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Books > Hindu > Quest for the Original Bharata Samhita and Mahabharata Story
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Quest for the Original Bharata Samhita and Mahabharata Story
Quest for the Original Bharata Samhita and Mahabharata Story
Description
Preface

While studying the original Mahabharata edited by Ramachandra Shastri Kinjawadekar and published from Pune during 1929 to 1933, I was struck by many discrepancies. These were obviously the result of many interpolations in the manuscripts by minstrels or scribes or authors anxious to preserve their own work by incorporating the same in the Mahabharata, knowing that the Mahabharata with all additions would survive, but independent poetical or dramatical stories had little chance of survival. Kalidasa in his "Malavikagnimitram" had eulogised Bhasa, Saumillaka and Kaviputra as well—known dramatists, but the works of the last two are wholly lost while manuscripts of some dramatic works of Bhasa (probably with changes made by a repertoire theatre group) were accidentally found in 1909 in a monastery near Padmanabhapuram in Kerala by Ganapati Shastri, the manuscripts being in Malayalam script. Even in this age of printed books many good books circulate for a while and then get lost. Some of the interpolations in the Mahabharata are unrelated to the main story and were introduced as told to the main characters, chiefly the Pandavas, to amuse or comfort them when they were depressed, e.g. the story of Nala Damayanti, of Savitri Satyavan etc.; we are thankful to the authors of these stories for inserting them in the epic and so preserving them for posterity, but they are not parts of the main story, and must be omitted when seeking to separate out the main story from all additions, though they must be preserved as separate books. Other interpolations are parts of the main story retold by ambitious authors, but the authors have departed in some details from the main story or added frills and thus introduced discrepancies. These additions must be discarded after carefully deciding which version is part of the main story. There are also instances where long passages or whole chapters or groups of chapters have been shifted from the proper place in the story; these lapses may be corrected by proper rearrangement of the passages or chapters. These discrepancies and displacements are irritating to any serious reader. One instance may be cited as illustration. In the Adi Parva it is stated at first that Rishis living in Ashramas in the high mountains escorted Kumi and five boys to the Hastinapura palace, and saying only that the boys were sons of Pandu they departed without another word; that some remarked how the boys could be Pandu's sons, as Pandu was long dead ‘but there were some unusual manifestations like flowers dropping from the sky, and Bhishma accepted the boys as Pandu's sons and arranged their being brought up with Dhritarashtra‘s sons. In a subsequent chapter of the same Parva it is stated that the Rishis brought the bodies of Pandu and Madri along with Kunti and five boys, that they stated that Pandu had expired seventeen days before and that Madri had thrown herself into Pandu‘s Pyre, and that the boys had been sired by gods Dharma, Matariswa (Vayu), Puruhuta (Indra) and twin Aswinikumars as Pandu was firm in his detachment from sex enjoyment (brahmacharya vrata), and that funeral rites for Pandu and Madri were to be performed; and that saying all this the Rishis suddenly disappeared. There is no doubt that the accounts are widely different and they have to be weighed carefully to decide what really happened; But a choice has to be made and the Mahabharata story retold in a consistent manner.

I also felt that all supernatural elements must be omitted in retelling the main story. Indian poets and dramatists have frequently mixed up human affairs with acts of gods, as if human beings and gods had frequent contact in the world. Thus we find gods 'called upon to sire babies for maidens and married women, and celestial nymphs bearing babies to human sages and kings; human kings sometimes fighting for gods and gods giving special weapons to human heroes so that they may win their battles. Even in the 7th century A.D. the poet, Banabhatta in Kadambari made a mix—up of the gods and the humans, and adopted the erroneous belief of the untaught masses that by a Rishi’s curse a man may be turned into a bird or animal or insect, or be born as such. Belief in the ` effectiveness of curses of Rishis is an everpresent check on the masses to normal behaviour and action. People believed that a brahman's curse could cause the wheel of a hero’s chariot to sink into the ground, or make him forget the proper use of his weapons. Such beliefs ultimately lead men to lose the power to distinguish between the real mundane world and the realm of phantasy. By praying to gods for supernatural help Indian kings have sometimes wasted valuable time in which to prepare their armies to meet the enemy without. It is essential that all such supernatural tales be ruthlessly eliminated from people's minds and the epics.

While studying Ramachandra Shastri's edition of the Mahabharata I was trying to work out how the discrepancies and supernatural tales might be eliminated. I then came to know of the work of the Samsodhaka Mandal of Bhandarkar Research Institute of Pune, under the leadership of Dr. Sukthankar and other savants who succeeded him. This Mandal or Committee was appointed to find the earliest common reading of the epic. Interpolations having been added independently wherever the manuscripts were written, wide variations in the texts of the Northem and Southern versions of the epic had come about and smaller differences in the texts of Western and Eastern India. The Mandal, by their labour extending from the beginning of the century published the critical edition of the Mahabharata in 22 volumes between 1933 and 1966. Thereby they reduced the number of verses by nearly ten thousand and removed copyists' errors which had made many verses almost unintelligible. But necessary and laborious as the work was, the committee did not have before it the objective of elimination of discrepancies and supernatural tales woven into the story, though by discarding the late additions they did get rid of some discrepancies and supernatural tales. I therefore decided to proceed with my work of searching for the original Bharata Samhita purged of discrepancies and supernatural tales.

In the course of my work I noticed a remark made by Prof. E.W. Hopkins, an American Indologist, in the journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1905, pp 384 - 389 that Indians, when telling a story or setting out a discourse, did not pay much attention to consistency; that he had studied the Mahabharata, and found how very full of discrepancies were the episodes of the main story told in it. Many of the discrepancies are the- result of interpolation, but that does not excuse them, for they have been suffered to exist; The remarks of Prof. Hopkins strengthened my resolve to proceed with the task of eliminating discrepancies as well as supernatural episodes from the Mahabharata.

I published my work in Bengali in 1983. After viewing the interesting televised serial of the Mahabharata I ventured to begin the preparation of an English version, so that a wider circle of scholars might be interested in the unvarnished original Mahabharata story, and correct the mistakes I may have made. Part deals with some discrepancies in the Mahabharata which struck me when I first studied the Pune edition of Ramachandra Shastri. Part II deals briefly with the corrections that the Samsodhaka Mandal has effected. It is a pity that they did not deal with the Harivansa, Part III is a more ambitious attempt to search out the original Bharata Samhita after discarding the late additions and interpolations. Part IV sets out the story purged of additions and discrepancies with a supplementary chapter giving a brief account of Krishna's life and teaching, rejecting or interpreting some of the supernatural tales which have become woven around his life and work.

I now humbly submit my work to the notice of the congnoscenti and of the general readers of India.

The chapter and verse numbers of the few quotations from the Mahabharata are the numbers as in Ramachandra Shastri‘s edition.

About the Author

Shri Sisir Kumar Sen was born on 31st January, 1903, in a gifted family of Kalia in Jessore Dist. Of East Bengal. His father, late Jnanada Kanta Sen was a respected Medical Practitioner in Delhi; his mother used to keep in close touch with Bengali literature and wrote and published some books of Bengali Poems. The author joined the Indian Civil Service and worked as a Judge of Calcutta High Court from May 1952 to the end of January 1963.

He had become interested in the life and work of Shri Krishna after reading the late Bankim Chandra Chatterji’s book “Krishna Charitra”. It contains an analysis of the story of Shri Krishna in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. The Author re-read “Krishna Charitra” and made a careful study of the original Mahabharata and agreed with the view of the late Bakim Chandra Chatterji that the Mahabharata, in spite of many later additions, was the best source for the true life story of Shri Krishna.

The Author spent several years in the study of the critical edition of the Mahabharata published by the Sansodhaka Mandala of Bhandarkar Research Institute. He published in 1981 the true life story of Shri Krishna and in 1983 the original Mahabharata story in Bengali. After viewing the television serial of the Mahabharata the Author decided that a wider audience could be reached if the true Mahabharata story were to be published in English, shorn of the various myths that had grown through the centuries.

CONTENTS

Dedication v
Preface vii
Part 1
The standard Mahabharata and
Discrepanices therein.
Chapter
1Introduction 1
2Discrepancies in the Standard Text 11
Account of the birth of the Pandavas; Account of the birth of Dhritarashtra’s sons’ Attempt to kill Bhima in his adolescence; Various stories about Karna; Period of Arjuna’s banishment by Yudhishthira; Story of Chitrangada; Abhimanyu’s age at the time of the great battle; Draupadi’s ordeal at the dice gambling hall; Beginning of Pandavas’ forest exile; Another discrepancy in the Vana Parva; The story of pancha-grama or five villages; An obvious interpolation for introducing discourses on dharma; Day-to-day description of Kurukshetra battle by Sanjaya; The Bhagavad Gita; Who felled Bhishma in battle; Bhishma’s discourses from his bed of arrows; Change in the account of Drona’s death; Aswatthama’s prowess after Drona’s death; Mace fight between Bhima and Duryodhana.
Part II
Critical Edition of Mahabharata
prepared by the Bhandarkar Research Institute of Pune
1Scope and method of the work of the Research Institute of Pune 67
2Brief Account of the Revision of each Parva 74
Adi Parva; Sabha Parva; Vana Parva; Virata Parva; Udyoga Parva; Bhishma Parva; Drona Parva; Karna Parva; Salya Parva; Sauptika and Stree Parvas; Santi Parva; Anusasana Parva; Aswamedhika Parva; Asramavasika Parva; Mausala Parva; Mahaprasthana and Swargarohana parvas.
Part III
Quest for the Original Bharata Samhita
1Scope of this part 101
2 Adi Parva: Beginning of Bharata Samhita 105
3Adi Parva; From the King Santanu to the birth and training of Pandavas and Kauravas 110
4Adi Parva; From the exile to Varanavata to the burning of the Khandava forest 118
5Sabha Parva 125
6Varna Parva : From Aranyaka to Indraloka Abhigamana Sub Parvas 130
7Vana Parva : Nalopakhyana to Nivatakavacha yuddha Sub Parva 137
8Vana Parva : From Ajagara to Araneya Sub Parva 146
9Virata Parva 155
10Udyoga Parva : From Senodyoga to Yanasandhi 159
11Udyoga Parva : From Bhagavad—yana to Amba Upakhyana 166
12Bhishma Parva 175
13Drona Parva : The first three days 182
14Drona Parva 2 The fight for Jayadratha's life 186
15Drona Parva : Death of Ghatotkacha and Drona : Aswatthama's attempt to avenge Drona's death193
16Kama Parva 202
17Salya Parva 209
18Sauptika Parva 215
19Stree Parva 219
20Santi Parva 222
21Anusasana Parva 227
22Aswamedhika Parva 229
23Asramavasika Parva 235
24Mausala Parva 239
25Mahaprasthanika and Swargarohana Parvas 245
26Concluding Remarks 247
Part IV
The Original Mahabharata Story
1Puru Bharata and Kuru Panchala clans 251
2Uparichara Vasu and Satyavati 257
3Santanu, Bhishma and Satyavati 260
4Dhritarashua, Pandu and Vidura 264
5Training of sons of Dhritarashua and Panda and the tuition fee paid by them 269
6Pandavas in their lac cottage and in hiding 278
7Pandavas win Draupadi and get one-half of Kuru kingdom 286
8Arjuna's exile and his wedding with Subhadra: Burning of Khandava forest 295
9Construction of a wonderful assembly hall by Maya danava 301
10Prosperity of Indraprastha: Talk about Rajasuya yajna: Killing of king Jarasandha 304
11Victorious expeditions to the four quarters and collection of funds for Rajasuya Yajna 309
12Rajasuya yajna: Killing of Sisupala 314
13Dice gambling and its sequel 318
14Pandavas in Dwaita forest 328
15Arjuna's journey to Indraloka 332
16Pilgrimage of four remaining Pandavas and Panchali 335
17Killing of Jatasura and Bhima's battle with Yakshas 342
18With Arjuna at Gandhamadana and Visakhayupa 346
19Dwaita forest again : Ghosha-yatra 349
20Markandeya Samasya and Draupadi-Satyabhama Talks 354
21Abduction of Draupadi by Jayadratha and her rescue 359
22Pandavas at king Virata‘s palace; Complying with the terms of the wager 364
23Killing of Kichaka 369
24Rustling of cattle and battles that followed 374
25A cheerful wedding 382
26Planning recovery of Pandavas' kingdom 385
27Drupada king's priest and Sanjaya as envoys 391
28Krishna as Pandavas' envoy 398
29Gathering of armies and preparation for battle 407
30First ten days of the battle 412
31Next three days of battle: Killing of Abhimanyu 422
32Fourteenth day‘s battle: Killing of Jayadratha 431
33Night battle followed by morning battle : Death of Ghatotkacha and Drona 440
34Death of Duhsasana and Kama in fierce battle 445
35Killing of Salya and Duryodhana 453
36Sauptika Parva : Massacre of surviving Pandava Panchalas sleeping in camp 459
37Women's visit to the battlefield 464
38Yudhishthira recovers peace of mind and is crowned king of Hastinapura 467
39Birth of Parikshita and performance of Aswamedha yajna 472
40Dhritarashtra with Gandhari and Kunti retires to the forest 480
41End of the Dwaraka Yadavas by internecine fighting 484
42The Pandavas renounce their kingdom and depart from the world 488
43Some aspects of Krishna's life and teaching (A supplementary chapter) 491
44Glossary 515
45Glossary of Place Names 519
46Glossary of Names of Persons 523
47Glossary of some terms used in the story534

Quest for the Original Bharata Samhita and Mahabharata Story

Item Code:
IHL528
Cover:
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Edition:
1995
ISBN:
8172760345
Size:
8.3 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
534
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Preface

While studying the original Mahabharata edited by Ramachandra Shastri Kinjawadekar and published from Pune during 1929 to 1933, I was struck by many discrepancies. These were obviously the result of many interpolations in the manuscripts by minstrels or scribes or authors anxious to preserve their own work by incorporating the same in the Mahabharata, knowing that the Mahabharata with all additions would survive, but independent poetical or dramatical stories had little chance of survival. Kalidasa in his "Malavikagnimitram" had eulogised Bhasa, Saumillaka and Kaviputra as well—known dramatists, but the works of the last two are wholly lost while manuscripts of some dramatic works of Bhasa (probably with changes made by a repertoire theatre group) were accidentally found in 1909 in a monastery near Padmanabhapuram in Kerala by Ganapati Shastri, the manuscripts being in Malayalam script. Even in this age of printed books many good books circulate for a while and then get lost. Some of the interpolations in the Mahabharata are unrelated to the main story and were introduced as told to the main characters, chiefly the Pandavas, to amuse or comfort them when they were depressed, e.g. the story of Nala Damayanti, of Savitri Satyavan etc.; we are thankful to the authors of these stories for inserting them in the epic and so preserving them for posterity, but they are not parts of the main story, and must be omitted when seeking to separate out the main story from all additions, though they must be preserved as separate books. Other interpolations are parts of the main story retold by ambitious authors, but the authors have departed in some details from the main story or added frills and thus introduced discrepancies. These additions must be discarded after carefully deciding which version is part of the main story. There are also instances where long passages or whole chapters or groups of chapters have been shifted from the proper place in the story; these lapses may be corrected by proper rearrangement of the passages or chapters. These discrepancies and displacements are irritating to any serious reader. One instance may be cited as illustration. In the Adi Parva it is stated at first that Rishis living in Ashramas in the high mountains escorted Kumi and five boys to the Hastinapura palace, and saying only that the boys were sons of Pandu they departed without another word; that some remarked how the boys could be Pandu's sons, as Pandu was long dead ‘but there were some unusual manifestations like flowers dropping from the sky, and Bhishma accepted the boys as Pandu's sons and arranged their being brought up with Dhritarashtra‘s sons. In a subsequent chapter of the same Parva it is stated that the Rishis brought the bodies of Pandu and Madri along with Kunti and five boys, that they stated that Pandu had expired seventeen days before and that Madri had thrown herself into Pandu‘s Pyre, and that the boys had been sired by gods Dharma, Matariswa (Vayu), Puruhuta (Indra) and twin Aswinikumars as Pandu was firm in his detachment from sex enjoyment (brahmacharya vrata), and that funeral rites for Pandu and Madri were to be performed; and that saying all this the Rishis suddenly disappeared. There is no doubt that the accounts are widely different and they have to be weighed carefully to decide what really happened; But a choice has to be made and the Mahabharata story retold in a consistent manner.

I also felt that all supernatural elements must be omitted in retelling the main story. Indian poets and dramatists have frequently mixed up human affairs with acts of gods, as if human beings and gods had frequent contact in the world. Thus we find gods 'called upon to sire babies for maidens and married women, and celestial nymphs bearing babies to human sages and kings; human kings sometimes fighting for gods and gods giving special weapons to human heroes so that they may win their battles. Even in the 7th century A.D. the poet, Banabhatta in Kadambari made a mix—up of the gods and the humans, and adopted the erroneous belief of the untaught masses that by a Rishi’s curse a man may be turned into a bird or animal or insect, or be born as such. Belief in the ` effectiveness of curses of Rishis is an everpresent check on the masses to normal behaviour and action. People believed that a brahman's curse could cause the wheel of a hero’s chariot to sink into the ground, or make him forget the proper use of his weapons. Such beliefs ultimately lead men to lose the power to distinguish between the real mundane world and the realm of phantasy. By praying to gods for supernatural help Indian kings have sometimes wasted valuable time in which to prepare their armies to meet the enemy without. It is essential that all such supernatural tales be ruthlessly eliminated from people's minds and the epics.

While studying Ramachandra Shastri's edition of the Mahabharata I was trying to work out how the discrepancies and supernatural tales might be eliminated. I then came to know of the work of the Samsodhaka Mandal of Bhandarkar Research Institute of Pune, under the leadership of Dr. Sukthankar and other savants who succeeded him. This Mandal or Committee was appointed to find the earliest common reading of the epic. Interpolations having been added independently wherever the manuscripts were written, wide variations in the texts of the Northem and Southern versions of the epic had come about and smaller differences in the texts of Western and Eastern India. The Mandal, by their labour extending from the beginning of the century published the critical edition of the Mahabharata in 22 volumes between 1933 and 1966. Thereby they reduced the number of verses by nearly ten thousand and removed copyists' errors which had made many verses almost unintelligible. But necessary and laborious as the work was, the committee did not have before it the objective of elimination of discrepancies and supernatural tales woven into the story, though by discarding the late additions they did get rid of some discrepancies and supernatural tales. I therefore decided to proceed with my work of searching for the original Bharata Samhita purged of discrepancies and supernatural tales.

In the course of my work I noticed a remark made by Prof. E.W. Hopkins, an American Indologist, in the journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1905, pp 384 - 389 that Indians, when telling a story or setting out a discourse, did not pay much attention to consistency; that he had studied the Mahabharata, and found how very full of discrepancies were the episodes of the main story told in it. Many of the discrepancies are the- result of interpolation, but that does not excuse them, for they have been suffered to exist; The remarks of Prof. Hopkins strengthened my resolve to proceed with the task of eliminating discrepancies as well as supernatural episodes from the Mahabharata.

I published my work in Bengali in 1983. After viewing the interesting televised serial of the Mahabharata I ventured to begin the preparation of an English version, so that a wider circle of scholars might be interested in the unvarnished original Mahabharata story, and correct the mistakes I may have made. Part deals with some discrepancies in the Mahabharata which struck me when I first studied the Pune edition of Ramachandra Shastri. Part II deals briefly with the corrections that the Samsodhaka Mandal has effected. It is a pity that they did not deal with the Harivansa, Part III is a more ambitious attempt to search out the original Bharata Samhita after discarding the late additions and interpolations. Part IV sets out the story purged of additions and discrepancies with a supplementary chapter giving a brief account of Krishna's life and teaching, rejecting or interpreting some of the supernatural tales which have become woven around his life and work.

I now humbly submit my work to the notice of the congnoscenti and of the general readers of India.

The chapter and verse numbers of the few quotations from the Mahabharata are the numbers as in Ramachandra Shastri‘s edition.

About the Author

Shri Sisir Kumar Sen was born on 31st January, 1903, in a gifted family of Kalia in Jessore Dist. Of East Bengal. His father, late Jnanada Kanta Sen was a respected Medical Practitioner in Delhi; his mother used to keep in close touch with Bengali literature and wrote and published some books of Bengali Poems. The author joined the Indian Civil Service and worked as a Judge of Calcutta High Court from May 1952 to the end of January 1963.

He had become interested in the life and work of Shri Krishna after reading the late Bankim Chandra Chatterji’s book “Krishna Charitra”. It contains an analysis of the story of Shri Krishna in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. The Author re-read “Krishna Charitra” and made a careful study of the original Mahabharata and agreed with the view of the late Bakim Chandra Chatterji that the Mahabharata, in spite of many later additions, was the best source for the true life story of Shri Krishna.

The Author spent several years in the study of the critical edition of the Mahabharata published by the Sansodhaka Mandala of Bhandarkar Research Institute. He published in 1981 the true life story of Shri Krishna and in 1983 the original Mahabharata story in Bengali. After viewing the television serial of the Mahabharata the Author decided that a wider audience could be reached if the true Mahabharata story were to be published in English, shorn of the various myths that had grown through the centuries.

CONTENTS

Dedication v
Preface vii
Part 1
The standard Mahabharata and
Discrepanices therein.
Chapter
1Introduction 1
2Discrepancies in the Standard Text 11
Account of the birth of the Pandavas; Account of the birth of Dhritarashtra’s sons’ Attempt to kill Bhima in his adolescence; Various stories about Karna; Period of Arjuna’s banishment by Yudhishthira; Story of Chitrangada; Abhimanyu’s age at the time of the great battle; Draupadi’s ordeal at the dice gambling hall; Beginning of Pandavas’ forest exile; Another discrepancy in the Vana Parva; The story of pancha-grama or five villages; An obvious interpolation for introducing discourses on dharma; Day-to-day description of Kurukshetra battle by Sanjaya; The Bhagavad Gita; Who felled Bhishma in battle; Bhishma’s discourses from his bed of arrows; Change in the account of Drona’s death; Aswatthama’s prowess after Drona’s death; Mace fight between Bhima and Duryodhana.
Part II
Critical Edition of Mahabharata
prepared by the Bhandarkar Research Institute of Pune
1Scope and method of the work of the Research Institute of Pune 67
2Brief Account of the Revision of each Parva 74
Adi Parva; Sabha Parva; Vana Parva; Virata Parva; Udyoga Parva; Bhishma Parva; Drona Parva; Karna Parva; Salya Parva; Sauptika and Stree Parvas; Santi Parva; Anusasana Parva; Aswamedhika Parva; Asramavasika Parva; Mausala Parva; Mahaprasthana and Swargarohana parvas.
Part III
Quest for the Original Bharata Samhita
1Scope of this part 101
2 Adi Parva: Beginning of Bharata Samhita 105
3Adi Parva; From the King Santanu to the birth and training of Pandavas and Kauravas 110
4Adi Parva; From the exile to Varanavata to the burning of the Khandava forest 118
5Sabha Parva 125
6Varna Parva : From Aranyaka to Indraloka Abhigamana Sub Parvas 130
7Vana Parva : Nalopakhyana to Nivatakavacha yuddha Sub Parva 137
8Vana Parva : From Ajagara to Araneya Sub Parva 146
9Virata Parva 155
10Udyoga Parva : From Senodyoga to Yanasandhi 159
11Udyoga Parva : From Bhagavad—yana to Amba Upakhyana 166
12Bhishma Parva 175
13Drona Parva : The first three days 182
14Drona Parva 2 The fight for Jayadratha's life 186
15Drona Parva : Death of Ghatotkacha and Drona : Aswatthama's attempt to avenge Drona's death193
16Kama Parva 202
17Salya Parva 209
18Sauptika Parva 215
19Stree Parva 219
20Santi Parva 222
21Anusasana Parva 227
22Aswamedhika Parva 229
23Asramavasika Parva 235
24Mausala Parva 239
25Mahaprasthanika and Swargarohana Parvas 245
26Concluding Remarks 247
Part IV
The Original Mahabharata Story
1Puru Bharata and Kuru Panchala clans 251
2Uparichara Vasu and Satyavati 257
3Santanu, Bhishma and Satyavati 260
4Dhritarashua, Pandu and Vidura 264
5Training of sons of Dhritarashua and Panda and the tuition fee paid by them 269
6Pandavas in their lac cottage and in hiding 278
7Pandavas win Draupadi and get one-half of Kuru kingdom 286
8Arjuna's exile and his wedding with Subhadra: Burning of Khandava forest 295
9Construction of a wonderful assembly hall by Maya danava 301
10Prosperity of Indraprastha: Talk about Rajasuya yajna: Killing of king Jarasandha 304
11Victorious expeditions to the four quarters and collection of funds for Rajasuya Yajna 309
12Rajasuya yajna: Killing of Sisupala 314
13Dice gambling and its sequel 318
14Pandavas in Dwaita forest 328
15Arjuna's journey to Indraloka 332
16Pilgrimage of four remaining Pandavas and Panchali 335
17Killing of Jatasura and Bhima's battle with Yakshas 342
18With Arjuna at Gandhamadana and Visakhayupa 346
19Dwaita forest again : Ghosha-yatra 349
20Markandeya Samasya and Draupadi-Satyabhama Talks 354
21Abduction of Draupadi by Jayadratha and her rescue 359
22Pandavas at king Virata‘s palace; Complying with the terms of the wager 364
23Killing of Kichaka 369
24Rustling of cattle and battles that followed 374
25A cheerful wedding 382
26Planning recovery of Pandavas' kingdom 385
27Drupada king's priest and Sanjaya as envoys 391
28Krishna as Pandavas' envoy 398
29Gathering of armies and preparation for battle 407
30First ten days of the battle 412
31Next three days of battle: Killing of Abhimanyu 422
32Fourteenth day‘s battle: Killing of Jayadratha 431
33Night battle followed by morning battle : Death of Ghatotkacha and Drona 440
34Death of Duhsasana and Kama in fierce battle 445
35Killing of Salya and Duryodhana 453
36Sauptika Parva : Massacre of surviving Pandava Panchalas sleeping in camp 459
37Women's visit to the battlefield 464
38Yudhishthira recovers peace of mind and is crowned king of Hastinapura 467
39Birth of Parikshita and performance of Aswamedha yajna 472
40Dhritarashtra with Gandhari and Kunti retires to the forest 480
41End of the Dwaraka Yadavas by internecine fighting 484
42The Pandavas renounce their kingdom and depart from the world 488
43Some aspects of Krishna's life and teaching (A supplementary chapter) 491
44Glossary 515
45Glossary of Place Names 519
46Glossary of Names of Persons 523
47Glossary of some terms used in the story534
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Shiva and Parvati Bless a Bhakta Even as One-Eyed Kubera Looks On
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Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
20.0 inches X 13.2 inches
Item Code: PJ93
$135.00$94.50
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Adoration of Fluting Ganesha
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Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
18.5 inches X 13.2 inches
Item Code: PJ88
$105.00$73.50
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Krishna Lila
Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
6.0 inches X 14.5 inches
Item Code: PK51
$80.00
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Life of Krishna
Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
21.5 inches X 13.5 inches
Item Code: PK57
$155.00
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Life of Krishna in Human Realm
Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
20.0 inches X 12.0 inches
Item Code: PK58
$195.00
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Shiva as Kalantaka Saves Rishi Markandeya
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Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
20.5 inches X 13.5 inches
Item Code: PJ86
$105.00$63.00
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Radha Krishna on the Banks of Yamuna with Gopis
Watercolor on Patti
Artist Rabi Behera
17.5 inches X 11.5 inches
Item Code: PM09
$125.00
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The Complete Mahabharata in English (12 Volumes)
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Item Code: ISL51
$325.00$292.50
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The Mahabharata
Item Code: NAG662
$25.00
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The Mahabharata
Item Code: NAK811
$25.00
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The Mahabharata (A Modern Rendering) (A Set of 2 Volumes)
by Ramesh Menon
Paperback (Edition: 2004)
Rupa Publication Pvt. Ltd.
Item Code: NAF168
$50.00
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The Mystery of The Mahabharata (Set of Five Volumes)
by N.V. Thadani
Hardcover (Edition: 2007)
Bharatiya Kala Prakashan
Item Code: NAL105
$195.00
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I’ve received the package 2 days ago. The painting is as beautiful as I whished! I’m very interesting in history, art and culture of India and I’m studing his civilization; so I’ve visited Rajasthan, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in theese years. I’m a draftwoman , so I like collect works of extraordinary arts and crafts of villages, that must be protected and helped. In a short time I’ll buy some others folk painting, as Madhubani , Kalamkari and – if it’s possible – Phad. In the meanwhile, I’m very happy to have in my home a work of your great artist. Namaste, Namaskara.
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