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Books > Ayurveda > Ayurveda > Research Methodology and Medical Statistics
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Research Methodology and Medical Statistics
Research Methodology and Medical Statistics
Description
FOREWORD

Research Methodology and Medical Statistics is an important tool keep a check on the research projects undertaken in the medical field. Ayurvedic principles and medicines should also be time tested firm by application of these tools. Universal acceptance to Ayurved in sonly possible after sound research with the help of modern research techniques; hence knowledge of research and statistics important to every research student.

We have printed the syllabus specified by C.C.I.M. and M.U.H.S. helpful for Ayurvedic research scholars. We have especially taken care to cover each and every point from the syllabus by giving referal page number for each point. The vast and complicated part of Research and Statistics is made easier and has been presented with ample illustrations and Ayurvedic examples wherever possible.

The book has been divided in three sections for the convenience of the students:

Section A- Research Methodology

Section B- Research Methodology (Ayurvedic view)

Section C- Medical Statistics

We are sure that all the students and teachers of PG will appreciate our efforts.

 

Contents

Designing and methodology of an experiment or a study Steps and methodology format for presentation of any research work.

 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
 
1A Aims and objects of research in Ayurveda: 129
a Principles of Ancient methods of Research 133
b Modern methods of Research 12
c Ancient methods of Research 133
d What is research? 08
e Classification of research 16
f Classification of Research (Ayurvedic View) 131
g Serendipity- Research 11
1B    
a Research Method 12
b Research Methodology 12
c Research Technique 16
d Scientific Research 09
e Motivation for research 11
1C    
a Research problem 13
b Search for problem for Research 13
c Criteria for selection of problem 13
d Making a hypothesis/protocol 22
e Research Design in Medical Research 16
1D    
a Setting up of a Basic Research Laboratory and Animal House 47
b Setting of a Research Lab (Ayurvedic View) 137
c Space, instruments and equipment, manpower required for a Basic and Drug Research Laboratory 50
1E    
a Setting up Animal house 47
b Animals used in Biological Research 47
c Maintenance of Animals 47
2A Principals and Methods of Fundamental, Clinical, Drug and Literary Research:-  
a Fundamental Research: Definition, design 17
b Fundamental Research in Ayurved 139
c Drug Research:  
  Raw Material/dosage formulation, preparation 39
  Analysis of drugs Qualitative/Quantitative 39
  Biological screening of Drugs 41
  Toxicity of Drugs- LD 50, ED 50 27
d Drug Research in Ayurved 148
e Clinical Research: 31
  Definition, 31
  Phases of Clinical Trials, 33
  Criteria for selection of patients 23
  Randomization 22
  Placebo 33
  Blinding Technique, 33
  Trial design 32
f Clinical Research in Ayurved 141
g Literary Research 19
h Literary Research in Ayurved 157
i Manuscriptology (Ayurvedic View) 164
2B Methods of Survey of Medicinal Plants  
a Field survey 36
b Botanical identification of medicinal plants 35
c Traditional Methods 149
d Taxonomical Methods 35
e Histological Methods 41
f Preservation of Medicinal Plants 37
2C Methods of Survey of Medicinal Plants. (Ayurvedic View) 160
3A Radioisotopes and their role in medical research, Radiation and their Biological effects:  
a Radioisotopes and their role in medical research 44
b Types of Radiation 43
c Units of Radiation Measurement and Exposure 43
3B a Biological effect of Radiation 45
b Isotopes used in Medical Research/ Diagnosis/ Treatment 44
3C a Diagnostic and Therapeutic application of radio isotopes 44
b Uses of Radio isotopes in Medical Research 44
c Application in Ayurvedic Research 46
3D a Radio immuno assay 42
4 Principles, Instrumentation and Application of following instruments in Modern and Ayurvedic Research:  
4A Chromatography-  
a Paper chromatography 60
b TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) 61
c HPTLC (High performance Thin Layer- Chromatography) 64
d HPLC (High performance Liquid-Chromatography) 67
e GC (Gas Chromatography) 70
4B Colorimetery 72
4C Spectrophotometery-  
a UV (Ultra violet Spectrophotometery) 85
b VIS (Visible Spectrophotometery) 85
c AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery) 86
d IR (Infra Red Spectrophotometery) 87
4D Electrophoresis: 92
a Paper Electrophoresis 95
b PAGE (Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) 95
4E Other Instruments:  
a PH meter 96
b Disintegration apparatus 100
c Dissolution apparatus 102
d Hardness testing apparatus 103
e Refractometer 103
f Viscometer 107
g Microscope 108
h Centrifuge 114
i Glassware 115
j Sterilization Methods 116
k Hot air oven 119
l Extraction and Soxhelet apparatus 120
m Polarimeter 121
n Muffle furnace 123
o Incubator 124
p Analytical balance 125
 
MEDICAL STATISTICS
 
1 Introduction  
  Application of Statistical Methods to Ayurvedic Research 169
2 Sources and Presentation of Data: 174
a Qualitative (or Discrete) Data 174
b Quantitative (or continuous) Data 174
c Methods of Presentation 177
d Tabulation 178
e Graphical 180
f Diagram 180
3 Measurs of Location: 186
a Averages 186
b Measures of central tendency 186
c Mean 186
d Median 188
e Mode 188
f Percentiles 190
g Graphic method 190
h Arithmetical method 191
i Application and uses of percentiles 191
4 Variability and its measures: 192
a Types of variability 192
b Biological variability 193
c Real variability 194
d Experimental variability 194
e Measures of variability 195
f Range 195
g Semi- interquartile Range (Q) 196
h Mean Deviation 196
i Standard Deviation (S.D.) 197
j Standard Error 220
k Coefficient of Variation (C.V.) 199
5 Normal Distribution and Normal Curve: 201
a Demonstration of normal Distribution 202
b Normal Curve 201
c Standard Normal Deviate (Z) 202
d Asymmetrical Distributions 203
6 Sampling: 210
a Representative Sample 210
b Precision (Sample Size) 210
c Sample Bias 211
d Sample Techniques 2111
e Simple Sampling 213
f Random Sampling 211
g Systematic Sampling 211
h Stratified Sampling 212
i Multistage Sampling 212
j Cluster Sampling 212
k Multiphase Sampling 212
7 Probability (Chance): 206
a Addition Law of probability 207
b Multiplication Law of probability 207
c Binomial Law of Probability Distribution 207
d Probability/ Chance from shape of Normal Distribution or Normal curve 203
8 Sampling Variability and Significance: 218
a Significance 217
b Estimation of Population parameters 219
9 Testing Statistical Hypothesis: 215
a Types of Hypothesis 217
b Test of Significance 216
c Indications for Tests 216
d Applicability of Test 217
e Advantages and Limitations/Calculation and Interpretation:  
i Z test 232
ii Student's 't' test 222
  Unpaired 224
  Paired 226
iii Variance Ratio Test (F Test) 234
iv Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) 234
v Chi Square test 228
vi Willcoxon Sign test and Willcoxon Sum test 235
10 Concept of Regression and Co-Relation and their interpretation 238
11 Demography and Vital Statistics 242
12   250
13 Role of Computer 251
 
INDEX
 
1 Aims and Objects of Research 08
2 Modern Methods of Research 12
3 Types of Research 16
4 Steps of research 19
5 Drug Research 24
6 Clinical Trials 32
7 Medicinal Plant Survey 35
8 Herbal Drug Standardization 38
9 Radioisotopes 43
10 Animal House 47
11 Research Laboratory 50
12 Commonly Utilized Techniques 54
13 Principles and Application of Research Instruments 58

Sample Pages





Research Methodology and Medical Statistics

Item Code:
IDI100
Cover:
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Edition:
2006
Size:
8.2"X 10.6"
Pages:
261 (Colour illustrations: 30, Map: 1, and Figurs)
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FOREWORD

Research Methodology and Medical Statistics is an important tool keep a check on the research projects undertaken in the medical field. Ayurvedic principles and medicines should also be time tested firm by application of these tools. Universal acceptance to Ayurved in sonly possible after sound research with the help of modern research techniques; hence knowledge of research and statistics important to every research student.

We have printed the syllabus specified by C.C.I.M. and M.U.H.S. helpful for Ayurvedic research scholars. We have especially taken care to cover each and every point from the syllabus by giving referal page number for each point. The vast and complicated part of Research and Statistics is made easier and has been presented with ample illustrations and Ayurvedic examples wherever possible.

The book has been divided in three sections for the convenience of the students:

Section A- Research Methodology

Section B- Research Methodology (Ayurvedic view)

Section C- Medical Statistics

We are sure that all the students and teachers of PG will appreciate our efforts.

 

Contents

Designing and methodology of an experiment or a study Steps and methodology format for presentation of any research work.

 
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
 
1A Aims and objects of research in Ayurveda: 129
a Principles of Ancient methods of Research 133
b Modern methods of Research 12
c Ancient methods of Research 133
d What is research? 08
e Classification of research 16
f Classification of Research (Ayurvedic View) 131
g Serendipity- Research 11
1B    
a Research Method 12
b Research Methodology 12
c Research Technique 16
d Scientific Research 09
e Motivation for research 11
1C    
a Research problem 13
b Search for problem for Research 13
c Criteria for selection of problem 13
d Making a hypothesis/protocol 22
e Research Design in Medical Research 16
1D    
a Setting up of a Basic Research Laboratory and Animal House 47
b Setting of a Research Lab (Ayurvedic View) 137
c Space, instruments and equipment, manpower required for a Basic and Drug Research Laboratory 50
1E    
a Setting up Animal house 47
b Animals used in Biological Research 47
c Maintenance of Animals 47
2A Principals and Methods of Fundamental, Clinical, Drug and Literary Research:-  
a Fundamental Research: Definition, design 17
b Fundamental Research in Ayurved 139
c Drug Research:  
  Raw Material/dosage formulation, preparation 39
  Analysis of drugs Qualitative/Quantitative 39
  Biological screening of Drugs 41
  Toxicity of Drugs- LD 50, ED 50 27
d Drug Research in Ayurved 148
e Clinical Research: 31
  Definition, 31
  Phases of Clinical Trials, 33
  Criteria for selection of patients 23
  Randomization 22
  Placebo 33
  Blinding Technique, 33
  Trial design 32
f Clinical Research in Ayurved 141
g Literary Research 19
h Literary Research in Ayurved 157
i Manuscriptology (Ayurvedic View) 164
2B Methods of Survey of Medicinal Plants  
a Field survey 36
b Botanical identification of medicinal plants 35
c Traditional Methods 149
d Taxonomical Methods 35
e Histological Methods 41
f Preservation of Medicinal Plants 37
2C Methods of Survey of Medicinal Plants. (Ayurvedic View) 160
3A Radioisotopes and their role in medical research, Radiation and their Biological effects:  
a Radioisotopes and their role in medical research 44
b Types of Radiation 43
c Units of Radiation Measurement and Exposure 43
3B a Biological effect of Radiation 45
b Isotopes used in Medical Research/ Diagnosis/ Treatment 44
3C a Diagnostic and Therapeutic application of radio isotopes 44
b Uses of Radio isotopes in Medical Research 44
c Application in Ayurvedic Research 46
3D a Radio immuno assay 42
4 Principles, Instrumentation and Application of following instruments in Modern and Ayurvedic Research:  
4A Chromatography-  
a Paper chromatography 60
b TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) 61
c HPTLC (High performance Thin Layer- Chromatography) 64
d HPLC (High performance Liquid-Chromatography) 67
e GC (Gas Chromatography) 70
4B Colorimetery 72
4C Spectrophotometery-  
a UV (Ultra violet Spectrophotometery) 85
b VIS (Visible Spectrophotometery) 85
c AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometery) 86
d IR (Infra Red Spectrophotometery) 87
4D Electrophoresis: 92
a Paper Electrophoresis 95
b PAGE (Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) 95
4E Other Instruments:  
a PH meter 96
b Disintegration apparatus 100
c Dissolution apparatus 102
d Hardness testing apparatus 103
e Refractometer 103
f Viscometer 107
g Microscope 108
h Centrifuge 114
i Glassware 115
j Sterilization Methods 116
k Hot air oven 119
l Extraction and Soxhelet apparatus 120
m Polarimeter 121
n Muffle furnace 123
o Incubator 124
p Analytical balance 125
 
MEDICAL STATISTICS
 
1 Introduction  
  Application of Statistical Methods to Ayurvedic Research 169
2 Sources and Presentation of Data: 174
a Qualitative (or Discrete) Data 174
b Quantitative (or continuous) Data 174
c Methods of Presentation 177
d Tabulation 178
e Graphical 180
f Diagram 180
3 Measurs of Location: 186
a Averages 186
b Measures of central tendency 186
c Mean 186
d Median 188
e Mode 188
f Percentiles 190
g Graphic method 190
h Arithmetical method 191
i Application and uses of percentiles 191
4 Variability and its measures: 192
a Types of variability 192
b Biological variability 193
c Real variability 194
d Experimental variability 194
e Measures of variability 195
f Range 195
g Semi- interquartile Range (Q) 196
h Mean Deviation 196
i Standard Deviation (S.D.) 197
j Standard Error 220
k Coefficient of Variation (C.V.) 199
5 Normal Distribution and Normal Curve: 201
a Demonstration of normal Distribution 202
b Normal Curve 201
c Standard Normal Deviate (Z) 202
d Asymmetrical Distributions 203
6 Sampling: 210
a Representative Sample 210
b Precision (Sample Size) 210
c Sample Bias 211
d Sample Techniques 2111
e Simple Sampling 213
f Random Sampling 211
g Systematic Sampling 211
h Stratified Sampling 212
i Multistage Sampling 212
j Cluster Sampling 212
k Multiphase Sampling 212
7 Probability (Chance): 206
a Addition Law of probability 207
b Multiplication Law of probability 207
c Binomial Law of Probability Distribution 207
d Probability/ Chance from shape of Normal Distribution or Normal curve 203
8 Sampling Variability and Significance: 218
a Significance 217
b Estimation of Population parameters 219
9 Testing Statistical Hypothesis: 215
a Types of Hypothesis 217
b Test of Significance 216
c Indications for Tests 216
d Applicability of Test 217
e Advantages and Limitations/Calculation and Interpretation:  
i Z test 232
ii Student's 't' test 222
  Unpaired 224
  Paired 226
iii Variance Ratio Test (F Test) 234
iv Analysis of variance test (ANOVA) 234
v Chi Square test 228
vi Willcoxon Sign test and Willcoxon Sum test 235
10 Concept of Regression and Co-Relation and their interpretation 238
11 Demography and Vital Statistics 242
12   250
13 Role of Computer 251
 
INDEX
 
1 Aims and Objects of Research 08
2 Modern Methods of Research 12
3 Types of Research 16
4 Steps of research 19
5 Drug Research 24
6 Clinical Trials 32
7 Medicinal Plant Survey 35
8 Herbal Drug Standardization 38
9 Radioisotopes 43
10 Animal House 47
11 Research Laboratory 50
12 Commonly Utilized Techniques 54
13 Principles and Application of Research Instruments 58

Sample Pages





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