I have selected for this book, A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi, has a decidedly old-fashioned ring to it. This is by intention. The book is a primer, that is, a systematic introduction to its topic. Subjects have been included and arranged on the basis of pedagogical efficacy. The work presupposes no prior knowledge of Hindi or its writing system. Moreover, this is a primer of standard, as opposed to colloquial, Hindi. It tries to impart knowledge of that style of Hindi that is taught in Indian schools and that is used in the various Indian media. The book is not a manual of colloquial Hindi. For that, other materials are readily available. This is not to say that much of what is said in this book about formal Hindi is not applicable to the structure of the conversational language. On the contrary, there is a considerable degree of overlap between the two styles or registers of the language and many of the peculiarities and idiosyncrasies of the colloquial language cannot be explained except in reference to the structures of standard written Hindi. But in the end the imparting of literacy skills and the developing of speaking skills in Hindi are enterprises sufficiently different from one another to warrant that they be accomplished by different techniques and in con- junction with different materials.

In writing a book such as this it is difficult to know what to include and what to leave out. My overriding concern has been to include all of the "nuts and bolts" of Hindi grammar that I believe a student needs to master during the first two years of a college level instructional program. The specific points of grammar that have been treated in this work are, for the most part, those recommended in a recent three-year curriculum for the Hindi language} In addition, I have included a core vocabulary, distributed across the various chapters, of approximately fifteen hundred items. These items have been chosen after examining several published core vocabularies for Hindi. The sequencing of grammatical information in this book is in accordance with my own preferences and teaching practices. I have not aimed for an exhaustive treatment of Hindi grammar in this work—such would be appropriate in a comprehensive reference grammar-, but rather for a systematic and logical exposition of those aspects of the language whose mastery is essential for the development of basic literacy skills.

A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi consists of 31 chapters divided into six parts. Part I (Chapters 1-4) provides some general information about the Hindi language and describes the language’s sounds and writing system. The core of the book, Parts II—VI (Chapters 5-31) comprises a step-by-step introduction to the basic grammatical categories and inflections of the language. Each chapter contains discussions of several facets of the language, a vocabulary section containing approximately 50 entries, and a set of written exercises. Hindi forms are given both in the Hindi (or Devanagari) writing system and in Roman transliteration through Part III. The Roman transliteration is eliminated beginning with Part IV. In order to provide the student with samples g of Hindi of greater than sentence length, a set of supplementary reading passages has been included at the end of each of Parts Il through VI. These are graded in order of difficulty and include both prose and poetry texts. The passages have been taken from diverse sources. Many are from children’s readings in use in India. Others are from newspapers, books of riddles, anthologies of children‘s literature, and All India S Secondary Board examination papers in Hindi. Special vocabulary sections have been appended to these reading passages. Following the 31 chapters are two supplements that should be of assistance to the students. These are a Guide To Further Study of Hindi and a Hindi-English Glossary.

Contents

Preface v
Acknowledgements vii
Abbreviations xv
Part I
Chapter 1Introduction 3
1.1 The Hindi Language; 1.2 The Lingusitic Status of Hindi; 1.3 Dialects of Hindi 1.4 Hindi, Urdu and Hindustani 1.5 Strata of Hindi Vocabulary
Chapter 2 The Devanagari writing System and Hindi pronunciation 8
2.1 Introduction, 2.2 Basic Principles of Devanagari, 2.3 Pronunciation of Hindi Vowels, 2.4 Devanagari Vowel Signs, 2.5 Exercises
Chapter 3The Devanagari writing of System and Hindi pronunciation (Cont.) 14
3.1 Introduction to the Hindi Consonant System, 3.2 Devangari Simple Consonant Signs, 3.3 Supplemental Hindi Consonants, 3.4 Further aspects of Hindi pronunciation 3.5 Exercises
Chapter 4The Devanagari writing System and Hindi Pronunciation (cont.) 23
4.1 Conjunct Consonants 4.2 Anusvara before consonants, 4.3 Devanagari Numerals, 4.4 Punctuation, 4.5 Abbreviations; 4.6 The Alphabetic order of Devanagari 4.7 Exercise
Part II
Chapter 5 31
5.1 The Noun , 5.2 Masculine nouns, 5.3 Postpositions, 5.4 Questions words. 5.5 Negative Marker nahi, 5.6 hai, 5.7 Basic word order 5.8 Vocabulary, 5.9 Exercise
Chapter 6 38
3.1 Feminine Nouns, 6.2 Adjective 6.3 Personal Pronouns, 6.4 The Verb hona to be 6.5 bahut and bara, 6.6 vocabulary 6.7 Exercise
Chapter 7 45
7.1 presumptive and subjuctive froms of hona to be 7.2 Demonstrative Pronouns, 7.3 Possessive construction, 7.4 Compound postpositions 7.5 Honorific Usages 7.6 kuch and koi, 7.7 Vocabulary 7.8 Exercise
Chapter 8 53
8.1 The Overall structure of the Hindi Verb, 8.2 Habitual Verb forms, 8.3 Some uses of ko, 8.4 oblique forms of pronouns 8.5 hi and bhi 8.6 Vocabulary, 8.7 Exercise
Chapter 9 61
9.1 Progressive Verb forms, 9.2 Objects of Verbs of motion, 9.3 Oblique forms of kya and kaun, 9.4 hi with Demonstrative pronouns 9.5. The Pronoun kai, 9.6 Expressions Using kuch and koi, 9.7 the indefinite adverb kabhi, 9.8 Vocabulary, 9.9 Exercise
Chapter 10 68
10.1 Perfective Verb Forms, 10.2 Possessive Pronouns 10.3 Adverbs, 10.4 word order (cont.) 10.5 Vocabulary, 10.6 Exercises
Part III
Chapter 11 81
11.1 The Perfective of Transitive verbs, 11.2 Cardinal Numbers, 11.3 Ordinal Numbers, 11.4 Vocabulary , 11.5 Exercises
Chapter 12 88
12.1 Imperatives 12.2 Uses of Vala, 12.3 Conjunctive construction 12.4 the Conjunction ki, 12.5 Vocabulary, 12.6 Exercises
Chapter 13 95
13.1 The Subjective, 13.2. The Future, 13.3 The Reflexive Possessive form apna, 13.4 multiplicative, 13.5 the suffix hara, 13.6 The Suffixes and iyo, 13.7 Indefinite numbers, 13.8 fractions 13.9 Vocabulary 13.10 Exercises
Chapter 14 104
14.1 The Auxiliaries Sakna pana and cukna, 14.2 Deictic used of Rahna and hona, 14.3 comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives, 14.4 Expressions of greeting 14.5 further honorific Usages 14.6 Vocabulary, 14.7 Exercises
Chapter 15 112
15.1 Indirect Verb Constructions, 15.2 Sets of Related adverbs and other forms, 15.3 Relationship between certain adjectives and adverbs, 15.4 Some Expressions of thanks, 15.5 inceptive expressions, 15.6 Vocabulary, 15.7 Exercises
Part IV
Chapter 16 125
16.1 Infinitives 16.2 Uses of Milna, 16.3 Expressions for to seem appear 16.4 Vocative forms of nouns, 16.5 interjections 16.6 the expressions and chala jana, 16.7 Vocabulary, 16.8 Exercises
Chapter 17 132
17.1 construction 17.2 Infinitive, 17.3 Infinitive, 17.4 another construction indicating obligation or necessity 17.5 the passive 17.6 Vocabulary 17.7 Exercises
Chapter 18 139
18.1 Conjunct verbs, 18.2 Conjunct Verbs with 18.3 Conjunct Verbs with, 18.4 Relationship between conjunct Verbs with and those with, 18.5 Conjunct Verbs not Employing 18.6 Postpositions other than in Conjunct verbs 18.7 Vocabulary 18.8 Exercises
Chapter 19 145
19.1 Compound Verbs 19.2 Compounds with 19.3 Compound with, 19.4 Compounds with , 19.5 Compounds with , 19.6 Syntactic properties of V1 V2 compound 19.7 Dates according to western Calendar 19.8 The Expressions and 19.9 Vocabulary 19.10 Exercises
Chapter 20 153
20.1 Compounds with 20.2 Compounds with 20.3 Compound with 20.4 Compounds with, 20.5 Compounds with, 20.6 Compound with, 20.7 Compound with , 20.8 Compound with 20.9 Compound with 20.10 other Compound Verbs 20.11 The Vikrama dating system 20.12 Vocabulary 20.13 Exercises
Part V
Chapter 21 167
21.1 Uses of the Infinitive 21.2 the Expression 21.3 The construction 21.4 Relative Constructions with 21.5 The Saka Dating System 21.6 Vocabulary 21.7 Exercises
Chapter 22 174
22.1 Other Relative Pronouns and corresponding Correlative Pronouns 22.2 Time Expressions, 22.3 Divisions of the day 22.4 Other time Expressions 22.5 Elapsing of Time 22.6 Vocabulary 22.7 Exercises
Chapter 23 182
23.1 Subordinating Conjunctions 23.2 A further use of 23.3. Expressions for Opinions and Intentions 23.4 Oblique Infinitive 23.5 Expressions for the English verb to have 23.6 and 23.7 Vocabulary, 23.8 Exercises
Chapter 24 190
24.1 Conditional Sentences 24.2 Contrary to face conditional Sentences 24.3 Some Expressions Involving 24.4 Further Reflective forms 24.5 Further uses 24.6 A Usage of 24.7 Vocabulary 24.8 Exercises
Chapter 25 198
25.1 Other contrary to face constructions 25.2 Narrative Uses of verb stem 25.3 Inverted postpositions 25.4 The suffixes and 25.5 the particle 25.6 Echo constructions 25.7 Vocabulary 25.8 Exercises
Chapter 26 205
26.1 Causative Verbs 26.2 Sets of Related Verbs 26.3 Uses of 26.4 Vocabulary 26.5 Exercises
Part VI
Chapter 27 216
27.1 Imperfective Participles 27.2 Kinship Terms 27.3 vocabulary 27.4 Exercises
Chapter 28 224
28.1 Perfective participles 28.2 Reduplicative Expressions 28.3 Combinations of Postpositions 28.4 onomatopoetic Expressions 28.5 A further Use of 28.6 Interrogatives used as exclamations 28.7 Clause Final and 28.8 vocabulary 28.9 Exercises
Chapter 29 231
29.1 Participles 29.2 Indirect commands 29.3 Stylistic Shifts of word order 29.4 Politeness formulae 29.5 and 29.6 Expressions of compulsion 29.7 vesey to 29.8 Vocabulary
Chapter 30 237
30.1 do, 30.2 Indirect Quotation 30.3 Unexpressed General Nouns 30.4 Further properties of 30.5 Compound Subjects 30.6 Intensive Compound verb Constructions 30.7 Vocabulary
Chapter 31 243
31.1 Imperfective Participle 31.2 A construction with 31.3 Some Arithmetic Formulae 31.4 Relative Correlative compound 31.5 The use of English In Hindi 31.6 Derivational Suffixes Denoting Gender 31.7 Vocabulary
Supplementary Reading Passages 247
Guide to Further Study 251
Hindi English Glossary 255

GUIDE TO FURTHER STUDY

HINDI-ENGLISH GLOSSARY

Click Here For More Books on the Hindi Language

A PRIMER OF MODERN STANDARD HINDI

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This primer presents a systematic introduction to the structure of Modern Standard Hindi. It is intended to provide the student with a through foundation in the grammatical structure of that variety of Hindi that is commonly taught in Indian schools and that is the common vehicle of publication in Hindi. Although much emphasis is placed on the written language, discussion is also provided of aspects of conversational Hindi.

The core of the work contains thirty-one chapters. The first four offers discussions of the linguistic status of Hindi as well as comprehensive description of Hindi phonetics and the Devanagari syllabary in which Hindi is written. Chapter 5 through 31 each contains description of fundamental aspects of Hindi grammar. These chapters have extensive translation and grammatical exercises appended to them. The work as a whole introduces a core vocabulary of approximately fifteen hundred entries, incorporating lexical items found on most standard elementary word lists for the language.

Supplemental materials in this book include graded reading passages, a guide to further study in Hindi, and Hindi English glossary. Although the Devanagari syllabary is used throughout the book, Roman transliteration is also provided through Chapter 15.

A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi can be used in several different ways. It can be used as part of a university-level course as a text for Hindi grammar and writing. As such it will nicely supplement other materials addressing more conversational aspects of the language. It can also be used for self- study purposes by the student who does not have access to a formal instructional program.

About the Author:

Michael C. Shapiro is Associate Professor of Indian Languages and Literature at the University of Washington (Seattle, USA). He is the author of Language and Society in South Asia (with Harold F. Schiffman, MLBD Studies in Linguistics, Vol. 1), Current Trends in Hindi Syntax: A Bibliographic Survey (Studien zur Indologieund Iranistik, Monographic 5), and many studies in Hindi language, linguistic, and literature

Preface

This book arises from a sense of dissatisfaction with the teaching materials that are available for the Hindi language. Those materials written during the past three decades, particularly those published in the United States, have concentrated almost exclusively on the inculcation of oral skills in Hindi. Inadequate attention has been given to formal grammar, reading, and writing. It has been my experience that as a result of this emphasis, many students of Hindi in the United States have been seriously deficient in basic literacy skills. Other Hindi instructors with whom I am acquainted like- wise have decried the lack of emphasis on written skills in available language courses, grammars, and the like. There has been a growing sentiment among Hindi teachers that instruction in the language should effect a more even balance among reading, writing, and speaking skills than it currently does.

The title I have selected for this book, A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi, has a decidedly old-fashioned ring to it. This is by intention. The book is a primer, that is, a systematic introduction to its topic. Subjects have been included and arranged on the basis of pedagogical efficacy. The work presupposes no prior knowledge of Hindi or its writing system. Moreover, this is a primer of standard, as opposed to colloquial, Hindi. It tries to impart knowledge of that style of Hindi that is taught in Indian schools and that is used in the various Indian media. The book is not a manual of colloquial Hindi. For that, other materials are readily available. This is not to say that much of what is said in this book about formal Hindi is not applicable to the structure of the conversational language. On the contrary, there is a considerable degree of overlap between the two styles or registers of the language and many of the peculiarities and idiosyncrasies of the colloquial language cannot be explained except in reference to the structures of standard written Hindi. But in the end the imparting of literacy skills and the developing of speaking skills in Hindi are enterprises sufficiently different from one another to warrant that they be accomplished by different techniques and in con- junction with different materials.

In writing a book such as this it is difficult to know what to include and what to leave out. My overriding concern has been to include all of the "nuts and bolts" of Hindi grammar that I believe a student needs to master during the first two years of a college level instructional program. The specific points of grammar that have been treated in this work are, for the most part, those recommended in a recent three-year curriculum for the Hindi language} In addition, I have included a core vocabulary, distributed across the various chapters, of approximately fifteen hundred items. These items have been chosen after examining several published core vocabularies for Hindi. The sequencing of grammatical information in this book is in accordance with my own preferences and teaching practices. I have not aimed for an exhaustive treatment of Hindi grammar in this work—such would be appropriate in a comprehensive reference grammar-, but rather for a systematic and logical exposition of those aspects of the language whose mastery is essential for the development of basic literacy skills.

A Primer of Modern Standard Hindi consists of 31 chapters divided into six parts. Part I (Chapters 1-4) provides some general information about the Hindi language and describes the language’s sounds and writing system. The core of the book, Parts II—VI (Chapters 5-31) comprises a step-by-step introduction to the basic grammatical categories and inflections of the language. Each chapter contains discussions of several facets of the language, a vocabulary section containing approximately 50 entries, and a set of written exercises. Hindi forms are given both in the Hindi (or Devanagari) writing system and in Roman transliteration through Part III. The Roman transliteration is eliminated beginning with Part IV. In order to provide the student with samples g of Hindi of greater than sentence length, a set of supplementary reading passages has been included at the end of each of Parts Il through VI. These are graded in order of difficulty and include both prose and poetry texts. The passages have been taken from diverse sources. Many are from children’s readings in use in India. Others are from newspapers, books of riddles, anthologies of children‘s literature, and All India S Secondary Board examination papers in Hindi. Special vocabulary sections have been appended to these reading passages. Following the 31 chapters are two supplements that should be of assistance to the students. These are a Guide To Further Study of Hindi and a Hindi-English Glossary.

Contents

Preface v
Acknowledgements vii
Abbreviations xv
Part I
Chapter 1Introduction 3
1.1 The Hindi Language; 1.2 The Lingusitic Status of Hindi; 1.3 Dialects of Hindi 1.4 Hindi, Urdu and Hindustani 1.5 Strata of Hindi Vocabulary
Chapter 2 The Devanagari writing System and Hindi pronunciation 8
2.1 Introduction, 2.2 Basic Principles of Devanagari, 2.3 Pronunciation of Hindi Vowels, 2.4 Devanagari Vowel Signs, 2.5 Exercises
Chapter 3The Devanagari writing of System and Hindi pronunciation (Cont.) 14
3.1 Introduction to the Hindi Consonant System, 3.2 Devangari Simple Consonant Signs, 3.3 Supplemental Hindi Consonants, 3.4 Further aspects of Hindi pronunciation 3.5 Exercises
Chapter 4The Devanagari writing System and Hindi Pronunciation (cont.) 23
4.1 Conjunct Consonants 4.2 Anusvara before consonants, 4.3 Devanagari Numerals, 4.4 Punctuation, 4.5 Abbreviations; 4.6 The Alphabetic order of Devanagari 4.7 Exercise
Part II
Chapter 5 31
5.1 The Noun , 5.2 Masculine nouns, 5.3 Postpositions, 5.4 Questions words. 5.5 Negative Marker nahi, 5.6 hai, 5.7 Basic word order 5.8 Vocabulary, 5.9 Exercise
Chapter 6 38
3.1 Feminine Nouns, 6.2 Adjective 6.3 Personal Pronouns, 6.4 The Verb hona to be 6.5 bahut and bara, 6.6 vocabulary 6.7 Exercise
Chapter 7 45
7.1 presumptive and subjuctive froms of hona to be 7.2 Demonstrative Pronouns, 7.3 Possessive construction, 7.4 Compound postpositions 7.5 Honorific Usages 7.6 kuch and koi, 7.7 Vocabulary 7.8 Exercise
Chapter 8 53
8.1 The Overall structure of the Hindi Verb, 8.2 Habitual Verb forms, 8.3 Some uses of ko, 8.4 oblique forms of pronouns 8.5 hi and bhi 8.6 Vocabulary, 8.7 Exercise
Chapter 9 61
9.1 Progressive Verb forms, 9.2 Objects of Verbs of motion, 9.3 Oblique forms of kya and kaun, 9.4 hi with Demonstrative pronouns 9.5. The Pronoun kai, 9.6 Expressions Using kuch and koi, 9.7 the indefinite adverb kabhi, 9.8 Vocabulary, 9.9 Exercise
Chapter 10 68
10.1 Perfective Verb Forms, 10.2 Possessive Pronouns 10.3 Adverbs, 10.4 word order (cont.) 10.5 Vocabulary, 10.6 Exercises
Part III
Chapter 11 81
11.1 The Perfective of Transitive verbs, 11.2 Cardinal Numbers, 11.3 Ordinal Numbers, 11.4 Vocabulary , 11.5 Exercises
Chapter 12 88
12.1 Imperatives 12.2 Uses of Vala, 12.3 Conjunctive construction 12.4 the Conjunction ki, 12.5 Vocabulary, 12.6 Exercises
Chapter 13 95
13.1 The Subjective, 13.2. The Future, 13.3 The Reflexive Possessive form apna, 13.4 multiplicative, 13.5 the suffix hara, 13.6 The Suffixes and iyo, 13.7 Indefinite numbers, 13.8 fractions 13.9 Vocabulary 13.10 Exercises
Chapter 14 104
14.1 The Auxiliaries Sakna pana and cukna, 14.2 Deictic used of Rahna and hona, 14.3 comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives, 14.4 Expressions of greeting 14.5 further honorific Usages 14.6 Vocabulary, 14.7 Exercises
Chapter 15 112
15.1 Indirect Verb Constructions, 15.2 Sets of Related adverbs and other forms, 15.3 Relationship between certain adjectives and adverbs, 15.4 Some Expressions of thanks, 15.5 inceptive expressions, 15.6 Vocabulary, 15.7 Exercises
Part IV
Chapter 16 125
16.1 Infinitives 16.2 Uses of Milna, 16.3 Expressions for to seem appear 16.4 Vocative forms of nouns, 16.5 interjections 16.6 the expressions and chala jana, 16.7 Vocabulary, 16.8 Exercises
Chapter 17 132
17.1 construction 17.2 Infinitive, 17.3 Infinitive, 17.4 another construction indicating obligation or necessity 17.5 the passive 17.6 Vocabulary 17.7 Exercises
Chapter 18 139
18.1 Conjunct verbs, 18.2 Conjunct Verbs with 18.3 Conjunct Verbs with, 18.4 Relationship between conjunct Verbs with and those with, 18.5 Conjunct Verbs not Employing 18.6 Postpositions other than in Conjunct verbs 18.7 Vocabulary 18.8 Exercises
Chapter 19 145
19.1 Compound Verbs 19.2 Compounds with 19.3 Compound with, 19.4 Compounds with , 19.5 Compounds with , 19.6 Syntactic properties of V1 V2 compound 19.7 Dates according to western Calendar 19.8 The Expressions and 19.9 Vocabulary 19.10 Exercises
Chapter 20 153
20.1 Compounds with 20.2 Compounds with 20.3 Compound with 20.4 Compounds with, 20.5 Compounds with, 20.6 Compound with, 20.7 Compound with , 20.8 Compound with 20.9 Compound with 20.10 other Compound Verbs 20.11 The Vikrama dating system 20.12 Vocabulary 20.13 Exercises
Part V
Chapter 21 167
21.1 Uses of the Infinitive 21.2 the Expression 21.3 The construction 21.4 Relative Constructions with 21.5 The Saka Dating System 21.6 Vocabulary 21.7 Exercises
Chapter 22 174
22.1 Other Relative Pronouns and corresponding Correlative Pronouns 22.2 Time Expressions, 22.3 Divisions of the day 22.4 Other time Expressions 22.5 Elapsing of Time 22.6 Vocabulary 22.7 Exercises
Chapter 23 182
23.1 Subordinating Conjunctions 23.2 A further use of 23.3. Expressions for Opinions and Intentions 23.4 Oblique Infinitive 23.5 Expressions for the English verb to have 23.6 and 23.7 Vocabulary, 23.8 Exercises
Chapter 24 190
24.1 Conditional Sentences 24.2 Contrary to face conditional Sentences 24.3 Some Expressions Involving 24.4 Further Reflective forms 24.5 Further uses 24.6 A Usage of 24.7 Vocabulary 24.8 Exercises
Chapter 25 198
25.1 Other contrary to face constructions 25.2 Narrative Uses of verb stem 25.3 Inverted postpositions 25.4 The suffixes and 25.5 the particle 25.6 Echo constructions 25.7 Vocabulary 25.8 Exercises
Chapter 26 205
26.1 Causative Verbs 26.2 Sets of Related Verbs 26.3 Uses of 26.4 Vocabulary 26.5 Exercises
Part VI
Chapter 27 216
27.1 Imperfective Participles 27.2 Kinship Terms 27.3 vocabulary 27.4 Exercises
Chapter 28 224
28.1 Perfective participles 28.2 Reduplicative Expressions 28.3 Combinations of Postpositions 28.4 onomatopoetic Expressions 28.5 A further Use of 28.6 Interrogatives used as exclamations 28.7 Clause Final and 28.8 vocabulary 28.9 Exercises
Chapter 29 231
29.1 Participles 29.2 Indirect commands 29.3 Stylistic Shifts of word order 29.4 Politeness formulae 29.5 and 29.6 Expressions of compulsion 29.7 vesey to 29.8 Vocabulary
Chapter 30 237
30.1 do, 30.2 Indirect Quotation 30.3 Unexpressed General Nouns 30.4 Further properties of 30.5 Compound Subjects 30.6 Intensive Compound verb Constructions 30.7 Vocabulary
Chapter 31 243
31.1 Imperfective Participle 31.2 A construction with 31.3 Some Arithmetic Formulae 31.4 Relative Correlative compound 31.5 The use of English In Hindi 31.6 Derivational Suffixes Denoting Gender 31.7 Vocabulary
Supplementary Reading Passages 247
Guide to Further Study 251
Hindi English Glossary 255

GUIDE TO FURTHER STUDY

HINDI-ENGLISH GLOSSARY

Click Here For More Books on the Hindi Language

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Very good service. Very speed and fine. I recommand
Laure, France
Thank you! As always, I can count on Exotic India to find treasures not found in stores in my area.
Florence, USA
Thank you very much. It was very easy ordering from the website. I hope to do future purchases from you. Thanks again.
Santiago, USA
Thank you for great service in the past. I am a returning customer and have purchased many Puranas from your firm. Please continue the great service on this order also.
Raghavan, USA
Excellent service. I feel that there is genuine concern for the welfare of customers and there orders. Many thanks
Jones, United Kingdom
I got the rare Pt Raju's book with a very speedy and positive service from Exotic India. Thanks a lot Exotic India family for such a fantabulous response.
Dr. A. K. Srivastava, Allahabad
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