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About the Book

 

Sources of Indian Traditions is an indispensable and essential selection of primary readings on the social, intellectual, and religious history of India from the decline of Mughal rule in the eighteen century to today. It details the advent of the East India Company, British colonization, the struggle for liberation, the partition of 1947, and the creation of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and contemporary India.

 

Divided thematically, it begins with a chapter on eighteenth-century intellectual and religious trends that set the stage for India's modern development. Nineteenth-century debates over social reform, featuring the leaders of reform and revival movements, follow. Chapters on Gandhi and his reception both nationally and abroad, and different perspectives on and approaches to partition, precede a section devoted to the drafting of the Indian constitution, the rise of nationalism, the influence of Western thought, the conflict in Kashmir, nuclear proliferation, minority religions, secularism, and the role of the Indian political left.

 

The last two sections portray Pakistan and its struggle for national identity, and Bangladesh and the controversies over' the fruits of freedom.

 

Preface

 

This third edition of the Sources of Indian Traditions represents a much greater departure from the second edition (published in 1988) than the second did from the first edition (published in 1958). When the second edition was initially undertaken, the ideological shifts in the study of South Asia that were brought about by postcolonial scholarship and the Subaltern Studies Collective, had not yet solidified. The second edition therefore updated the first by adding new translations, including some readings representing a non-Brahmanical standpoint, and by consulting American scholars of South Asia for input. No major rethinking of the organization of the two volumes was deemed necessary.

 

Since the late 1980s, mammoth changes in and enrichments of our understanding of South Asian history and historiography have occurred-some of which challenge the very conception of a "sourcebook" itself, for its privileging of certain viewpoints, assuming the primacy of texts (often religious), and perforce omitting considerations of historical context. Further criticisms of the second edition of the Sources included its implied divide between the premodern and the modern, mirrored in the distinction between the two volumes, such that religion was made to represent the premodern and politics the modern; the limited nature of some of the selections; the overrepresentation of some traditions; the underrepresentation of women, Dalits, and other marginalized voices throughout; the lack of attention to texts on ritual and pilgrimage, and the omission of sources on art, aesthetics, and scientific analysis; the lack of sufficient sources from a variety of non-Sanskritic texts; the presentation of traditions as if they were static, fixed entities, with a lack of attention given to overlapping interests, conflicts, and debates; the separating of Hindus from Muslims in both volumes, implying a "Muslim period"; the lack of documents such as council reforms, party platforms, and court cases; and the fact that the volumes stopped in the mid-iodos, without mention of Bangladesh or of all the postcolonial challenges and issues that inform the contemporary study of South Asia.

 

Despite these criticisms, the continued usage over the past thirty years of the Sources shows that there is nothing quite like them on the market. Instead of jettisoning the Sources, therefore, the five members of the editorial board for volume 2 of this third edition have undertaken a complete conceptual revision, rather than just an update along the lines established in the first and second editions. Nevertheless, as a team we are committed to the original vision of the Sources, as outlined in the preface to the first edition, according to which the source readings that are chosen "tell us what the peoples of India have thought about the world they lived in and the problems they faced living together. [This book] is meant to provide the general reader with an understanding of the intellectual and spiritual traditions, [as well as] the political, economic, and social thought which other surveys have generally omitted."

 

We followed five working principles in our revision for the third edition. We resolved to write introductions to each section that would be cognizant and reflective of recent changes in historiography and interpretation; to aim throughout for a combination of thematic, synthetic ordering and a rough chronological sequencing of chapters (the latter being retained for its usefulness in teaching); to restrict ourselves, for reasons of space, to textual materials rather than attempting to encompass or represent the arts, and to forego the temptation to include examples of South Asian transnationalism; to begin volume 2 in 1707, with the death of Aurangzeb, and to conclude it at the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, three hundred years later; and to rename the volumes Sources of Indian Traditions, to reflect the plurality of cultures inhabiting the subcontinent over the ages. In spite of the fact that both Pakistan and Bangladesh are covered in the new volume 2, it was decided .not to rename the sourcebooks Sources of South Asian Traditions, because adding materials on Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives would make an already large book completely unwieldy. Additional features of the third edition include updated bibliographies; several new maps; an index of themes.

 

Volume 2 has been considerably expanded and deepened, with a new organizing framework and different pedagogical concerns. An added chapter on the eighteenth century opens the volume; it offers a wealth of Indian and East India Company perspectives on Indian society of the time, and draws upon the latest scholarly thinking on the dynamism of the post-Aurangzeb period. A few selections from the end of volume 1, in its second edition, have been imported here. The readings in chapters 2 and 3 focus on the status of Western education, social reform, Christianity, women, and debates over the uprising of 1858. Changes include the frequent incorporation of selections used in the first edition but dropped in the second, and the addition of new voices (some of them women), new translations of old selections, and new selections entirely.

 

Chapters 4 through 7 are organized more tightly around single themes: (4) the early development of liberal social and political thought, as well as of Indian nationalism, including the first decade of .the Indian National Congress; (5) the politicized use of religion, especially in the Swadeshi movement following the fir t partition of Bengal, and the nationalization of art; (6) Gandhi and his contemporaries' views of his politics; and (7) the road to Partition. Each of the e chapters incorporates much new material, from Congress presidential addresses, patriotic poems, sources on language controversies, and very short stories, to a completely revamped section on Gandhi and his critics and a discussion of Partition that reflects nearly every conceivable angle.

 

Chapter 8 is, again, almost entirely new, and tries to bring the Sources up to date, chronologically as well as theoretically, by the inclusion of sources spanning the post-Independence period, viewpoints representative of recent scholarship, and opinion pieces on developments in the teaching and presentation of Indian history. Chapter 9, on Pakistan, brings in new themes and readings, updating the 1988 edition, and chapter 10, on Bangladesh, is entirely new (the second edition of volume 2, even though published seventeen years after the founding of Bangladesh, mentioned the country' name only once in the entire text).

 

Of note in the fact that chapter 5 of the second edition, "Leaders of Islamic Revival, Reform, and Nationalism in Pre-Independence India" (essentially the "Muslim chapter") has been eliminated entirely, with the material therein, plus -, much more, being dispersed throughout the other, thematically arranged chapters here. This avoids the pitfall of segregating Muslim authors and failing to integrate them properly into the organization of the book.

 

Overall, many but not all of the special challenges of reconceptualizing the Sources reflect the fact that, whether the volume is utilized in North America, Europe, or South Asia, our intended audience is students, of all ages, who may know little about the history of the subcontinent before their exposure to the text. Hence we cannot produce a sourcebook whose organization would be confusing to a beginner.

 

The issue of representation has also proven difficult. Is the Sources supposed to offer writings recognized as significant in their own milieus, or are we aiming for coverage across ideological, social, or gender boundaries? To take chapter 6 of volume 2 as an example, while no one would quibble with the importance of the responses to Gandhi of Nehru, Ambedkar, or Sarojini Naidu, on what grounds does one justify the inclusion of Godse's "May It Please Your Honor," from Godse's trial, since the document was not well known at the time? A related question concerns the "primary text." What makes a text "primary," in the modern context? Chapter 8 of volume 2 is full of texts authored by living Indians such as Amartya Sen, Jagdish Bhagwati, Madhu Kishwar, and Partha Chatterjee. Normally, one would class their work as a secondary resource. Why, then, are they part of our sourcebook?

 

In most cases, field-governed principles have dictated our decisions on issues such as the above. For the sake of informing students about the commitments and methodologies of economists, women's activists, and authors of subaltern and postcolonial studies, we have chosen to include samples of their scholarship and Indian voices reflective of their positions. Likewise, in the main we consider it an important corrective to prior history to include writings by little known figures-women, members of disadvantaged groups of society, or representatives of sectors not usually recognized as representative or seminal. One cannot imagine a sourcebook published in 2014 in New York that excludes female, Dalit, and other non-elite writings merely because they did not have the scope, in their own times, for popular broadcast.

 

We join the editors of the first and second editions, from 1958 and 1988, in feeling gratitude for and pleasure in this project, as originally spearheaded by Columbia University and continually supported by Columbia University Press. We hope that, with this third edition, continuing generations of students will find in the two volumes evidence for the greatness of Indian-and now Pakistani and Bangladeshi-civilizations.

 

Contents

 

 

Preface

xxv

 

Acknowledgments

xxix

 

A Note on Transliteration

xxxi

 

Chronology

xxxiii

 

Thematic Table of Contents

xli

 

List of Maps

lvii

1.

The Eighteenth Century: Ferment and Change

1

 

The Reorganization of Political Power

2-18

 

The Influences of Commerce

20-26

 

On the Margins of Power

27-29

 

Religious Expressions, Devotional and Intellectual

30-49

 

“Revolution in Bengal”: The East India Company

51-54

 

Harsukh Rai’s Epitaph for the Eighteenth Century: Recognition of the Winner and Loosers

55-57

2.

The Early to Mid Nineteenth Century: Debates Over Reform and Challenge to Empire

57

 

Henry Derozio: Poet and Educator

60-61

 

The Decision to Introduce English Education

62-69

 

Rammohan Roy: Pioneer in East-West Exchange

72-78

 

Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar: Social Reformer and Champion of Women’s Right

79-80

 

Nilakantha Goreh: A Traditional Pandit Takes on the Missionaries

83-84

 

Rassundari Devi: The First Bengali Autobiographer Looks Back on a Restricted Life

86

 

Bibi Ashraf: A young muslim Girl Struggles to Educate Herself

90

 

Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib: Do Not Worship the Dead

94

 

The Indian Rebellion of 1857: Deliberations, Fatalities, and Consequences

96-112

 

Can Muslim Live in a Christian State? Ulema Who speak for the British in 1871

116-117

3.

The Later Nineteenth Century: Leaders of Reform and Revival

120

 

Debendranath Tagore: Renewer of the Brahmo Samaj

122-125

 

Keshab Chandra Sen and the Indianization of Christianity

126-131

 

Dayanand Sarasvati: Vedic Revivalist

131-136

 

Shri Ramakrishna: Mystic and Spiritual Teacher

136-140

 

Swami Vivekananda: Hindu Missionary to the West

141-146

 

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: Enlightened Islam in a British Context

147-151

 

Amir Ali and “The Spirit of Islam”

152-153

 

Mahadev Govind Ranade: Pioneer Maharashtrian Reformer

156-157

 

Jotirao Phule: Radical Reformer

160-164

 

Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati: Pioneering Feminist and Reformer

165-169

 

Tarabai Shinde and a Feminist Defense of Women

171

 

D.K. Karve and Anandibai Karve: Living with widow Remarriage

173-174

 

Ashraf Ali Thanavi: Instructing the Respectable Muslim woman

177

 

Nagendrabala Dasi and the New Companionate Marriage

180-183

4.

Liberal Social and Political Thought in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century: The Moderates

183

 

Dadabhai Naoraji: Architect of Indian Nationalism

187-192

 

Sir Surendranath Banerjea: Bengali Moderate

194-198

 

Mahadev Govind Ranade: Economic Proposals

199-202

 

Gopal Krishna Gokhale: Servant of India

203-208

 

Romesh Chunder Dutt: Pioneer Economic Historian

210-211

 

Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan: An Anti Congress Speech

216

 

Badruddin Tyabji and Rahmatullah Sayani: Why Muslims Should Join the Congress

224-229

 

Rokeya Sakhavat Hossain: A Feminist Utopia and Challenge to Women’s Seclusion

237-240

 

Cornelia Sorabji: India’s First Woman Barrister

241-242

 

Sarojini Naidu: Congress Nightingale and Champion of Women’s Rights

246-247

5.

Radical Politics and Cultural Criticism, 1880-1914: The Extremists

250

 

Bankin Chandra Chatterjee: Nationalist Author

252-254

 

Bal Gangadhar Tilak: “Father of Indian Unrest”

262-265

 

Agitation Against the Bengal Partition and for Swadeshi: The Position of Surendranath Banerjea

268

 

Aurobindo Ghose: Mystic Patriot

271-281

 

Sarala Devi Chaudhurani and the Revival of Revolutionary Feeling

282-283

 

The Development of Linguistic Consciousness Hindi vs. Urdu

287

 

Lala Lajpat Rai: “Lion of Punjab”

289-299

 

Rabindranath Tagore: Poet, Educator and India’s Ambassador to the World

301-317

 

Muhammad Iqbal: Poet and Philosopher of Islam

318-327

 

Art of the Nation

328-335

6.

Mahatma Gandhi and Response

338

 

Hind Swaraj and the proper relationship between means and end power and freedom

345

 

A Disagreement with B.G. Tilak Over Swaraj

349

 

Gandhi Before the British: At the Disorders Inquiry Committee of 1920

350

 

The Crime of Chauri Chaura

355

 

The Great Trial: March 1922

357

 

Constructive Work in the Mid 1920

360

 

The Salt Satyagraha of 1930: The Letter of Lord Irwin

365

 

From the Gandhi-Irwin Pact to Quit India

369

 

Gandhi’s Responses to India’s Civil War in His Last Year

371

 

True Altruism

375

 

The Heir Apparent: Jawaharlal Nehru

376

 

Sarojini Naidu: Colleague and Devotee

384-386

 

The Challenge of Rabindranath Tagore

387-393

 

Communist Responses to Gandhi

396-402

 

Muslim Responses to the Mahatma: Mohamed and Shaukat Ali- Allies Then Adversaries

407

 

Mohamed Ali: To Self-Government Through Hindu-Muslim Unity, Nonviolence, and Sacrifice

409

 

Terrorism versus Non-violence

414

 

The Gandhi-Ambedkar Debate

421-426

 

Periyar Responds to Gandhi on Caste

429-431

 

Subhas Chandra Bose: Fervent Nationalist and Socialist

432-437

 

Nathuram Godse: Gandhi’s Assassin

439

 

Nirad Chaudhuri’s Critique of Gandhi’s Non-Violence

443-444

 

Jayaprakash Narayan: From Marxist to Gandhian

446

7.

To Independence and Partition

453

 

The Congress Muslim League Scheme of Reforms, or Lucknow Pact, 1916

462

 

Sarojini Naidu: Hindus, Muslims and Indian Unity

466

 

Rabindranath Tagore on Hindus and Muslims

488

 

Choudhary Rahmat Ali: Giving a Name to Pakistan

494

 

Muhhammad Ali Jinnah: Founder of Pakistan

496

 

C. Rajagopalachari’s Approach to Congress-League Settlement and the Gandhi-Jinnah Letters, 1944

505-507

 

G.D. Adhikari and the Views of the Community Party of India

511

 

Subhas Chandra Bose: On the Rani of Jhansi Regiment and Congress-League Negotiations

518-520

 

The Cabinet Mission, May 16, 1946 and Congress’s Response

522-527

 

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Considers Partitions

528

 

Gurbachan Singh and Lal Singh Gyani: The Sikhs Dilemma

536

 

Sarat Chandra Bose Takes the Lead: Efforts for a United Bengal

542-547

 

Lord Louis Mountbatten: Negotiations for Independence and Partition

549-550

 

Jawaharlal Nehru: The Future Prime Minister of India Reflects

554

 

Mohandas Gandhi on Partition

556

 

Abul Kalam Azad: Muslim Nationalist

560

 

Begum Shaista Ikramullah: A Muslim League View of Partition

574

 

Urvashi Butalia: Survivors’ Oral Accounts

583

8.

Issues in Post-Independence India

591

 

Giving Birth to the Nation

594

 

Constituent Assembly,1947-1950

596

 

The Unity and Integrity of the Nation

604-621

 

Democracy and Education

624-639

 

Socialism, Economics Development, and Poverty

644-655

 

Toward Equality and Social Justice

659-705

 

Hindu Nationalism, Communalism, and Secularism

707-727

 

Foreign Policy: Sovereignty

732-746

 

Postscript: Who Speaks for India?

748-748

9.

Pakistan, 1947 and After: The Struggle for National Identity

756-780

 

1958-1971: The Hegemony of the Military

783-792

 

1972-1977: Civilian Rule by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: Democracy and Islamic Socialism

795-801

 

1977-1988: Military Rule and Islamization: The Zia Years

803-812

 

1988-1999 Restoration of Civilian Rule

815-816

 

1999-2008: The Military Rule of General Pervez Musharraf and Its Later Civilianization

817-826

 

2008 and Beyond: Questions of Pakistan’s National Identity

829-833

 

The Formative Historical Context, 1905-1947

836

 

Life in East Pakistan, 1947-1971: Moving Toward the Split

838-858

 

After 1971: The Awami League Government and the Failure of an Ideal

862-868

 

Military Rule and the Move to Bangladeshi Nationalism, Islamization, and the Rehabilitation of “Collaborators”

870-879

 

The Defence of Secularism in Bangladesh

882-884

 

The Return to Democracy, and Continuing Challenges for Civil Society

887-895

 

Notes

899

 

Bibliography

909

 

Credits

925

 

Index

931

 

Sample Pages



Sources of Indian Traditions: Modern India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

Item Code:
NAJ941
Cover:
Paperback
Edition:
2014
ISBN:
9780143423980
Language:
English
Size:
8.5 inch x 5.0 inch
Pages:
1023
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 800 gms
Price:
$40.00   Shipping Free
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About the Book

 

Sources of Indian Traditions is an indispensable and essential selection of primary readings on the social, intellectual, and religious history of India from the decline of Mughal rule in the eighteen century to today. It details the advent of the East India Company, British colonization, the struggle for liberation, the partition of 1947, and the creation of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and contemporary India.

 

Divided thematically, it begins with a chapter on eighteenth-century intellectual and religious trends that set the stage for India's modern development. Nineteenth-century debates over social reform, featuring the leaders of reform and revival movements, follow. Chapters on Gandhi and his reception both nationally and abroad, and different perspectives on and approaches to partition, precede a section devoted to the drafting of the Indian constitution, the rise of nationalism, the influence of Western thought, the conflict in Kashmir, nuclear proliferation, minority religions, secularism, and the role of the Indian political left.

 

The last two sections portray Pakistan and its struggle for national identity, and Bangladesh and the controversies over' the fruits of freedom.

 

Preface

 

This third edition of the Sources of Indian Traditions represents a much greater departure from the second edition (published in 1988) than the second did from the first edition (published in 1958). When the second edition was initially undertaken, the ideological shifts in the study of South Asia that were brought about by postcolonial scholarship and the Subaltern Studies Collective, had not yet solidified. The second edition therefore updated the first by adding new translations, including some readings representing a non-Brahmanical standpoint, and by consulting American scholars of South Asia for input. No major rethinking of the organization of the two volumes was deemed necessary.

 

Since the late 1980s, mammoth changes in and enrichments of our understanding of South Asian history and historiography have occurred-some of which challenge the very conception of a "sourcebook" itself, for its privileging of certain viewpoints, assuming the primacy of texts (often religious), and perforce omitting considerations of historical context. Further criticisms of the second edition of the Sources included its implied divide between the premodern and the modern, mirrored in the distinction between the two volumes, such that religion was made to represent the premodern and politics the modern; the limited nature of some of the selections; the overrepresentation of some traditions; the underrepresentation of women, Dalits, and other marginalized voices throughout; the lack of attention to texts on ritual and pilgrimage, and the omission of sources on art, aesthetics, and scientific analysis; the lack of sufficient sources from a variety of non-Sanskritic texts; the presentation of traditions as if they were static, fixed entities, with a lack of attention given to overlapping interests, conflicts, and debates; the separating of Hindus from Muslims in both volumes, implying a "Muslim period"; the lack of documents such as council reforms, party platforms, and court cases; and the fact that the volumes stopped in the mid-iodos, without mention of Bangladesh or of all the postcolonial challenges and issues that inform the contemporary study of South Asia.

 

Despite these criticisms, the continued usage over the past thirty years of the Sources shows that there is nothing quite like them on the market. Instead of jettisoning the Sources, therefore, the five members of the editorial board for volume 2 of this third edition have undertaken a complete conceptual revision, rather than just an update along the lines established in the first and second editions. Nevertheless, as a team we are committed to the original vision of the Sources, as outlined in the preface to the first edition, according to which the source readings that are chosen "tell us what the peoples of India have thought about the world they lived in and the problems they faced living together. [This book] is meant to provide the general reader with an understanding of the intellectual and spiritual traditions, [as well as] the political, economic, and social thought which other surveys have generally omitted."

 

We followed five working principles in our revision for the third edition. We resolved to write introductions to each section that would be cognizant and reflective of recent changes in historiography and interpretation; to aim throughout for a combination of thematic, synthetic ordering and a rough chronological sequencing of chapters (the latter being retained for its usefulness in teaching); to restrict ourselves, for reasons of space, to textual materials rather than attempting to encompass or represent the arts, and to forego the temptation to include examples of South Asian transnationalism; to begin volume 2 in 1707, with the death of Aurangzeb, and to conclude it at the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, three hundred years later; and to rename the volumes Sources of Indian Traditions, to reflect the plurality of cultures inhabiting the subcontinent over the ages. In spite of the fact that both Pakistan and Bangladesh are covered in the new volume 2, it was decided .not to rename the sourcebooks Sources of South Asian Traditions, because adding materials on Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives would make an already large book completely unwieldy. Additional features of the third edition include updated bibliographies; several new maps; an index of themes.

 

Volume 2 has been considerably expanded and deepened, with a new organizing framework and different pedagogical concerns. An added chapter on the eighteenth century opens the volume; it offers a wealth of Indian and East India Company perspectives on Indian society of the time, and draws upon the latest scholarly thinking on the dynamism of the post-Aurangzeb period. A few selections from the end of volume 1, in its second edition, have been imported here. The readings in chapters 2 and 3 focus on the status of Western education, social reform, Christianity, women, and debates over the uprising of 1858. Changes include the frequent incorporation of selections used in the first edition but dropped in the second, and the addition of new voices (some of them women), new translations of old selections, and new selections entirely.

 

Chapters 4 through 7 are organized more tightly around single themes: (4) the early development of liberal social and political thought, as well as of Indian nationalism, including the first decade of .the Indian National Congress; (5) the politicized use of religion, especially in the Swadeshi movement following the fir t partition of Bengal, and the nationalization of art; (6) Gandhi and his contemporaries' views of his politics; and (7) the road to Partition. Each of the e chapters incorporates much new material, from Congress presidential addresses, patriotic poems, sources on language controversies, and very short stories, to a completely revamped section on Gandhi and his critics and a discussion of Partition that reflects nearly every conceivable angle.

 

Chapter 8 is, again, almost entirely new, and tries to bring the Sources up to date, chronologically as well as theoretically, by the inclusion of sources spanning the post-Independence period, viewpoints representative of recent scholarship, and opinion pieces on developments in the teaching and presentation of Indian history. Chapter 9, on Pakistan, brings in new themes and readings, updating the 1988 edition, and chapter 10, on Bangladesh, is entirely new (the second edition of volume 2, even though published seventeen years after the founding of Bangladesh, mentioned the country' name only once in the entire text).

 

Of note in the fact that chapter 5 of the second edition, "Leaders of Islamic Revival, Reform, and Nationalism in Pre-Independence India" (essentially the "Muslim chapter") has been eliminated entirely, with the material therein, plus -, much more, being dispersed throughout the other, thematically arranged chapters here. This avoids the pitfall of segregating Muslim authors and failing to integrate them properly into the organization of the book.

 

Overall, many but not all of the special challenges of reconceptualizing the Sources reflect the fact that, whether the volume is utilized in North America, Europe, or South Asia, our intended audience is students, of all ages, who may know little about the history of the subcontinent before their exposure to the text. Hence we cannot produce a sourcebook whose organization would be confusing to a beginner.

 

The issue of representation has also proven difficult. Is the Sources supposed to offer writings recognized as significant in their own milieus, or are we aiming for coverage across ideological, social, or gender boundaries? To take chapter 6 of volume 2 as an example, while no one would quibble with the importance of the responses to Gandhi of Nehru, Ambedkar, or Sarojini Naidu, on what grounds does one justify the inclusion of Godse's "May It Please Your Honor," from Godse's trial, since the document was not well known at the time? A related question concerns the "primary text." What makes a text "primary," in the modern context? Chapter 8 of volume 2 is full of texts authored by living Indians such as Amartya Sen, Jagdish Bhagwati, Madhu Kishwar, and Partha Chatterjee. Normally, one would class their work as a secondary resource. Why, then, are they part of our sourcebook?

 

In most cases, field-governed principles have dictated our decisions on issues such as the above. For the sake of informing students about the commitments and methodologies of economists, women's activists, and authors of subaltern and postcolonial studies, we have chosen to include samples of their scholarship and Indian voices reflective of their positions. Likewise, in the main we consider it an important corrective to prior history to include writings by little known figures-women, members of disadvantaged groups of society, or representatives of sectors not usually recognized as representative or seminal. One cannot imagine a sourcebook published in 2014 in New York that excludes female, Dalit, and other non-elite writings merely because they did not have the scope, in their own times, for popular broadcast.

 

We join the editors of the first and second editions, from 1958 and 1988, in feeling gratitude for and pleasure in this project, as originally spearheaded by Columbia University and continually supported by Columbia University Press. We hope that, with this third edition, continuing generations of students will find in the two volumes evidence for the greatness of Indian-and now Pakistani and Bangladeshi-civilizations.

 

Contents

 

 

Preface

xxv

 

Acknowledgments

xxix

 

A Note on Transliteration

xxxi

 

Chronology

xxxiii

 

Thematic Table of Contents

xli

 

List of Maps

lvii

1.

The Eighteenth Century: Ferment and Change

1

 

The Reorganization of Political Power

2-18

 

The Influences of Commerce

20-26

 

On the Margins of Power

27-29

 

Religious Expressions, Devotional and Intellectual

30-49

 

“Revolution in Bengal”: The East India Company

51-54

 

Harsukh Rai’s Epitaph for the Eighteenth Century: Recognition of the Winner and Loosers

55-57

2.

The Early to Mid Nineteenth Century: Debates Over Reform and Challenge to Empire

57

 

Henry Derozio: Poet and Educator

60-61

 

The Decision to Introduce English Education

62-69

 

Rammohan Roy: Pioneer in East-West Exchange

72-78

 

Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar: Social Reformer and Champion of Women’s Right

79-80

 

Nilakantha Goreh: A Traditional Pandit Takes on the Missionaries

83-84

 

Rassundari Devi: The First Bengali Autobiographer Looks Back on a Restricted Life

86

 

Bibi Ashraf: A young muslim Girl Struggles to Educate Herself

90

 

Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib: Do Not Worship the Dead

94

 

The Indian Rebellion of 1857: Deliberations, Fatalities, and Consequences

96-112

 

Can Muslim Live in a Christian State? Ulema Who speak for the British in 1871

116-117

3.

The Later Nineteenth Century: Leaders of Reform and Revival

120

 

Debendranath Tagore: Renewer of the Brahmo Samaj

122-125

 

Keshab Chandra Sen and the Indianization of Christianity

126-131

 

Dayanand Sarasvati: Vedic Revivalist

131-136

 

Shri Ramakrishna: Mystic and Spiritual Teacher

136-140

 

Swami Vivekananda: Hindu Missionary to the West

141-146

 

Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan: Enlightened Islam in a British Context

147-151

 

Amir Ali and “The Spirit of Islam”

152-153

 

Mahadev Govind Ranade: Pioneer Maharashtrian Reformer

156-157

 

Jotirao Phule: Radical Reformer

160-164

 

Pandita Ramabai Sarasvati: Pioneering Feminist and Reformer

165-169

 

Tarabai Shinde and a Feminist Defense of Women

171

 

D.K. Karve and Anandibai Karve: Living with widow Remarriage

173-174

 

Ashraf Ali Thanavi: Instructing the Respectable Muslim woman

177

 

Nagendrabala Dasi and the New Companionate Marriage

180-183

4.

Liberal Social and Political Thought in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century: The Moderates

183

 

Dadabhai Naoraji: Architect of Indian Nationalism

187-192

 

Sir Surendranath Banerjea: Bengali Moderate

194-198

 

Mahadev Govind Ranade: Economic Proposals

199-202

 

Gopal Krishna Gokhale: Servant of India

203-208

 

Romesh Chunder Dutt: Pioneer Economic Historian

210-211

 

Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan: An Anti Congress Speech

216

 

Badruddin Tyabji and Rahmatullah Sayani: Why Muslims Should Join the Congress

224-229

 

Rokeya Sakhavat Hossain: A Feminist Utopia and Challenge to Women’s Seclusion

237-240

 

Cornelia Sorabji: India’s First Woman Barrister

241-242

 

Sarojini Naidu: Congress Nightingale and Champion of Women’s Rights

246-247

5.

Radical Politics and Cultural Criticism, 1880-1914: The Extremists

250

 

Bankin Chandra Chatterjee: Nationalist Author

252-254

 

Bal Gangadhar Tilak: “Father of Indian Unrest”

262-265

 

Agitation Against the Bengal Partition and for Swadeshi: The Position of Surendranath Banerjea

268

 

Aurobindo Ghose: Mystic Patriot

271-281

 

Sarala Devi Chaudhurani and the Revival of Revolutionary Feeling

282-283

 

The Development of Linguistic Consciousness Hindi vs. Urdu

287

 

Lala Lajpat Rai: “Lion of Punjab”

289-299

 

Rabindranath Tagore: Poet, Educator and India’s Ambassador to the World

301-317

 

Muhammad Iqbal: Poet and Philosopher of Islam

318-327

 

Art of the Nation

328-335

6.

Mahatma Gandhi and Response

338

 

Hind Swaraj and the proper relationship between means and end power and freedom

345

 

A Disagreement with B.G. Tilak Over Swaraj

349

 

Gandhi Before the British: At the Disorders Inquiry Committee of 1920

350

 

The Crime of Chauri Chaura

355

 

The Great Trial: March 1922

357

 

Constructive Work in the Mid 1920

360

 

The Salt Satyagraha of 1930: The Letter of Lord Irwin

365

 

From the Gandhi-Irwin Pact to Quit India

369

 

Gandhi’s Responses to India’s Civil War in His Last Year

371

 

True Altruism

375

 

The Heir Apparent: Jawaharlal Nehru

376

 

Sarojini Naidu: Colleague and Devotee

384-386

 

The Challenge of Rabindranath Tagore

387-393

 

Communist Responses to Gandhi

396-402

 

Muslim Responses to the Mahatma: Mohamed and Shaukat Ali- Allies Then Adversaries

407

 

Mohamed Ali: To Self-Government Through Hindu-Muslim Unity, Nonviolence, and Sacrifice

409

 

Terrorism versus Non-violence

414

 

The Gandhi-Ambedkar Debate

421-426

 

Periyar Responds to Gandhi on Caste

429-431

 

Subhas Chandra Bose: Fervent Nationalist and Socialist

432-437

 

Nathuram Godse: Gandhi’s Assassin

439

 

Nirad Chaudhuri’s Critique of Gandhi’s Non-Violence

443-444

 

Jayaprakash Narayan: From Marxist to Gandhian

446

7.

To Independence and Partition

453

 

The Congress Muslim League Scheme of Reforms, or Lucknow Pact, 1916

462

 

Sarojini Naidu: Hindus, Muslims and Indian Unity

466

 

Rabindranath Tagore on Hindus and Muslims

488

 

Choudhary Rahmat Ali: Giving a Name to Pakistan

494

 

Muhhammad Ali Jinnah: Founder of Pakistan

496

 

C. Rajagopalachari’s Approach to Congress-League Settlement and the Gandhi-Jinnah Letters, 1944

505-507

 

G.D. Adhikari and the Views of the Community Party of India

511

 

Subhas Chandra Bose: On the Rani of Jhansi Regiment and Congress-League Negotiations

518-520

 

The Cabinet Mission, May 16, 1946 and Congress’s Response

522-527

 

Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Considers Partitions

528

 

Gurbachan Singh and Lal Singh Gyani: The Sikhs Dilemma

536

 

Sarat Chandra Bose Takes the Lead: Efforts for a United Bengal

542-547

 

Lord Louis Mountbatten: Negotiations for Independence and Partition

549-550

 

Jawaharlal Nehru: The Future Prime Minister of India Reflects

554

 

Mohandas Gandhi on Partition

556

 

Abul Kalam Azad: Muslim Nationalist

560

 

Begum Shaista Ikramullah: A Muslim League View of Partition

574

 

Urvashi Butalia: Survivors’ Oral Accounts

583

8.

Issues in Post-Independence India

591

 

Giving Birth to the Nation

594

 

Constituent Assembly,1947-1950

596

 

The Unity and Integrity of the Nation

604-621

 

Democracy and Education

624-639

 

Socialism, Economics Development, and Poverty

644-655

 

Toward Equality and Social Justice

659-705

 

Hindu Nationalism, Communalism, and Secularism

707-727

 

Foreign Policy: Sovereignty

732-746

 

Postscript: Who Speaks for India?

748-748

9.

Pakistan, 1947 and After: The Struggle for National Identity

756-780

 

1958-1971: The Hegemony of the Military

783-792

 

1972-1977: Civilian Rule by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto: Democracy and Islamic Socialism

795-801

 

1977-1988: Military Rule and Islamization: The Zia Years

803-812

 

1988-1999 Restoration of Civilian Rule

815-816

 

1999-2008: The Military Rule of General Pervez Musharraf and Its Later Civilianization

817-826

 

2008 and Beyond: Questions of Pakistan’s National Identity

829-833

 

The Formative Historical Context, 1905-1947

836

 

Life in East Pakistan, 1947-1971: Moving Toward the Split

838-858

 

After 1971: The Awami League Government and the Failure of an Ideal

862-868

 

Military Rule and the Move to Bangladeshi Nationalism, Islamization, and the Rehabilitation of “Collaborators”

870-879

 

The Defence of Secularism in Bangladesh

882-884

 

The Return to Democracy, and Continuing Challenges for Civil Society

887-895

 

Notes

899

 

Bibliography

909

 

Credits

925

 

Index

931

 

Sample Pages



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