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Books > Hindi > हिंदू धर्म > वेद > Sarvajnatmamuni's Contribution To Advaita Vedanta
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Sarvajnatmamuni's Contribution To Advaita Vedanta
Sarvajnatmamuni's Contribution To Advaita Vedanta
Description
About the Book

The present book attempts a critical study of the philosophy of Sarvajnatmamuni, an eminent Advaita Vedantin of post-Snakara era and makes an appraisal of his contributions to the Advaita Vedanta school of Indian philosophy. The work also highlights the salient features of Advaita Vedanta and discusses the different views regarding the key concepts of the system in a comparative way.

 

About the Author

Dr. Sujata Purkayastha Bhattacharyya passed M.A in Sanskrit form the University of Gauhati in 1981. She obtained Ph.D. degree from the same University in 1988. She is at present a Reader in the Department of Sanskrit, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam. She is a devoted researcher in different fields of Indian philosophy. She has more than a dozen research articles published in different research Journals to her credit.

 

Preface

Sarvajnatmamuni is one of the mast renowned and respected teachers of Advaita Vedanta school of the Past-Sankara period. He is renowned specially far his Advaita Vedantic treatise entitled Samksepasariraka. In this work, Sarvajnatman has endeavoured to explain and interprete the fundamental principles of Advaita Vedanta advocated by Sankaracarya. He has discussed in detail almost all the salient features of this system. Sarvajnatman has two other small works entitled Pancaprakriya and Pramanalaksana to his credit. These are, however, not as famous as Samksepasariraka. Although the main objective of Sarvajnatman consists in elucidating and perfecting the already available philosophical ideas of Sankaracarya, yet it must be contended that in many a cases he has forwarded his independent views which differ to a great extent from his predecessors. And in doing so he has made significant contributions to the field of Advaita Vedanta, as can be assessed from the influence he weilded on the later thinkers of the school.

The present work is an abridged form of my Ph.D. thesis THE PHILOSOPHY OF SARVAJNATMAMUNI. Herein an attempt has been made to present Sarvajnatman's exposition and interpretation of Advaita Vedanta in a systematic, critical and comparative manner. The work is mainly interpretative and it contains nine Chapters.

The First Chapter is introductory. It deals with the life, works and date of Sarvajnatman. The second chapter deals with the Anubandhas (the four pre-requisites) of the study of Vedanta. In the subsequent five chapters the following topics are discussed: the concept of Brahman, the concept of Ajnana, the concept of Adhyasa, the concept of the Jiva and the concept of the World. The last two chapters are concerned with the means and nature of liberation.

I have no words to express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher and erstwhile supervisor Prof. Kaliprasad Sinha, Ph.D., D .Lit, Professor in the Department of Sanskrit. Assam University, Silchar, but for whose inspiring guidance and untiring help, it would have been well nigh impossible to prepare this dissertation.

I am deeply indebted to Prof. Ashok Kumar Goswami, M.A., Ph.D., Retired Professor and Head in the Department of Sanskrit, Gauhati University, for his constant help and inspiration all through my research. He has also very kindly contributed a learned Foreword to my book for which I shall remain ever grateful to him. I am also grateful to Mrs. Beena Devi Goswami, wife of Prof, A.K. Goswami and Advocate, Guwahati High Court and their two daughters Darsana and Sampurna for their affection and help which inspired me to overcome the most critical period of my life.

I shall be failing in my duty if I do not record my thankfulness to my sister Miss Sumitra Purkayastha, Lecturer, J.B. College, Jorhat who has helped me in preparing the manuscript by putting the diacritical marks. I also remain extremely grateful to my parents Sri Ranadhir Purkayastha and Smti Chhaya Devi Purkayastha and my brother Sankar who have always encouraged me in my academic persuits.

My sincere thanks are also due to Messers Punthi Pustak for kindly accepting the work for publication.

I shall deem myself amply rewarded if the work serves to satisfy the scholars and researchers in the field.

 

Foreword

Of the nine schools of Indian philosophy, while the Carvaka presents the crudest thought expected of an ordinary person having no solid philosophical grounding, the Vedanta represents the superb speculations of the philosophical genius. The Vedanta system of Indian philosophy with its origin in the Vedanta (the end of the Veda) i.e. the Upanisads virtually comes to be the Vedanta (i.e. the cream of the Veda). The early Vedantic thoughts of the Upanisads, conveying essentially the monistic principle gets systematised and further developed in Badarayana's Brahmasutra and the commentaries on the Sutra. Of the commentators on the Brahmasutra, otherwise called the Vedantasutra, Acarya Sankara comes to propagate the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta (non-dualistic Vedanta) through numerous works including commentaries on the principal Upanisads, the Bhagavadgita and the Vedantasutra. The followers of Advaitavada have written thousands of books the quintessence of which is Brahma satyam, jaganmithya, jivo brahmaiva (Brahman is real, the world is false and there is no difference between jiva and Brahman). This Brahman is eternal, immaculate, only one and without a second. It has no part, no attribute, no action. Atman or self is one and there is no difference between the Universal self and the Individual self. Owing to the influence of nescience (Avidya) we can not comprehend the real nature of the self. It is of the nature of Sat (existence), Cit (consciousness) and Ananda (bliss). With the help of Vidya (Knowledge), the deep veil of Avidya (ignorance) can be rent asunder. To a Wiseman, freed from the influence of Avidya, the Atman appears in its true form. These revolutionary assertions of the Advaita Vedanta have come to make a great impact on life and culture of Indian people. It is not that the Advaitavada is of utility only for a true spiritualist, if conceived and pursued rightly and seriously, it can lead to immense benefits in all walks of our life, familial, social, national and even international. This great wisdom embodied in the Vedantic treatises can be a true basis of humanity and world fraternity as well.

Mrs (Dr.) Sujata Purkayastha Bhattacharyya's present work titled Sarvajnatmamuni’s Contribution to Advaita Vedanta is a critique on the Vedantic works of Sarvajnatman, a follower of Sankara's school of Advaita Vedanta. This Advaita scholar of approximately 1Oth/11th Century, AD is credited to have authored three books, namely Samksepasariraka, Pancaprakriya and Pramanalaksana. The Samksepasariraka is the most important and celebrated work of Sarvajnatman, written as a Vartika on Sankara's commentary on the Brahmasutra, entitled Sarirakabhasya Of the other two books of Sarvajnatman, Pancaprakriya is chiefly an exposition of the Vedantic Mahavakyas and the Pramanalaksana deals with the Pramanas after the Bhattamimamsakas.

Dr. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya's work, mainly based on the Samksepasariraka touches the Pancaprakriya only in between. Sarvajnatman's Samksepasariraka is a work of four chapters composed in verses numbering 1239. The philosopher author behaves like a poet as he presents the work in varied metres. Sarvajnatman introduces his Samksepasariraka as a Prakarana. A prakarana is a work that deals with some particular aspects of a system in a somewhat novel way. As the title suggests, the Samksepasriraka is expected to be a gist of Sankara's Sarirakabhasya, but virtually Sarvajnatman's work deals with the Vedantic issues elaborately. While following Sankara faithfully in respect of the fundamentals of the Advaita Vedanta, the later Vedantist makes his own points in minor issues like locus of Avidya and necessity of Brahmavicara.

SARVAJNATMAMUNI'S CONTRIBUTION TO ADVAITA VEDANTA authored by Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya is in nine chapters, the first being introductory and the rest broadly dealing with the Anubandhas, the concept of Brahman, the concept of Ajnana, the concept of Adhyasa, the concept of the Jiva, the concept of the world, the path to Liberation and the Liberation respectively. Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya also summarises her findings and views as well under the heading Conclusion. In view of hitherto non-existence of a comprehensive work on Sarvajnatmamuni's treatment of Advaita Vedanta, Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya's book is a welcome venture without doubt.

Sarvajnatman definitely can claim an admission of his contribution to Advaita Vedanta not only as an expounder of the fundamentals of Vedanta as propounded by Acarya Sankara, but also as a stout defender of the school of thoughts against the adverse critics including the Mimamsakas. This follower of Sankara is credited to have clarified a number of concepts and problems not adequately explained by the Master. In post Sankara era, there developed three sub-schools in the line of Advaita Vedanta: Vivarana school established by Prakasatmayati, Bhamati school established by Vacaspati Misra and the Vartika school established by Suresvara. Traditionally Sarvajnatman is said to belong to the Vartika school. Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya has observed in her work that he does not follow any particular sub-school in his treatment of the concepts of Advaita Vedanta. He is, however, found to be nearer to the schools of the Vivarana and the vartika than to the Bhamati of the post Sankara sub schools. On various issues, Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya shows the affinity and the difference as well between Sarvajnatmamuni and other Advaita Vedantists. To illustrate the point, Sarvajnatman does not differ much from his colleagues in the school in presenting the four Anubandhas of Vedantasastra. Yet his treatment of the subject shows a stamp of original thinking. According to Sankara, only a Sannyasin or a follower of the fourth station of life is eligible for Brahma-vicara. Against this view Sarvajnatman holds that the followers of all the four Asramas are eligible for Brahma-vicara. Again the Advaita Vedantins other than the author of Samksepasariraka propound that sat, cit, ananda and ananta form the essential definition of Brahman. Sarvajnatman adds here that Brahman is further nitya, suddha, mukta, suksma, vibhu, advitiya etc. Thus the Vedantic views of Sarvajnatman in affinity and in contrast as well with Sankara and other theorists of the school of Advaita Vedanta seem to be reflected in the present work of Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya. The work is a pleasant addition to our studies of the Advaita Vedanta and, will be, I trust, well received by the advanced readers of the system.

 

Contents

 

  Preface  
  Scheme of Transliteration  
  Abbreviations  
  Chapter I : Introduction 1-13
1 Sarvajnatmamuni, His Date , Life and Works 1
2 Scope And Utility of the Present Study 10
  References 11
  Chapter II : Anubandhas 14-24
  Adhikarin or Competent person 14
  Prayojana or Necessity 19
  Necessity of Brahmavicara 20
  References 22
  Chapter III : The Concept of Brahman 25-52
1 Significance of the Upanisads in Brahman 25
2 The Nature of Brahman 27
(1) Svarupalaksana of Brahman 28
(2) Tatasthalaksana of Brahman 35
3 The Problem of Saguna Brahman and Nirguna Brahman 37
4 The Problem of Pramana about Brahman 40
5 References 47
  Chapter IV : The Concept of Ajnana 53-82
1 The Nature of Ajnana 53
2 Pramana for the Existence of Ajnana 56
3 Two Powers of Avidya 57
4 The Object and Locus of Ajnana 58
(i) The object of Ajnana 58
(ii) The Locus of Ajnana 59
5 Avidya-One or Many 64
6 Difference between Maya and Avidya 66
7 Cessation of Nescience 69
8 References 75
  Chapter V : The Concept of Adhyasa 83-101
1 The Nature of Adhyasa 84
2 Cause of Adhyasa 89
3 The Problem of the Material and the Locus of Dream 94
4 The Problem of Adhara and Adhisthana 96
5 References 98
  Chapter VI : The Concept of The Jiva 102-138
1 The Real Nature of the Jiva 102
2 The Empirical Jiva 102
3 Three States of the Empirical Jiva 106
4 The Theories of Avaccheda , Pratibimba and Abhasa Regarding the Nature of the Jiva  
5 Number of the Jiva 114
(a) Ekta-sariraika -jiva -vada 114
(b) Aneka-sariraika -jiva-vada 115
6 The Relation between the jiva and Brahman 122
7 Meaning of Tattavamasi - Akhandartha 123
8 References 131
  Chapter VII : The Concept of the World 139-165
1 The Cause of the World 139
2 Parinamavada and Vivartavada 146
3 Falsity of the World 151
4 Refutation of Vijnanavada 155
5 Drstisrstivada and Srstidrstivada 157
6 The Cessation of the World 159
7 References 161
  Chapter VIII : The Path To Libertation 166-194
1 Means of Liberation 166
2 Internal and External Means of Liberation 170
3 The Final Means of Brhama -Realisation 172
4 Problem of Injuction in Sravana 174
5 Jnana as the only Means of Liberation 180
6 The place of obligatory and Non-obligatory Rites in the Path of Liberation 183
7 Refutation of jnana-Karma-Samuccaya-vada 187
8 References 189
  Chapter IX : Liberation 195-212
1 Nature of Liberation 195
2 Jivanmukti and Videhamukti 201
(i) Jivanmukti 201
(ii) Videhamukti 206
3 References 210
  Conclusion 213
  Bibliography 219
  Index 227

Sample Pages

















Sarvajnatmamuni's Contribution To Advaita Vedanta

Item Code:
NAI037
Cover:
Hardcover
Edition:
2001
Publisher:
ISBN:
8186791280
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch X 5.5 inch
Pages:
246
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 360 gms
Price:
$35.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book

The present book attempts a critical study of the philosophy of Sarvajnatmamuni, an eminent Advaita Vedantin of post-Snakara era and makes an appraisal of his contributions to the Advaita Vedanta school of Indian philosophy. The work also highlights the salient features of Advaita Vedanta and discusses the different views regarding the key concepts of the system in a comparative way.

 

About the Author

Dr. Sujata Purkayastha Bhattacharyya passed M.A in Sanskrit form the University of Gauhati in 1981. She obtained Ph.D. degree from the same University in 1988. She is at present a Reader in the Department of Sanskrit, Gauhati University, Guwahati, Assam. She is a devoted researcher in different fields of Indian philosophy. She has more than a dozen research articles published in different research Journals to her credit.

 

Preface

Sarvajnatmamuni is one of the mast renowned and respected teachers of Advaita Vedanta school of the Past-Sankara period. He is renowned specially far his Advaita Vedantic treatise entitled Samksepasariraka. In this work, Sarvajnatman has endeavoured to explain and interprete the fundamental principles of Advaita Vedanta advocated by Sankaracarya. He has discussed in detail almost all the salient features of this system. Sarvajnatman has two other small works entitled Pancaprakriya and Pramanalaksana to his credit. These are, however, not as famous as Samksepasariraka. Although the main objective of Sarvajnatman consists in elucidating and perfecting the already available philosophical ideas of Sankaracarya, yet it must be contended that in many a cases he has forwarded his independent views which differ to a great extent from his predecessors. And in doing so he has made significant contributions to the field of Advaita Vedanta, as can be assessed from the influence he weilded on the later thinkers of the school.

The present work is an abridged form of my Ph.D. thesis THE PHILOSOPHY OF SARVAJNATMAMUNI. Herein an attempt has been made to present Sarvajnatman's exposition and interpretation of Advaita Vedanta in a systematic, critical and comparative manner. The work is mainly interpretative and it contains nine Chapters.

The First Chapter is introductory. It deals with the life, works and date of Sarvajnatman. The second chapter deals with the Anubandhas (the four pre-requisites) of the study of Vedanta. In the subsequent five chapters the following topics are discussed: the concept of Brahman, the concept of Ajnana, the concept of Adhyasa, the concept of the Jiva and the concept of the World. The last two chapters are concerned with the means and nature of liberation.

I have no words to express my deep sense of gratitude to my teacher and erstwhile supervisor Prof. Kaliprasad Sinha, Ph.D., D .Lit, Professor in the Department of Sanskrit. Assam University, Silchar, but for whose inspiring guidance and untiring help, it would have been well nigh impossible to prepare this dissertation.

I am deeply indebted to Prof. Ashok Kumar Goswami, M.A., Ph.D., Retired Professor and Head in the Department of Sanskrit, Gauhati University, for his constant help and inspiration all through my research. He has also very kindly contributed a learned Foreword to my book for which I shall remain ever grateful to him. I am also grateful to Mrs. Beena Devi Goswami, wife of Prof, A.K. Goswami and Advocate, Guwahati High Court and their two daughters Darsana and Sampurna for their affection and help which inspired me to overcome the most critical period of my life.

I shall be failing in my duty if I do not record my thankfulness to my sister Miss Sumitra Purkayastha, Lecturer, J.B. College, Jorhat who has helped me in preparing the manuscript by putting the diacritical marks. I also remain extremely grateful to my parents Sri Ranadhir Purkayastha and Smti Chhaya Devi Purkayastha and my brother Sankar who have always encouraged me in my academic persuits.

My sincere thanks are also due to Messers Punthi Pustak for kindly accepting the work for publication.

I shall deem myself amply rewarded if the work serves to satisfy the scholars and researchers in the field.

 

Foreword

Of the nine schools of Indian philosophy, while the Carvaka presents the crudest thought expected of an ordinary person having no solid philosophical grounding, the Vedanta represents the superb speculations of the philosophical genius. The Vedanta system of Indian philosophy with its origin in the Vedanta (the end of the Veda) i.e. the Upanisads virtually comes to be the Vedanta (i.e. the cream of the Veda). The early Vedantic thoughts of the Upanisads, conveying essentially the monistic principle gets systematised and further developed in Badarayana's Brahmasutra and the commentaries on the Sutra. Of the commentators on the Brahmasutra, otherwise called the Vedantasutra, Acarya Sankara comes to propagate the philosophy of Advaita Vedanta (non-dualistic Vedanta) through numerous works including commentaries on the principal Upanisads, the Bhagavadgita and the Vedantasutra. The followers of Advaitavada have written thousands of books the quintessence of which is Brahma satyam, jaganmithya, jivo brahmaiva (Brahman is real, the world is false and there is no difference between jiva and Brahman). This Brahman is eternal, immaculate, only one and without a second. It has no part, no attribute, no action. Atman or self is one and there is no difference between the Universal self and the Individual self. Owing to the influence of nescience (Avidya) we can not comprehend the real nature of the self. It is of the nature of Sat (existence), Cit (consciousness) and Ananda (bliss). With the help of Vidya (Knowledge), the deep veil of Avidya (ignorance) can be rent asunder. To a Wiseman, freed from the influence of Avidya, the Atman appears in its true form. These revolutionary assertions of the Advaita Vedanta have come to make a great impact on life and culture of Indian people. It is not that the Advaitavada is of utility only for a true spiritualist, if conceived and pursued rightly and seriously, it can lead to immense benefits in all walks of our life, familial, social, national and even international. This great wisdom embodied in the Vedantic treatises can be a true basis of humanity and world fraternity as well.

Mrs (Dr.) Sujata Purkayastha Bhattacharyya's present work titled Sarvajnatmamuni’s Contribution to Advaita Vedanta is a critique on the Vedantic works of Sarvajnatman, a follower of Sankara's school of Advaita Vedanta. This Advaita scholar of approximately 1Oth/11th Century, AD is credited to have authored three books, namely Samksepasariraka, Pancaprakriya and Pramanalaksana. The Samksepasariraka is the most important and celebrated work of Sarvajnatman, written as a Vartika on Sankara's commentary on the Brahmasutra, entitled Sarirakabhasya Of the other two books of Sarvajnatman, Pancaprakriya is chiefly an exposition of the Vedantic Mahavakyas and the Pramanalaksana deals with the Pramanas after the Bhattamimamsakas.

Dr. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya's work, mainly based on the Samksepasariraka touches the Pancaprakriya only in between. Sarvajnatman's Samksepasariraka is a work of four chapters composed in verses numbering 1239. The philosopher author behaves like a poet as he presents the work in varied metres. Sarvajnatman introduces his Samksepasariraka as a Prakarana. A prakarana is a work that deals with some particular aspects of a system in a somewhat novel way. As the title suggests, the Samksepasriraka is expected to be a gist of Sankara's Sarirakabhasya, but virtually Sarvajnatman's work deals with the Vedantic issues elaborately. While following Sankara faithfully in respect of the fundamentals of the Advaita Vedanta, the later Vedantist makes his own points in minor issues like locus of Avidya and necessity of Brahmavicara.

SARVAJNATMAMUNI'S CONTRIBUTION TO ADVAITA VEDANTA authored by Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya is in nine chapters, the first being introductory and the rest broadly dealing with the Anubandhas, the concept of Brahman, the concept of Ajnana, the concept of Adhyasa, the concept of the Jiva, the concept of the world, the path to Liberation and the Liberation respectively. Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya also summarises her findings and views as well under the heading Conclusion. In view of hitherto non-existence of a comprehensive work on Sarvajnatmamuni's treatment of Advaita Vedanta, Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya's book is a welcome venture without doubt.

Sarvajnatman definitely can claim an admission of his contribution to Advaita Vedanta not only as an expounder of the fundamentals of Vedanta as propounded by Acarya Sankara, but also as a stout defender of the school of thoughts against the adverse critics including the Mimamsakas. This follower of Sankara is credited to have clarified a number of concepts and problems not adequately explained by the Master. In post Sankara era, there developed three sub-schools in the line of Advaita Vedanta: Vivarana school established by Prakasatmayati, Bhamati school established by Vacaspati Misra and the Vartika school established by Suresvara. Traditionally Sarvajnatman is said to belong to the Vartika school. Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya has observed in her work that he does not follow any particular sub-school in his treatment of the concepts of Advaita Vedanta. He is, however, found to be nearer to the schools of the Vivarana and the vartika than to the Bhamati of the post Sankara sub schools. On various issues, Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya shows the affinity and the difference as well between Sarvajnatmamuni and other Advaita Vedantists. To illustrate the point, Sarvajnatman does not differ much from his colleagues in the school in presenting the four Anubandhas of Vedantasastra. Yet his treatment of the subject shows a stamp of original thinking. According to Sankara, only a Sannyasin or a follower of the fourth station of life is eligible for Brahma-vicara. Against this view Sarvajnatman holds that the followers of all the four Asramas are eligible for Brahma-vicara. Again the Advaita Vedantins other than the author of Samksepasariraka propound that sat, cit, ananda and ananta form the essential definition of Brahman. Sarvajnatman adds here that Brahman is further nitya, suddha, mukta, suksma, vibhu, advitiya etc. Thus the Vedantic views of Sarvajnatman in affinity and in contrast as well with Sankara and other theorists of the school of Advaita Vedanta seem to be reflected in the present work of Mrs. Purkayastha Bhattacharyya. The work is a pleasant addition to our studies of the Advaita Vedanta and, will be, I trust, well received by the advanced readers of the system.

 

Contents

 

  Preface  
  Scheme of Transliteration  
  Abbreviations  
  Chapter I : Introduction 1-13
1 Sarvajnatmamuni, His Date , Life and Works 1
2 Scope And Utility of the Present Study 10
  References 11
  Chapter II : Anubandhas 14-24
  Adhikarin or Competent person 14
  Prayojana or Necessity 19
  Necessity of Brahmavicara 20
  References 22
  Chapter III : The Concept of Brahman 25-52
1 Significance of the Upanisads in Brahman 25
2 The Nature of Brahman 27
(1) Svarupalaksana of Brahman 28
(2) Tatasthalaksana of Brahman 35
3 The Problem of Saguna Brahman and Nirguna Brahman 37
4 The Problem of Pramana about Brahman 40
5 References 47
  Chapter IV : The Concept of Ajnana 53-82
1 The Nature of Ajnana 53
2 Pramana for the Existence of Ajnana 56
3 Two Powers of Avidya 57
4 The Object and Locus of Ajnana 58
(i) The object of Ajnana 58
(ii) The Locus of Ajnana 59
5 Avidya-One or Many 64
6 Difference between Maya and Avidya 66
7 Cessation of Nescience 69
8 References 75
  Chapter V : The Concept of Adhyasa 83-101
1 The Nature of Adhyasa 84
2 Cause of Adhyasa 89
3 The Problem of the Material and the Locus of Dream 94
4 The Problem of Adhara and Adhisthana 96
5 References 98
  Chapter VI : The Concept of The Jiva 102-138
1 The Real Nature of the Jiva 102
2 The Empirical Jiva 102
3 Three States of the Empirical Jiva 106
4 The Theories of Avaccheda , Pratibimba and Abhasa Regarding the Nature of the Jiva  
5 Number of the Jiva 114
(a) Ekta-sariraika -jiva -vada 114
(b) Aneka-sariraika -jiva-vada 115
6 The Relation between the jiva and Brahman 122
7 Meaning of Tattavamasi - Akhandartha 123
8 References 131
  Chapter VII : The Concept of the World 139-165
1 The Cause of the World 139
2 Parinamavada and Vivartavada 146
3 Falsity of the World 151
4 Refutation of Vijnanavada 155
5 Drstisrstivada and Srstidrstivada 157
6 The Cessation of the World 159
7 References 161
  Chapter VIII : The Path To Libertation 166-194
1 Means of Liberation 166
2 Internal and External Means of Liberation 170
3 The Final Means of Brhama -Realisation 172
4 Problem of Injuction in Sravana 174
5 Jnana as the only Means of Liberation 180
6 The place of obligatory and Non-obligatory Rites in the Path of Liberation 183
7 Refutation of jnana-Karma-Samuccaya-vada 187
8 References 189
  Chapter IX : Liberation 195-212
1 Nature of Liberation 195
2 Jivanmukti and Videhamukti 201
(i) Jivanmukti 201
(ii) Videhamukti 206
3 References 210
  Conclusion 213
  Bibliography 219
  Index 227

Sample Pages

















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I received the statue today, and it is beautiful! Worth the wait! Thank you so much, blessings, Kimberly.
Kimberly, USA
I received the Green Tara Thangka described below right on schedule. Thank you a million times for that. My teacher loved it and was extremely moved by it. Although I have seen a lot of Green Tara thangkas, and have looked at other Green Tara Thangkas you offer and found them all to be wonderful, the one I purchased is by far the most beautiful I have ever seen -- or at least it is the one that most speaks to me.
John, USA
Your website store is a really great place to find the most wonderful books and artifacts from beautiful India. I have been traveling to India over the last 4 years and spend 3 months there each time staying with two Bengali families that I have adopted and they have taken me in with love and generosity. I love India. Thanks for doing the business that you do. I am an artist and, well, I got through I think the first 6 pages of the book store on your site and ordered almost 500 dollars in books... I'm in trouble so I don't go there too often.. haha.. Hari Om and Hare Krishna and Jai.. Thanks a lot for doing what you do.. Great !
Steven, USA
Great Website! fast, easy and interesting!
Elaine, Australia
I have purchased from you before. Excellent service. Fast shipping. Great communication.
Pauline, Australia
Have greatly enjoyed the items on your site; very good selection! Thank you!
Kulwant, USA
I received my order yesterday. Thank you very much for the fast service and quality item. I’ll be ordering from you again very soon.
Brian, USA
ALMIGHTY GOD I BLESS EXOTIC INDIA AND ALL WHO WORK THERE!!!!!
Lord Grace, Switzerland
I have enjoyed the many sanskrit boks I purchased from you, especially the books by the honorable Prof. Pushpa Dixit.
K Sarma, USA
Namaste, You are doing a great service. Namah Shivay
Bikash, Denmark
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