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Books > History > Sikhs of The Khalsa (A History of the Khalsa Rahit)
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Sikhs of The Khalsa (A History of the Khalsa Rahit)
Sikhs of The Khalsa (A History of the Khalsa Rahit)
Description
About the Book

The Rohit is the code of belief and conduct laid down by the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh for all Sikhs who join the Khalsa. In this important and pioneering study, McLeod rejects the commonly held view that the Rahit has descended unchanged since its first promulgation. Tracing the development of the Rahit, through the last three centuries, he argues that it has evolved in response to historical circumstances and that the modern Rahit, in some respects, is different from the original one. The book also provides an insightful discussion on the nature of the Khalsa Rahit and the fundamental criteria by which one could be identified as a Sikh. McLeod's meticulous and masterful analysis is supplemented by selected translations of original Punjabi rahit-namas in the second part of this volume.

The result of the author's lifetime work on Sikhism, this volume will interest scholars and students of religious studies especially Sikhism, Indian history, and sociology, as also general readers and practising Sikhs.

McLeod 'knows much more about Sikhism than anyone [else] in the world.

-Khushwant Singh
.

'In the study of Sikhism Hew McLeod has blazed trails that have been worked by other scholars this time it is the rahitnamas.'
-Surjit Hans 'The field of modern Sikh studies has been single-handedly introduced, crafted, nourished, and advanced by Hew McLeod over the last three decades.'

-Harjot Oberoi

About the Author

W.H. McLeod is Emeritus Professor at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

CONTENTS
Prefacexi
List of Abbreviationsxiv
PART I1
1.Introduction3
1.1Purpose3
1.2Definitions7
1.3Sources12
1.4Rahit-nama manuscripts15
1.5Previous translators18
1.6A summary history of studies concerning the Rahit21
1.7Symbols of the Rahit24
2.The Beginnings29
2.1The proto-rahit: The Adi Granth29
2.2The proto-rahit: Bhai Gurdas32
2.3The proto-rahit: Hukam-namas33
2.4Pothi Bibi Rup Kaur and Granth Bhai Painda40
2.5Prashan-uttar attributed to Nand Lal44
2.6The Rahit as delivered by Guru Gobind Singh46
2.7Sources of the Khalsa Rahit51
2.7.1 Received Sikh tradition51
2.7.2 Khalsa practices52
2.7.3 Hindu tradition 52
2.7.4 Warfare with Muslims55
3.The Eighteenth Century59
3.1Gur Sobha59
3.2The Dasam Granth61
3.3Six rahit-namas of the eighteenth century65
3.4Authorship of the early rahit-namas65
3.5The dates of the rahit-namas68
3.6Single or Multiple authors72
3.7The Bhatt vahis and Guru kian Sakhian73
4.The Six Rahit-namas of the Eighteenth Century82
4.1Tanakhah-nama82
4.2Prahilad Rai Rahit-namas87
4.3Sakhi Rahit ki91
4.4Chaupa Singh Rohit-nama93
4.5Desa Singh Rahit-nama114
4.6Daya Singh Rahit-nama122
5.The First Six Decades of the Nineteenth Century136
5.1The history of the period136
5.2Sarab Loh Granth138
5.3The two rahit-namas of the Sau Sakhi139
5.3.1 Mukati-nama (sakhi 8)141
5.3.2 Rahit-nama (sakhi 65)145
5.4Prem Sumarag148
5.5The Namdhari Rahit-nama151
5.6The Nirankari Hukam-nama152
5.7Vijib-u 'I-Araz154
6.The Singh Sabha and the Years After158
6.1Sanatan Sikhs vs. Tat Khalsa158
6.2Avatar Singh Vahiria and the conservative Sikhs163
6.3The contribution of Kahn singh Nabha165
6.4Guramat Prakash Bhag Sanskar171
6.5The Panch Khalsa Divan173
6.6Sikh Rahit Marayada177
6.7The present and the future180
7.The Issues Arising from the Rahit namas190
7.1The sangat190
7.2The daily discipline (nit-nem)191
7.3Ardas193
7.4The Khalsa initiation ceremony (khande di pahul)196
7.5Food-initiation (Charan pahul)201
7.6Sahaj-dharis202
7.7The Five Ks204
7.8Attitude towards Hindus213
7.9The shraddha ceremony214
7.10Caste215
7.11Karah prasad216
7.12The Devi218
7.13Attitude towards Muslims219
7.14The ban on tobacco223
7.15Relations with Muslim women224
7.16The ban on kuttha meat226
7.17Jhatka meat versus vegetarianism226
7.18Dharamsala and gurdwara227
7.19The langar229
7.20Alcohol230
7.21The tithe231
7.22The Five Reprobate Groups (panj mel)231
7.23Kuri-mar: female infanticide233
7.24Guru Granth and Guru Panth233
7.25Raj karega khalsa and miri piri234
7.26Akhand path235
7.27Vah guru236
7.28Hell and heaven238
7.29Martyrdom239
7.30The Anand marriage ceremony (anand sanskar)240
7.31The place of women in the Khalsa242
7.32Penalties for infringement of the Rahit (tanakhah)245
8.Conclusion254
Part II259
Translations of proto-rahit compositions, rahit-namas, and other Rahit material
1.A selection from the vars of Bhai Gurdas261
2.Prashan-uttar attributed to Nand Lal264
3.Portion of Gur Sobha268
4.Portion of Dasam Granth273
5.Tanakhah-nama attributed to Nand Lal279
6.Prahilad Rai Rahit-nama285
7.Sakhi Rahit ki attributed to Nand Lal290
8.Desa Singh Rahit-nama295
9.Daya Singh Rahit-nama310
10.Khalsa Mahima (portion of Sarab Loh)225
11.Sau Sakhi, sakhi 8: Mukati-nama229
12.Sau Sakhi, sakhi 65: Rahit-nama334
13.Prem Sumarag, chapter 4339
14.Namdhari Rahit-nama and Namdhari Ardas344
15.Nirankari Hukam-nama347
16.Vajib-u'l-Araz, the Sahaj-dharis' Rahit-nama351
17.Portion of Avatar Singh Vahiria's Khalsa Dharam Shastr354
18.Extracts from the Sanskar Bagh of Baba Khem Singh Bedi358
19.Portion of Guramat Prakash Bhag Sankar365
20.Extract from Guramati Bibek376
21.Sikh Rahit Marayada377
Appendices
1.Coverage of sundry rahit-namas by Kahn Singh Nabha in gurumat sudhakar and the Panch Khalsa Divan in its Khalsa Rahit Prakash403
2.On tradition413
Endnotes415
Glossary443
Bibliography457
Index471

Sikhs of The Khalsa (A History of the Khalsa Rahit)

Item Code:
IDH156
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2005
ISBN:
0195672216
Size:
8.3" X 5.3"
Pages:
498
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$30.00
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$22.50   Shipping Free
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About the Book

The Rohit is the code of belief and conduct laid down by the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh for all Sikhs who join the Khalsa. In this important and pioneering study, McLeod rejects the commonly held view that the Rahit has descended unchanged since its first promulgation. Tracing the development of the Rahit, through the last three centuries, he argues that it has evolved in response to historical circumstances and that the modern Rahit, in some respects, is different from the original one. The book also provides an insightful discussion on the nature of the Khalsa Rahit and the fundamental criteria by which one could be identified as a Sikh. McLeod's meticulous and masterful analysis is supplemented by selected translations of original Punjabi rahit-namas in the second part of this volume.

The result of the author's lifetime work on Sikhism, this volume will interest scholars and students of religious studies especially Sikhism, Indian history, and sociology, as also general readers and practising Sikhs.

McLeod 'knows much more about Sikhism than anyone [else] in the world.

-Khushwant Singh
.

'In the study of Sikhism Hew McLeod has blazed trails that have been worked by other scholars this time it is the rahitnamas.'
-Surjit Hans 'The field of modern Sikh studies has been single-handedly introduced, crafted, nourished, and advanced by Hew McLeod over the last three decades.'

-Harjot Oberoi

About the Author

W.H. McLeod is Emeritus Professor at the University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

CONTENTS
Prefacexi
List of Abbreviationsxiv
PART I1
1.Introduction3
1.1Purpose3
1.2Definitions7
1.3Sources12
1.4Rahit-nama manuscripts15
1.5Previous translators18
1.6A summary history of studies concerning the Rahit21
1.7Symbols of the Rahit24
2.The Beginnings29
2.1The proto-rahit: The Adi Granth29
2.2The proto-rahit: Bhai Gurdas32
2.3The proto-rahit: Hukam-namas33
2.4Pothi Bibi Rup Kaur and Granth Bhai Painda40
2.5Prashan-uttar attributed to Nand Lal44
2.6The Rahit as delivered by Guru Gobind Singh46
2.7Sources of the Khalsa Rahit51
2.7.1 Received Sikh tradition51
2.7.2 Khalsa practices52
2.7.3 Hindu tradition 52
2.7.4 Warfare with Muslims55
3.The Eighteenth Century59
3.1Gur Sobha59
3.2The Dasam Granth61
3.3Six rahit-namas of the eighteenth century65
3.4Authorship of the early rahit-namas65
3.5The dates of the rahit-namas68
3.6Single or Multiple authors72
3.7The Bhatt vahis and Guru kian Sakhian73
4.The Six Rahit-namas of the Eighteenth Century82
4.1Tanakhah-nama82
4.2Prahilad Rai Rahit-namas87
4.3Sakhi Rahit ki91
4.4Chaupa Singh Rohit-nama93
4.5Desa Singh Rahit-nama114
4.6Daya Singh Rahit-nama122
5.The First Six Decades of the Nineteenth Century136
5.1The history of the period136
5.2Sarab Loh Granth138
5.3The two rahit-namas of the Sau Sakhi139
5.3.1 Mukati-nama (sakhi 8)141
5.3.2 Rahit-nama (sakhi 65)145
5.4Prem Sumarag148
5.5The Namdhari Rahit-nama151
5.6The Nirankari Hukam-nama152
5.7Vijib-u 'I-Araz154
6.The Singh Sabha and the Years After158
6.1Sanatan Sikhs vs. Tat Khalsa158
6.2Avatar Singh Vahiria and the conservative Sikhs163
6.3The contribution of Kahn singh Nabha165
6.4Guramat Prakash Bhag Sanskar171
6.5The Panch Khalsa Divan173
6.6Sikh Rahit Marayada177
6.7The present and the future180
7.The Issues Arising from the Rahit namas190
7.1The sangat190
7.2The daily discipline (nit-nem)191
7.3Ardas193
7.4The Khalsa initiation ceremony (khande di pahul)196
7.5Food-initiation (Charan pahul)201
7.6Sahaj-dharis202
7.7The Five Ks204
7.8Attitude towards Hindus213
7.9The shraddha ceremony214
7.10Caste215
7.11Karah prasad216
7.12The Devi218
7.13Attitude towards Muslims219
7.14The ban on tobacco223
7.15Relations with Muslim women224
7.16The ban on kuttha meat226
7.17Jhatka meat versus vegetarianism226
7.18Dharamsala and gurdwara227
7.19The langar229
7.20Alcohol230
7.21The tithe231
7.22The Five Reprobate Groups (panj mel)231
7.23Kuri-mar: female infanticide233
7.24Guru Granth and Guru Panth233
7.25Raj karega khalsa and miri piri234
7.26Akhand path235
7.27Vah guru236
7.28Hell and heaven238
7.29Martyrdom239
7.30The Anand marriage ceremony (anand sanskar)240
7.31The place of women in the Khalsa242
7.32Penalties for infringement of the Rahit (tanakhah)245
8.Conclusion254
Part II259
Translations of proto-rahit compositions, rahit-namas, and other Rahit material
1.A selection from the vars of Bhai Gurdas261
2.Prashan-uttar attributed to Nand Lal264
3.Portion of Gur Sobha268
4.Portion of Dasam Granth273
5.Tanakhah-nama attributed to Nand Lal279
6.Prahilad Rai Rahit-nama285
7.Sakhi Rahit ki attributed to Nand Lal290
8.Desa Singh Rahit-nama295
9.Daya Singh Rahit-nama310
10.Khalsa Mahima (portion of Sarab Loh)225
11.Sau Sakhi, sakhi 8: Mukati-nama229
12.Sau Sakhi, sakhi 65: Rahit-nama334
13.Prem Sumarag, chapter 4339
14.Namdhari Rahit-nama and Namdhari Ardas344
15.Nirankari Hukam-nama347
16.Vajib-u'l-Araz, the Sahaj-dharis' Rahit-nama351
17.Portion of Avatar Singh Vahiria's Khalsa Dharam Shastr354
18.Extracts from the Sanskar Bagh of Baba Khem Singh Bedi358
19.Portion of Guramat Prakash Bhag Sankar365
20.Extract from Guramati Bibek376
21.Sikh Rahit Marayada377
Appendices
1.Coverage of sundry rahit-namas by Kahn Singh Nabha in gurumat sudhakar and the Panch Khalsa Divan in its Khalsa Rahit Prakash403
2.On tradition413
Endnotes415
Glossary443
Bibliography457
Index471
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