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Books > Language and Literature > Panini > Secondary Paribhasas of Paniniyan Grammar
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Secondary Paribhasas of Paniniyan Grammar
Secondary Paribhasas of Paniniyan Grammar
Description
Preface

This book contains a study of the paribha:sa:s 'metarules' composed by the commentators, which occupy an important position in the Sanskrit grammatical tradition. Since most of the paribha:sa:s are quoted in Patanjali's Maha:bha:sya with some of them appearing in that work as va:rttikas, the tradition of composing them seems to have started soon after Pa:nini. They supplement and provide clarifications on the su:tras of the Asta:dhya:yi:. As has been pointed out by the commentators, most of the paribha:sa:s are implied by the wording of one or the other of the su:tras.

The aim of this book is to introduce the paribha:sa:s, collected and interpreted by Na:gesa Bhatta in his Paribha:sendusekharah, to student of linguistics interested I the history and development of linguistic thought. Since there are many trends in common between modern linguistics and Sanskrit grammatical tradition, a student of linguistics must have access to the texts in which ancient scholars tried to understand the structure of their language. It is hoped that his book will generate interest among linguists for pursuing the study of Sanskrit grammatical works. It an also serve as a reference work for one who is already familiar with Sanskrit grammar. The emphasis in this study is on Pointing out the role played by the paribha:sa:s in making the grammar a rigorous one by filing out the lacuna left by the su:tras and the va:rttikas. It is greatly indebted to Kielhorn's work (1960), first published in 1874) in the matter of translation of the paribha:sa:s as well as in other aspects. The importance of the above work, which has extracts form the Maha:bha:sya and references to the explanation of Kaiyata, Vaidyana:tha Pa:yagunda and other commentators, cannot be overestimated. I have added a word by word translation to each of the paribha:sa:s so as to make the book useful to scholars that are interested in the subject but have only a limited knowledge of Sanskrit. This allowed me make a free translation to convey the content without being too close to the wording. Short passage quoted form the Sanskrit works are given with the separation of vowel sandhi across words so that they can be easily understood by readers with some knowledge of the language. The grammatical derivation of the examples is explained in detail. The authors of the various commentaries (mentioned in References) also deserve our gratitude for clarification on various points. The meanings of the su:tras that are cited often are given in Appendix – I. Appendix – II contains some of the Sanskrit terms (including the pratya:ha:ras) with explanations.

Much of the additional information that is necessary for understanding the paribha:sa:s and the discussion is given in this work itself. A reader who wants to have more basic information on Pa:ninian grammar may consult the following works: Cardona 1976, 1997: Subrahmanyam 1999. Su:tras, va:rttikas and paribha:sa:s are given in bold type. A sutras is followed b three numbers (denoting adhya:ya, pa:da and su:tra in that order). The world 'universal' is used in this work to refer to a paribha:sa: that can apply in all cases without any restriction (nitya:). A paribha:sa: that cannot apply everywhere is a 'non-universal' (a+nitya:).

Grateful acknowledgements are due to the University Grants Commission for awarding me an Emeritus Fellowship during the period March 2001 to February 2003 and to the authorities of the Potti Sreeramula Telugu University, Hyderabad for help and encouragement in m research activities. I must acknowledge here the generosity of Professor V.I. Subramoniam, Honorary Director, International School of Dravidian Linguistics, Thiruvanathapuram in agreeing to publish this book but I have decided that it would be more appropriate to utilize his offer for the publication of my forthcoming book on Dravidian comparative grammar. My heartfelt thanks go to the following scholars for having helped me in securing some of the rare books I required during the preparation of this work: Professors Peri Bhaskararao (Institute for the study of languages and cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Tokyo), Professor K.S. Nagaraja (Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, Pune) and to Dr. A.G. Natarajan (Annamalai University, Annamalainagar). I express my special sense of gratitude to the authorities of the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati for taking up the publication of this work under their publication Project of Centre of Excellence in traditional Sastras. Last but no least, I thank my wife, Satyavati, for reminding me the time to shut down the computer and ensuring that I take enough care of my health.

Contents
.Preface
Symbols and Abbreviations
Introduction 1
1.vya:khya:nato visesapratipattih… 7
2.yathoddesam samjna: paribha:sam … 9
3.ka:ryaka:lam samjna: paribha:sam 9
4.aneka:nta: anubandha: iti 12
5.eka:nta:h 12
6.na:nubandhakrtam aneka:ltvam … 14
7.na:nubandhakrtam anejantatvam … 15
8.na:nubandhakrtam asa:ru:pyam … 16
9.ubhayagatir iha bhavati 18
10.ka:ryam anubhavan hi … 20
11.yada:gama:s tadguni:bhu:ta:h … 22
12.nirdisyama:nasya:desa: bhavanti … 30
13.yatra:nekavidham a:ntaryam … 32
14.arthavadgrahane na:narthakasya … 34
15.gaunamukhyayor gaune … 35
16.aninasmangrahana:ny arthavata: … 35
17.ekayoganirdista:na:m saha va: … 39
18.kvacid ekadeso' py anuvatate 41
19.bha:vyama:nena savarna:na:m … 42
20.bha:vyama:no' py uka:rah … 43
21.varna:sraye na:sti … 44
22.una:dayo' vyutpanna:ni … 45
23.pratyayagrahane yasma: tca: pancamya:h … 47
24.pratyayagrahane ca: pancamya:h … 49
25.uttarapada:dhika:re pratyagrahane … 50
26.stri:pratyaye ca:nupasarjane na 51
27.samjna:vidhau pratyayagrahane … 53
28.krdgrahane gatika:rakapu:rvasya:pi … 54
29.pada:nga:dhika:re tasya ca … 56
30.vyapadesivad ekasmin … 57
31.grahanavata: pra:tipadikene … 59
32.vyapadesivadbha:vo' pra:tipadikena … 60
33.yasmin vidhis tada:da:v algrahane 61
34.sarvo dvandvah … 62
35.sarve vidhayas chandasi … 63
36.prakrtivad anukaranam bhavati 64
37.ekadesavikrtam ananyavat … 65
38.pu:rvaparanitya:ntaranga:pave:da:na:m … 67
39.punahprasangavijna:na:t siddham 71
40.sakrdgatau vipratisedhe … 73
41.vikaranebhyo niyamo bali:ya:n 74
42.para:n nityam balavat 76
43.sabda:ntarasya pra:pnuvan 78
44.sabda:ntara:t pra:pnuvatah … 79
45.laksana:ntarene pra:pnuvan … 80
46.kvacit krta:krtaprasangama:trena:pi … 80
47.yasya ca laksana:ntarena nimittam vihanyate na… 80
48.yasya ca laksana:ntarena nimittam vihanyate tat… 82
49.svarabhinnasya pra: pnuvan… 83
50.asiddham bahirangam antarange 84
51.na:ja:nantarye bahistvapraklptih 91
52.antaranga:n api viddhi:n… 93
53.purvottarapadanimittaka:rya:t… 96
54.antaranga:n api vidhi:n… 96
55.va:rna:d a:ngam… 98
56.akrtavyu:ha:h pa:nini:ya:h 99
57.antaranga:d api… 101
58.kvacid apava:davisaye' pi… 102
59.purasta:d apava:da:h… 102
60.madhya' pava:da:h… 103
61.anantarasya vidhir va:… 105
62.pu:rvam hy apava:da:h… 107
63.prakalpya ca:pava:davisayam… 107
64.upasamjanisyama:nanimittor' pi… 108
65.apava:do yadi… 109
66.abhya:savika:resu… 110
67.ta:cchi: likesu… 112
68.ktalyuttuminkhalarthesu… 115
69.la:desesu va:saru:pavidhir na:sti 117
70.ubhayanirdese… 119
71.pra:tipadikagrahane… 121
72.vibhaktau lingavisista: grahanam 122
73.su:tre lingavacanam atantram 123
74.nanivayuktam… 124
75.gatika:rakopapada:na:m… 125
76.sa:mpratika:bha:ve bhu:tapu:rvagatih 127
77.bahuvri:hau tadgunasamvijna:nam api 129
78.ca:nukrstam no:ttaratra 129
79.svaravidhau vyanjanam… 131
80.halsvarapra:ptau vyanjanam… 132
81.niranubandhakagrahane… 133
82.tadanubandhakagrahane… 134
83.kvacit sva:rthika:h prakrtitah… 136
84.sama:sa:ntavidhir anityah… 137
85.samnipaLtalaksano vidhih… 139
86.samniyogasista:na:m… 143
87.ta:cchi:like ne'nkrta:ni bhavanti 145
88.dha:toh ka:ryam ucyama:nam… 146
89.tanmadhyapatits tadgrahanena… 148
90.lugvikarana:lugvikaranayoh… 149
91.prakrtigrahane nyadhikasya:pi… 151
92.angavrtte punarvrtta:v avidhih 153
93.1.samjna:pu:rvaka vidher anityatvam… 156
93.2.a:gamsa:stram anityam 157
93.3.ganaka:ryam anityam 157
93.4.anuda:ttetvalaksanam a:tmanepadam 158
93.5.nanghatitam anityam 159
93.6.a:tidesikam anityam 160
93.7-8.sarvavidhbhyo lopavidhih 160
93.9.prakrtigrahane yanlugantasya:pi grahanam 161
93.10.vidhau paribha:sopatisthate 162
94.upapadavibhakteh ka:rakavibhaktih 164
95.anantyavika:re' ntyasadesasya 165
96.na:narthake' lo' ntyavidhih 167
97.pradha:na:pradha:nayoh 168
98.avayavaprasiddheh… 170
99.vyavasthitavibha:saya:pi… 172
100.vidhiniyamsamhave 173
101.sa:ma:nya:tidese visesa:natidesah 175
102.pratyaya:pratyayayoh 177
103.sahacarita:sahacaritayoh 178
104.sruta:numitayoh srutasambandho balavaLn 179
105.laksanapratipadoktayoh… 180
106.ga:M.A.:da:grahanesv avisesah 182
107.pratyekam va:kyaparisama:ptih 183
108.kvacit samuda:ye'pi 184
109.abhedaka: guna:h 185
110.ba:dhaka:ny eva nipa:tana:ni 186
111.parjanyaval laknanapravrttih 187
112.nisedh:s ca bali:ya:msah 188
113.anirdista:rtha:h pratyaya:h sva:rthe 189
114.yogavibha:ga:d istasiddhih 190
115.parya:yasabda:na:m … 191
116.jna:pakasiddham na sarvatra 192
117.pu:rvatra:siddhi:yam advitve 193
118.ekasya: a:krtes caritah prayogah … 195
119.samprasa:ranam tada:srayam ca … 196
120.1.kvacid vikrtih prakrtim grhna:ti 198
120.2.aupadesikapra:yogikayoh … 199
120.3.stipa:sapa:nubandena 200
121.padagaurava:t… 205
122.ardham:tra:la:ghavena … 206
APPENDIX – I: Su:tras that are frequently cited 208
APPENDIX – II: Some Sanskrit terms with explanations 215
APPENDIX – III: Alphabetical index of the paribha:sa:s 232
References 237

Secondary Paribhasas of Paniniyan Grammar

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2005
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Preface

This book contains a study of the paribha:sa:s 'metarules' composed by the commentators, which occupy an important position in the Sanskrit grammatical tradition. Since most of the paribha:sa:s are quoted in Patanjali's Maha:bha:sya with some of them appearing in that work as va:rttikas, the tradition of composing them seems to have started soon after Pa:nini. They supplement and provide clarifications on the su:tras of the Asta:dhya:yi:. As has been pointed out by the commentators, most of the paribha:sa:s are implied by the wording of one or the other of the su:tras.

The aim of this book is to introduce the paribha:sa:s, collected and interpreted by Na:gesa Bhatta in his Paribha:sendusekharah, to student of linguistics interested I the history and development of linguistic thought. Since there are many trends in common between modern linguistics and Sanskrit grammatical tradition, a student of linguistics must have access to the texts in which ancient scholars tried to understand the structure of their language. It is hoped that his book will generate interest among linguists for pursuing the study of Sanskrit grammatical works. It an also serve as a reference work for one who is already familiar with Sanskrit grammar. The emphasis in this study is on Pointing out the role played by the paribha:sa:s in making the grammar a rigorous one by filing out the lacuna left by the su:tras and the va:rttikas. It is greatly indebted to Kielhorn's work (1960), first published in 1874) in the matter of translation of the paribha:sa:s as well as in other aspects. The importance of the above work, which has extracts form the Maha:bha:sya and references to the explanation of Kaiyata, Vaidyana:tha Pa:yagunda and other commentators, cannot be overestimated. I have added a word by word translation to each of the paribha:sa:s so as to make the book useful to scholars that are interested in the subject but have only a limited knowledge of Sanskrit. This allowed me make a free translation to convey the content without being too close to the wording. Short passage quoted form the Sanskrit works are given with the separation of vowel sandhi across words so that they can be easily understood by readers with some knowledge of the language. The grammatical derivation of the examples is explained in detail. The authors of the various commentaries (mentioned in References) also deserve our gratitude for clarification on various points. The meanings of the su:tras that are cited often are given in Appendix – I. Appendix – II contains some of the Sanskrit terms (including the pratya:ha:ras) with explanations.

Much of the additional information that is necessary for understanding the paribha:sa:s and the discussion is given in this work itself. A reader who wants to have more basic information on Pa:ninian grammar may consult the following works: Cardona 1976, 1997: Subrahmanyam 1999. Su:tras, va:rttikas and paribha:sa:s are given in bold type. A sutras is followed b three numbers (denoting adhya:ya, pa:da and su:tra in that order). The world 'universal' is used in this work to refer to a paribha:sa: that can apply in all cases without any restriction (nitya:). A paribha:sa: that cannot apply everywhere is a 'non-universal' (a+nitya:).

Grateful acknowledgements are due to the University Grants Commission for awarding me an Emeritus Fellowship during the period March 2001 to February 2003 and to the authorities of the Potti Sreeramula Telugu University, Hyderabad for help and encouragement in m research activities. I must acknowledge here the generosity of Professor V.I. Subramoniam, Honorary Director, International School of Dravidian Linguistics, Thiruvanathapuram in agreeing to publish this book but I have decided that it would be more appropriate to utilize his offer for the publication of my forthcoming book on Dravidian comparative grammar. My heartfelt thanks go to the following scholars for having helped me in securing some of the rare books I required during the preparation of this work: Professors Peri Bhaskararao (Institute for the study of languages and cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Tokyo), Professor K.S. Nagaraja (Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, Pune) and to Dr. A.G. Natarajan (Annamalai University, Annamalainagar). I express my special sense of gratitude to the authorities of the Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, Tirupati for taking up the publication of this work under their publication Project of Centre of Excellence in traditional Sastras. Last but no least, I thank my wife, Satyavati, for reminding me the time to shut down the computer and ensuring that I take enough care of my health.

Contents
.Preface
Symbols and Abbreviations
Introduction 1
1.vya:khya:nato visesapratipattih… 7
2.yathoddesam samjna: paribha:sam … 9
3.ka:ryaka:lam samjna: paribha:sam 9
4.aneka:nta: anubandha: iti 12
5.eka:nta:h 12
6.na:nubandhakrtam aneka:ltvam … 14
7.na:nubandhakrtam anejantatvam … 15
8.na:nubandhakrtam asa:ru:pyam … 16
9.ubhayagatir iha bhavati 18
10.ka:ryam anubhavan hi … 20
11.yada:gama:s tadguni:bhu:ta:h … 22
12.nirdisyama:nasya:desa: bhavanti … 30
13.yatra:nekavidham a:ntaryam … 32
14.arthavadgrahane na:narthakasya … 34
15.gaunamukhyayor gaune … 35
16.aninasmangrahana:ny arthavata: … 35
17.ekayoganirdista:na:m saha va: … 39
18.kvacid ekadeso' py anuvatate 41
19.bha:vyama:nena savarna:na:m … 42
20.bha:vyama:no' py uka:rah … 43
21.varna:sraye na:sti … 44
22.una:dayo' vyutpanna:ni … 45
23.pratyayagrahane yasma: tca: pancamya:h … 47
24.pratyayagrahane ca: pancamya:h … 49
25.uttarapada:dhika:re pratyagrahane … 50
26.stri:pratyaye ca:nupasarjane na 51
27.samjna:vidhau pratyayagrahane … 53
28.krdgrahane gatika:rakapu:rvasya:pi … 54
29.pada:nga:dhika:re tasya ca … 56
30.vyapadesivad ekasmin … 57
31.grahanavata: pra:tipadikene … 59
32.vyapadesivadbha:vo' pra:tipadikena … 60
33.yasmin vidhis tada:da:v algrahane 61
34.sarvo dvandvah … 62
35.sarve vidhayas chandasi … 63
36.prakrtivad anukaranam bhavati 64
37.ekadesavikrtam ananyavat … 65
38.pu:rvaparanitya:ntaranga:pave:da:na:m … 67
39.punahprasangavijna:na:t siddham 71
40.sakrdgatau vipratisedhe … 73
41.vikaranebhyo niyamo bali:ya:n 74
42.para:n nityam balavat 76
43.sabda:ntarasya pra:pnuvan 78
44.sabda:ntara:t pra:pnuvatah … 79
45.laksana:ntarene pra:pnuvan … 80
46.kvacit krta:krtaprasangama:trena:pi … 80
47.yasya ca laksana:ntarena nimittam vihanyate na… 80
48.yasya ca laksana:ntarena nimittam vihanyate tat… 82
49.svarabhinnasya pra: pnuvan… 83
50.asiddham bahirangam antarange 84
51.na:ja:nantarye bahistvapraklptih 91
52.antaranga:n api viddhi:n… 93
53.purvottarapadanimittaka:rya:t… 96
54.antaranga:n api vidhi:n… 96
55.va:rna:d a:ngam… 98
56.akrtavyu:ha:h pa:nini:ya:h 99
57.antaranga:d api… 101
58.kvacid apava:davisaye' pi… 102
59.purasta:d apava:da:h… 102
60.madhya' pava:da:h… 103
61.anantarasya vidhir va:… 105
62.pu:rvam hy apava:da:h… 107
63.prakalpya ca:pava:davisayam… 107
64.upasamjanisyama:nanimittor' pi… 108
65.apava:do yadi… 109
66.abhya:savika:resu… 110
67.ta:cchi: likesu… 112
68.ktalyuttuminkhalarthesu… 115
69.la:desesu va:saru:pavidhir na:sti 117
70.ubhayanirdese… 119
71.pra:tipadikagrahane… 121
72.vibhaktau lingavisista: grahanam 122
73.su:tre lingavacanam atantram 123
74.nanivayuktam… 124
75.gatika:rakopapada:na:m… 125
76.sa:mpratika:bha:ve bhu:tapu:rvagatih 127
77.bahuvri:hau tadgunasamvijna:nam api 129
78.ca:nukrstam no:ttaratra 129
79.svaravidhau vyanjanam… 131
80.halsvarapra:ptau vyanjanam… 132
81.niranubandhakagrahane… 133
82.tadanubandhakagrahane… 134
83.kvacit sva:rthika:h prakrtitah… 136
84.sama:sa:ntavidhir anityah… 137
85.samnipaLtalaksano vidhih… 139
86.samniyogasista:na:m… 143
87.ta:cchi:like ne'nkrta:ni bhavanti 145
88.dha:toh ka:ryam ucyama:nam… 146
89.tanmadhyapatits tadgrahanena… 148
90.lugvikarana:lugvikaranayoh… 149
91.prakrtigrahane nyadhikasya:pi… 151
92.angavrtte punarvrtta:v avidhih 153
93.1.samjna:pu:rvaka vidher anityatvam… 156
93.2.a:gamsa:stram anityam 157
93.3.ganaka:ryam anityam 157
93.4.anuda:ttetvalaksanam a:tmanepadam 158
93.5.nanghatitam anityam 159
93.6.a:tidesikam anityam 160
93.7-8.sarvavidhbhyo lopavidhih 160
93.9.prakrtigrahane yanlugantasya:pi grahanam 161
93.10.vidhau paribha:sopatisthate 162
94.upapadavibhakteh ka:rakavibhaktih 164
95.anantyavika:re' ntyasadesasya 165
96.na:narthake' lo' ntyavidhih 167
97.pradha:na:pradha:nayoh 168
98.avayavaprasiddheh… 170
99.vyavasthitavibha:saya:pi… 172
100.vidhiniyamsamhave 173
101.sa:ma:nya:tidese visesa:natidesah 175
102.pratyaya:pratyayayoh 177
103.sahacarita:sahacaritayoh 178
104.sruta:numitayoh srutasambandho balavaLn 179
105.laksanapratipadoktayoh… 180
106.ga:M.A.:da:grahanesv avisesah 182
107.pratyekam va:kyaparisama:ptih 183
108.kvacit samuda:ye'pi 184
109.abhedaka: guna:h 185
110.ba:dhaka:ny eva nipa:tana:ni 186
111.parjanyaval laknanapravrttih 187
112.nisedh:s ca bali:ya:msah 188
113.anirdista:rtha:h pratyaya:h sva:rthe 189
114.yogavibha:ga:d istasiddhih 190
115.parya:yasabda:na:m … 191
116.jna:pakasiddham na sarvatra 192
117.pu:rvatra:siddhi:yam advitve 193
118.ekasya: a:krtes caritah prayogah … 195
119.samprasa:ranam tada:srayam ca … 196
120.1.kvacid vikrtih prakrtim grhna:ti 198
120.2.aupadesikapra:yogikayoh … 199
120.3.stipa:sapa:nubandena 200
121.padagaurava:t… 205
122.ardham:tra:la:ghavena … 206
APPENDIX – I: Su:tras that are frequently cited 208
APPENDIX – II: Some Sanskrit terms with explanations 215
APPENDIX – III: Alphabetical index of the paribha:sa:s 232
References 237
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