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The Sivakosa of Sivadatta Misra
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The Sivakosa of Sivadatta Misra
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Foreword

In my Prefatory Note to the Anekãrthatilaka of Mahipa published in 1946, I had stated that its publication initiated a new series of publications called the “Sources of Indo-Aryan Lexicography” in which critical editions of unpublished Sanskrit lexicons would be included from time to time. According to this plan, the Department of the Dictionary of Sanskrit brought out five works in the series in succession to the publication of the Anekãrthatilaka since 1946 and it gives me great pleasure to present to the world of scholars the present edition of the ,ivakosa, with the author’s own commentary, critically edited for the first time by Dr. R. G. HARSHF, embodying the principles of Indian Textual Criticism and illustrating the modern principles of scientific lexicography.

The Sivakoa has a special importance of its own. It is primarily a work which restricts its field to the names of plants and herbs) etc., which go to form the material medical of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine like the Dhanvantariyanighazu or the Rajanighazu. Nevertheless, its importance as a contribution to Sanskrit Lexicography cannot be ignored inasmuch as it is a homonymous lexicon which records, stated by the Editor in his Introduction, no less than 2860 principal words and about 4860 words denoting the meanings thereof and ‘in many cases the meanings recorded by the Savakis from the various sources are not traceable either in the several Koas or even in the ‘modern Dictionaries available to us. It is more extensive than some. Of. The works on material medical already known to us. -‘‘

It is hoped that the present work as also a number of other1exicons that are in the different -stages of- editing and cringing and, included among the Contributory Studies which the Institute has planned towards the building up of a new Dictbnary of Sanskrit on Historical Principles, will enable the Institute to achieve its main purpose, viz., the compilation of a dictionary of Sanskrit based entirely on the Koa’literature.

 

Introduction

1. Manuscript Material:

This critical edition of iDa-Kofa is based on the two available manuscripts, one from the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona,1 and the other from the Wilson Collection, Bodleian Library, Oxford.2 The manuscript from the Bhandarkar Institute (Bh.) is complete and contains a commentary, named “Jiva-Prakãia,” by the author himself. The photo-copy of the manuscript from the Wilson Collection (W.), so kindly procured by Professor P. K. GODP., Curator, Government Mss. Library at the Bhandarkar Institute, Poona, contains only the text, which is incomplete, because folio No. 3 has only two lines and the rest of it is blank, thus missing the portion of the text from verse No. 65 to 82. So far as it is known, this work has not yet been printed and is now being published for the rest time,

2. Author:

The name of the author, as mentioned in the colophon, both at the end of the text3 and the commentary,4 is vendetta, son of Caturbhuja, belonging to the Karptira family. The work is evidently named by the author after himself. Very little is known about the author and whatever information was available has already been given by Prof. G0Da in his learned article contributed to the Poona Orientalist.5 To summarise it, vendetta was a physician trained under his own father Caturbhuja and other eminent physicians of his time, as stated by him in verse 2 at the close of his work named Sarhjfiãsamuccaya which is a treatise on Nosology, Therapeutics and Materia Medica.’ He seems to be a junior contemnor of —Bhrj1 Dikit-a (1600—1650) to whom he refers2 in his commentary on invoke as 1iti ramâs’ramaii,” which name was adopted by’Bhnuji Dikita after joining the order of Sannyãsins. No other works by ivdatta seem -to have been noticed so far. Of the two, Saihjifãsamuccaya appears tobe the earlier work in which he has given more detai-le informtion about himself. Sivahosa is composed in aka 159 (A.D. 1677 proof. Gone would like to place himbètween A.D. 1625 and 1700 - The Karpurafa1y to which ivadatta belonged was a family o-f Ayurvedic physicians. Sivadatta has already mentioned that he had been initiated into the studies of Ayurveda by his father. Utrecht records Rasakalpadruma, a medical work, against the name of Caturbhuja and a commentary on Rasahrdaya of Govinda by Caturbhuja Mira.4 Krsiadatta, the son of ivadatta, is also the author of a commentary on the Dravyaguzaatas’lokf of Trimalla, which is a work on Materia Medica. From the contents of the colophon of this commerktary 5, Caturbhuja seems to be a more celebrated person than ivadatta, the father of Krtadatta. vendetta’s commentary on Sivakoa, however, reveals that he was a very learned man in as much as, in his commentary, he has referred to not less than 107 works and authors,6 idiot to consider about a dozen vague references. He is not only proficient in Ayurvedic literature but F25 a mastery over a variety of lexicns7 and Sanskrit literature in general. In a commentary on an Ayurvedic work, dealing with a subject like Materia Medica, he could not help quoting from the very familiar works like Raghu, Kumãra and 3kbadüta of.. Klidsa, and authors like Bhavabhüti, Bhäravi, .Cabala, i:ia, etc.1 .Prof,-GODE has pointed out that vacate is included in, the of the Bcnares Panclits who paid a tribute to Kavindra Sarasvati ,cry : personal efforts in getting the Pilgrim Tax abolished by the Emperor She Johan, in a work, called XvindracanJrodaya. He, therefore, arrears to be a resident of Bewares at this time. No other information s available of the author at present.

 

Contents

 

  Foreword: S. M. Katre  
  Introduction  
1 Manuscript Material  
2 Author i
3 Plan of the ivakosa II
4 Constitution of the Text III
5 Orthographical Peculiarities iv
6 Importance of the ivakoa V
7 A Study of the Vocabulary vi
8 The Commentary xi
9 Works and Authors Cited: Ayurvedic xlii
10 Lexicons and Lexicographers xiv
11 References from Literary Works and Authors xvii
12 Original Home of Certain Medicines xvii
13 Vedic Therapeutics and Materia Medica Xxiii
14 Contemporary Evidence xxv
15 Magical Incantations and Ayurveda xxvi
16 The Unbroken Ayurvedic Tradition xxvii
17 Correlation with Assyrian Herbal Names xlvii
18 Conclusion liii
  Sivakoa Text 1
  Commentary: Sivaprakãa 51
  Appendices:  
  (i) Index to Authors and Works cited in vendetta’s Kosa and Commentary 166
  (ii) Current Popular Names cited in the Commentary with their Sanskrit Equivalents 170
  (iii) Index to Words in invoke 173
  Addenda And Corrigenda 207

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The Sivakosa of Sivadatta Misra

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Foreword

In my Prefatory Note to the Anekãrthatilaka of Mahipa published in 1946, I had stated that its publication initiated a new series of publications called the “Sources of Indo-Aryan Lexicography” in which critical editions of unpublished Sanskrit lexicons would be included from time to time. According to this plan, the Department of the Dictionary of Sanskrit brought out five works in the series in succession to the publication of the Anekãrthatilaka since 1946 and it gives me great pleasure to present to the world of scholars the present edition of the ,ivakosa, with the author’s own commentary, critically edited for the first time by Dr. R. G. HARSHF, embodying the principles of Indian Textual Criticism and illustrating the modern principles of scientific lexicography.

The Sivakoa has a special importance of its own. It is primarily a work which restricts its field to the names of plants and herbs) etc., which go to form the material medical of the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine like the Dhanvantariyanighazu or the Rajanighazu. Nevertheless, its importance as a contribution to Sanskrit Lexicography cannot be ignored inasmuch as it is a homonymous lexicon which records, stated by the Editor in his Introduction, no less than 2860 principal words and about 4860 words denoting the meanings thereof and ‘in many cases the meanings recorded by the Savakis from the various sources are not traceable either in the several Koas or even in the ‘modern Dictionaries available to us. It is more extensive than some. Of. The works on material medical already known to us. -‘‘

It is hoped that the present work as also a number of other1exicons that are in the different -stages of- editing and cringing and, included among the Contributory Studies which the Institute has planned towards the building up of a new Dictbnary of Sanskrit on Historical Principles, will enable the Institute to achieve its main purpose, viz., the compilation of a dictionary of Sanskrit based entirely on the Koa’literature.

 

Introduction

1. Manuscript Material:

This critical edition of iDa-Kofa is based on the two available manuscripts, one from the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona,1 and the other from the Wilson Collection, Bodleian Library, Oxford.2 The manuscript from the Bhandarkar Institute (Bh.) is complete and contains a commentary, named “Jiva-Prakãia,” by the author himself. The photo-copy of the manuscript from the Wilson Collection (W.), so kindly procured by Professor P. K. GODP., Curator, Government Mss. Library at the Bhandarkar Institute, Poona, contains only the text, which is incomplete, because folio No. 3 has only two lines and the rest of it is blank, thus missing the portion of the text from verse No. 65 to 82. So far as it is known, this work has not yet been printed and is now being published for the rest time,

2. Author:

The name of the author, as mentioned in the colophon, both at the end of the text3 and the commentary,4 is vendetta, son of Caturbhuja, belonging to the Karptira family. The work is evidently named by the author after himself. Very little is known about the author and whatever information was available has already been given by Prof. G0Da in his learned article contributed to the Poona Orientalist.5 To summarise it, vendetta was a physician trained under his own father Caturbhuja and other eminent physicians of his time, as stated by him in verse 2 at the close of his work named Sarhjfiãsamuccaya which is a treatise on Nosology, Therapeutics and Materia Medica.’ He seems to be a junior contemnor of —Bhrj1 Dikit-a (1600—1650) to whom he refers2 in his commentary on invoke as 1iti ramâs’ramaii,” which name was adopted by’Bhnuji Dikita after joining the order of Sannyãsins. No other works by ivdatta seem -to have been noticed so far. Of the two, Saihjifãsamuccaya appears tobe the earlier work in which he has given more detai-le informtion about himself. Sivahosa is composed in aka 159 (A.D. 1677 proof. Gone would like to place himbètween A.D. 1625 and 1700 - The Karpurafa1y to which ivadatta belonged was a family o-f Ayurvedic physicians. Sivadatta has already mentioned that he had been initiated into the studies of Ayurveda by his father. Utrecht records Rasakalpadruma, a medical work, against the name of Caturbhuja and a commentary on Rasahrdaya of Govinda by Caturbhuja Mira.4 Krsiadatta, the son of ivadatta, is also the author of a commentary on the Dravyaguzaatas’lokf of Trimalla, which is a work on Materia Medica. From the contents of the colophon of this commerktary 5, Caturbhuja seems to be a more celebrated person than ivadatta, the father of Krtadatta. vendetta’s commentary on Sivakoa, however, reveals that he was a very learned man in as much as, in his commentary, he has referred to not less than 107 works and authors,6 idiot to consider about a dozen vague references. He is not only proficient in Ayurvedic literature but F25 a mastery over a variety of lexicns7 and Sanskrit literature in general. In a commentary on an Ayurvedic work, dealing with a subject like Materia Medica, he could not help quoting from the very familiar works like Raghu, Kumãra and 3kbadüta of.. Klidsa, and authors like Bhavabhüti, Bhäravi, .Cabala, i:ia, etc.1 .Prof,-GODE has pointed out that vacate is included in, the of the Bcnares Panclits who paid a tribute to Kavindra Sarasvati ,cry : personal efforts in getting the Pilgrim Tax abolished by the Emperor She Johan, in a work, called XvindracanJrodaya. He, therefore, arrears to be a resident of Bewares at this time. No other information s available of the author at present.

 

Contents

 

  Foreword: S. M. Katre  
  Introduction  
1 Manuscript Material  
2 Author i
3 Plan of the ivakosa II
4 Constitution of the Text III
5 Orthographical Peculiarities iv
6 Importance of the ivakoa V
7 A Study of the Vocabulary vi
8 The Commentary xi
9 Works and Authors Cited: Ayurvedic xlii
10 Lexicons and Lexicographers xiv
11 References from Literary Works and Authors xvii
12 Original Home of Certain Medicines xvii
13 Vedic Therapeutics and Materia Medica Xxiii
14 Contemporary Evidence xxv
15 Magical Incantations and Ayurveda xxvi
16 The Unbroken Ayurvedic Tradition xxvii
17 Correlation with Assyrian Herbal Names xlvii
18 Conclusion liii
  Sivakoa Text 1
  Commentary: Sivaprakãa 51
  Appendices:  
  (i) Index to Authors and Works cited in vendetta’s Kosa and Commentary 166
  (ii) Current Popular Names cited in the Commentary with their Sanskrit Equivalents 170
  (iii) Index to Words in invoke 173
  Addenda And Corrigenda 207

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