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Books > Hindu > Srivacana Bhusanam of Pillai Lokacarya (Translation and Commentary of Manavalamamuni)
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Srivacana Bhusanam of Pillai Lokacarya (Translation and Commentary of Manavalamamuni)
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Srivacana Bhusanam of Pillai Lokacarya (Translation and Commentary of Manavalamamuni)
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About the Book

Srivacanabhusanam, the magnum opus with its authentic commentary exhaustively elucidates the interinisic meanings and teachings of the three Rahasya Mantra of Tirumantra, Dvaya Mantra and Caramasloka. The book explicitly condenses the metaphysical and theological doctrines of the Alvars: dialectical views of Vedantic order; devotional attitudes of Itihasa-purana; and the socio-cultural and linguistic lextures of indigenous literature of the Tamil Country.

Thispolemic work factually elaborate the following religious themes with panoramic outlook; I. Theo-philosophy behind Goddess Sri Laksmi and her intermediate state between the Lord and devotee as purusakara; and countless aesthetic quelities of Lord Sriman Narayana as the means as well as the end in itself for the mukti, the liberation. 2. Prapatti, the complete surrender to the Lord for his redemptive grace where it never considers the limitation like time and place, ceremonial procedure, eligibility but with the object only, i.e., to whom one has to perform it to fulfill his cherished desire; and the necessary qualifications to follow the destined means 3. Routines of the prapanna and the necessities to perform the kainkarya ‘service’ to the Lord 4. Characteristic features and the pleasing conduct between the good teacher and that of the good disciple; and the subjectmatters along with the ways to be taught by the former to the latter. 5. Innate nature of the Lord’s nirhetukakrpa, ‘causeless grace’ within which He without any restrictins and expectations help his devotee for their final emancipation. 6. Need of acarybhimana as the simplest means to attain paramapada, the abode of the Lord.

Apart from these, the esoteric text with its scientific treatments towards varnasramadharma, by giving prime importance to bhakti than status of the birth religiously regulates the mankind towards Universal Brothrhood with the cosmopolitan societal perspectives, within which, all kinds of differences among the individuals and nations would be nullified in the name of God, which in long run makes the humanity as the Unique Globle Spiritual Community.

 

About the Author

J. Rangawami (b.1956; Solaiudiyanpatty [Thirumalaipatty]; Namakkal Dt., in Tamilnadu), Associate Professor, School of Philosophy, Tamil University, Thanjavur, India is the rank holder of M.A (1980) and M.Phi (1981) in Pkhilosophy along with Diploma. in Sanskrit (1983); his Ph.D thesis on Bhagavadgita was ‘highly commended’ at the Department of Philosophy, Annamalai University. He has completed 10 Research Projects at School of Philosophy and credited UPC Research Associate (1994-1996) at the Department of Philosophy and Religion, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi; and Associate of Institute of Advanced Study (196-1998), Shimla. He has assiduously published more than 45 research articles and participated in 85 national and international conferences, seminar and symposia. He completes this book under the scheme (1999-2002) of Major Research Project, financed by UGC, New Delhi. Currently he is indefatigably transating Acarya Hrdaya, the another canonical text of Srivaisnavism with the Commentary of Manavalamamuni into English under the same scheme (2004). Recently, he as Commonwealth Fellow visited the Department of Religious Studies, Lancaster University, United Kingdom and completed a project on Samkhya darsana, within which, by criticizing the dualistic Nirisvara Samkhya, authoritatively establishes the existence of third higher spiritual principle within background of British Thinkers. His erudite scholarship on Srivaisnavism fueled with modern trend of Western Philosophy is quite remarkable.

 

Foreword

Dr Jaganathan an influential strand of post-Ramanuja Srivaisnavism.

Dr Rangaswami belong to this strand by virtue of birth, it is not mere sentiment that has led him to pursue a study of Lokacary along sympathetic but nevertheless analytic lines. He has understood the need for bringing suchsophisticated theology to a larger, English-speaking audience. He has done an admirable task in this regard.

Lokacarya is significant in this he takes very seriously Ramanuja’s theological commitment to bhakti. But whereas the Master, even while speaking of devotion, nevertheless develops his position with highly intellectual care, Lokacarya presents a wholeheartedly devotional version of Srivaisnava theology. His very sources indicated this: where Ramanjua works out of the Upanisads, the Brahma Sutras and the Gita, Lokacarya draws on the Pancaratra Agamas, the hymns of the Alvars, and the narratives of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. His devotionalist theology, in other words, is entirely consistent with his sources. In this way, he speaks for a form of Srivaisnavism that addresses a wider populaer culture. It may well be that there more intellectually precise, emotionally restrained and philosophically strict interpretations of Srivsnavism, but Lokacarya’s has shown the potential to take in the concern of a larger audience. In Manavalmamuni, he found a commentator who was both deeply in tune with the movement of Srivaisnava devotionalism and committed to an inclusive reading of it.

Dr Rangaswami ably pursues this interpretive heritage, indeed placing Lokacarya and Manavalmamuni in tune with contemporary demands and the urgent need for a more socially aware theology.

Dr Rangawami has been able to carry out s wide range of philosophical work in recent times; he was a Commonwealth Visiting Fellow at my department in 2004, when I had the opportunity to observe him and work with him. I am sure many other serious works of philosophy will be existentially dedicated book to the scholarly reader interested in both Srivaisnava history of thought and modern Hindu theology.

 

Preface

Translating a Srivaisnava canonical treatise with its specific commentary in manipravala style in an articulated English would be a challenging endeavour, rather difficult also. Genuinely, concise and precise terms of the esoteric text certainly may not have the approximately parallel synonyms in English because both the languages much of widely different expressions, factual contents, grammatical structures etc. For instance, to me, though the expressions like ‘avapta samasta kamatva’, ‘purusakaratva’; the Tamil wordings like ‘jnanpurttu. ‘matimankay ittu’; and the manipravala phrases like ‘piramma metattale samskarittar’, ‘atmasvarupattai avalampittirukkum’ may have the respective English expressions as, ‘being filled with all desires’, ‘meditorship,; ‘complete knowledge’, ‘finding faults falsely’; and ‘performed a brahma-medha ritual’, ‘it also depends upon the soul’s essential nature’. But they would be unavoidably absurd, more specifically ludicrous, because, for more accuracy, each and every word, phrase, idiom, etc., of a particular language would be understood along with the regional sensitivity and indigenous faith and believes within their socio-cultural set up. Since Srivacanabhusana is a polemical literature with local imports, obviously the compressed and loaded logical as well as thematic syntax etc., need much stress and strain in translation. Undeniably, since this theo-philosophical text bears religious charm, logical vigour with aesthetic value, the sheer literal translation with its intellectual beauty and thoughtful content would never fulfill the mission. So, with the academic commitment, an honest translator with freedom of using non-literal and precise English rendering with the possible expressiveness of the literal quality could be a reliable solution to this intellectual venture. Therefore, the present translator honestly accepts this course and adopted the modus-operandi. He also somehow believes that scholars with some acquaintance with Vaisnavism may faithfully follow the text along with its inner meaning.

Before beginning with the original translation of the commentary, the Translator truthfully provides a comprehensive ‘Introduction’ about the text, which will guide all the readers to understand the specific tenets of the system. Then, by relying upon the authentic remarks about the author, Pillai Lakacarya, and commentator, Manavalamuni made by the editor Pandit Vidvan B.R. Purusottama Nidu, an erudite Srivaisnava scholar, a short history of them along with their family background is precisely compiled. In it, the importance of this commentary along with its feasibleness is properly noted. Over here, it is to be referred to, that this translation closely follows the holy approach as Manavalamamuni observes, which is briefly noted in the ‘Short Note’ about him, so to say, if a reader grasps it, then, he could, as such understand the cardinal thesis of the text.

In the appendix, a glossary of important technical terms which expresses the basic concept of the Srivaisnavism is annexed. Perhaps, this part does not provide the translation or meanings based on Manier-Williams’ A Sanskrit-English Dictionary or Fabricius’ Tamil and Rnglish Dicitionary, but supply possible definitions, which carry limited meaning of the Srivaisnava literature. At the end, a selected bibliography is added. However, since this work is a translation, the books that directly or indirectly helped to understand the main themes of the text, dictionaries widely used and the primary as well as secondary works related with mainstream of the subject are appropriately listed.

It is my privilege to acknowledge the noted scholars who graced and guided myself for the successful completion of this laborious task. My deep regards are due to late Dr. P.K. Sundaram, former Director of the School of Philosophy Tamil University who in 1988 affectionately suggested me to master the text. Following his advice, I have completed two research projects, submitted to the Tamil University in the years 1994 and 1998. Equally well, I should also remember late Dr. K.N. Misra, former Prrofessor, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. When I was there as UGC Visiting Associate during 1994-1996, we along Dr. T. Seenisamy, Former Professor, Department of Literature and Dean, Faculty of Language systematically planned to translate this volunibous text in English as well as I Hindi. However, under the UGC’s direction I alone devotedly engaged with this pleasant task. There are many other scholars who generously contributed their much of time for valuable discussion and needful co-operation. Among them, I should immensely remember Sri Vaishnava Sudarsanar U.V. Puttur Krishnawami Ayyangar, Tiruchirappalli and Dr. S.Kodantaraman, fromer Professor of Sanskrit, Thiruvaiyaru. I strongly felt comfortable that without traditional as modern scholarship, it would not be possible to complete this translation with galore intellectual caliber and religious tempo. Along with them, I also express my honour to Dr. Palani Arangasamy, former Profess and Head, Department of Translation and presently Head of the Department of English, E.V. Periyar Maniammai Engineering College, Thanjavur, who by going through the manuscript, trained me to use the right word with respect to the circumstance and context.

Dr. Raju Kalidos, Senior Professor, Department of Sculpture and Art History, Tamil University was a constant source of inspiration and encouragement, who inspecte and reviewed the final manuscript. But for him this book would not have reached the press, who commended it to Shri B. L. Bansal for publication.

I would be obediently obliged to Dr. e. Sundaramurthi, former Vice Chancellor or Tamil University for his pleasing encouragement and the moral support to complete this assignment successfully. As such sincere tanks are due to Dr. G. Bhaskaran, present Director, School of Philosophy. It is to be recognized, that, without the assistance extended by my Research Scholars, the completion of this Major Research Project would been difficult. I humbly submit my solicitation to the Enlightened Readers of this work, that as, Universal Ethical Code Tirukkual states,

“Kunamnatik kurramum nati avarrul
Mikainati mikka kolal” (504)
“Let (a king) consider (aman’s) good qualities; let him also consider his faults, and let him judge (of his character) by that which prevails’.

If there are flaws and faults in the translation, kindly by omitting the same, understand and realize the poised theories of Srivaisnavism. The Author honestly awaits valid and constructive criticisms for the betterment of this volume. Yet! By experiencing all odds and laboriousness. I do endorse, Dr. Prema Nandakumar, he serious translator and versatile scholar’s following statement on translation. “Be prepared to work very hard. There is no easy way out in this discipline. Close to cent percent, it is a constant struggle, change of phrase, idioms, phrases, the red and blue pencils at work tirelessly, a never-ending honeymoon with dictionaries, lexicons and volumes of grammar. Translation is a job with which one lives whether awake or asleep! (Prema Nandakumar, 1999:16).

 

Introduction

If it is revealed the extraordinary circumstances of the birth of Pillai Lokacarya, his significance in the Srivaisnava lore could be better understood. His father, Vatakkutiruppillai though married, lived at Srirangam as brahmacari, without having sexual contact with Sriranganacciya, his wife. Understanding the situation, his mother appropriately complained the matter to his guru, Nampillai. As a result, Nampillai invited Sriranganacciyar to his place and blessed her with a gracious stock at her stomach and ordained her to have a son. By the same time, he also instructed properly Vatakkutiruvitippillai not to renounce family life but to have sexual contact with his wife. In course of time, his wife gave birth to a son who is nobody else but Pillai Lokacarya.

There are two incidents, out of these it may be strongly suggested that Pillai Lokacarya who was scientific and he graciously composed this glorified treaty under the supreme command of the Lord of Kancipuram through the incidents of dreaming of Manalpakkattu Nambi. In that dream, Lord Vradaraja taught him the special meanings of saranagati and order him to go to Srirangam to meet Pillai Lokacarya. He taught the meanings of Srivaisnavism as such to his disciption. In continuation of the meeting of Manalpakkattu Nampi with Pillai Lokacarya, after sometime, Nampi had a dream in which Lord Varadaraja appeared and instructed him to request Pillai Lokacarya to write a treaty on Srivaisnavism ina systematic way. The second incident is discussed in Yatindrapravanaprabhava. It is a well known fact in the Srivaisnava community, that the theo-philosophy and the teachings of the system which through the ages derived from the Veda and Upanisads are not taught to all but to very few eligible intellects because the highest truth has to be guarded much from the malicious persons and underserved fools. After completion of the Srivacanabhusanam, some of the leading members of Srivaisnava community objected to the theme behind the bhagavata, i.e., the devotees of the Lord that have right relationship with the Lord. Pillai Lokacarya argues that the bhagavata certainly transcends caste, creed and colour. He adds that one may be from the lower caste, but if he is a true bhagavata, he should be given the highest honour in the Srivaisnava community and all the other bhagavatas ought to extend their nhagavatasesatva to him without fail. The story goes, his case is taken by his brother Alagiya Manavala Perumal Nayanar to Lord Ranganathascami at Srirangam. The Lord through the priest indicated and endorsed the themes of Pillai Lokacarya in the presence of Srivaisnava community.

As such, who followed the foot-steps of the great acaryas like Nadamuni and Sri Yamunacarya, by preserving the secret teachings, they impart them only to a selected few who are all having moral maturity and necessary qualifications to reach the highest goal. But Sri Ramanuja with the thinking that the predecessors were too hard upon the disciples, has broken the tradition and taught the Srivaisnava principles to all, whereas the graciously has felt that if not as such, in due course the whole secret themes would altogether may disappear. Though he preached the teaching to all, he beautifully and carefully has introduced the theistic philosophy in writings, within which the average reader could not fathom the deep meaning of the Srivaisnava philosophy. After Sri Ramanuja, the secret teachings have gained circulation among the wider mass of the community. Thus through the ages after two centuries, another great teacher Pillai Lokacarya, due to the circumstances of the religious set-up, has honestly viewed that all the teaching of the system could be in white and black, if not perhaps quite possibly in due course course all of them may ubdergo undersirable change. So, the highest credit goes to Pillai Lokacarya as the acarya who wote the Rahasya Texts which deal with the meaning and elaration the three esoteric Srivaisnava Mantra i.e., Tirumantra, Dvayamantra anf Caramasloka along their allied secret teachings.

Out of the eighteen works, traditionally well known as Astadasa Rahasya, Srivacanabhusana, Tattvatraya and Mumuksuppati are very important, within which the previous one by all considerations is regarded a magnum opus. The mere name itself shown Sri-great; vacana-sayings of the great teachers; bhusana-an ornament, i.e., an ornament (to be worn by the aspirant for total emancipation) made up of gem like sayings of our great teachers of the Srivaisnava yore. The last acarya of the tradition, Manavlamamuni, has written the extensive commentary upon this great work. So, the whole Text and its Commentary superbly contain all the teachings preached and practiced in the long line of teachers of Srivaisnava fold.

Our tradition scholars followed the custom to teach the above work to a few selected Srivaisanavas and restricted to give the lecture about the subject in public. As such the Text and it commentary were safeguarded as a treasure and preserved the same with utmost care. But in the modern days it is very hard to by-pass the content as the traditional way because the devotees of the system have neither the opportunity nor the time to sit under the gracious feel of a guru to learn the text with the touch of traditional sanctity. There are also other problems to the modern scholars to read and grasp the crux of the Text with its Commentary because of its wordings, scholarly diction, sentence construction and formation and so the style of language. For the sake to help the people who have the real desire to taste the vast ocean of the nectar, Pandita Vidvan B.R. Purusottama Naidu with much care has lucidly translated the originals into modern Tamil without any loss to the vigor and the in-depth meaning with authentic notes on the Author as well as the Commentator. He has also added proper notes upon references and included the necessary appendix.

After a full-fledged analytical study, the central teaching of the Srivacanabhusana could be derived, that, almost at the end, the soul doesn’t need anything but it could understand its essential nature, i.e., eternally performing the pratantriyasesatva ‘dependent subservience’ to the where it has o perform the eternal kainkarya through the mediation of the acarya; whereas gaining even the full-fledged affinities towards acarya i.e., acryabhimana, which in due course fruitfully helps to attain the highest aim, i.e., the moksa.

The book is categorized into six chapters within which almost all the Srivaisnava principles are carefully in-loaded. To have a panoramic perspective of the Text, the important themes discussed could be condensed systematically. As a prelude, the Author before commencing his full-fledges discussions speaks about the pramanas for the subject-matter, which are systematically analysed through the Text. While discussing about the supremacy of the Veda, the Author properly synthesizes the two major divisions of the Veda, its karmakanda with their uparamanas as Dharmasastras and jnankanda with their upapramanas as Sri Ramayana and Sri Mahabharata.

In the discussion, the value of the Veda as the supreme pramana and if doubts arise, the ways to clarify the same are sharply placed. In this part, the Author commends that, though the Vedebhahyas, i.e., aliens like Charvakas, Jains, Buddhist, etc., won’t admit the authority of the Vedas , while the other sectarians like Nyaya- Vaisesikas, Mimamsakas, Vedantins, etc., have inflinching faith in the Vedas as their Supreme pramana along with the pratyaksa ‘perception’,i.e., ocular ‘verifiable by the naked eye’ and the anumana ‘inference’. If there is doubt who admit the sruti as the only authority, they have to resolve them with the help of the smrit, i.e., the upapramanas like Dharmasastras which were compiled by sages like Manu, Atri, Yajnavalky; the Ithihasas like Ramayana and Mahabharata and the Puranas, i.e., the elaborated historic delineation like Brahma, Visnu, Bhagvata, wtc. So, by discussing the above states of Veda, it is authentically stated, that the Text Srivcanabhusana includes the themes which are widely discussed in the upapramanas.

 

Contents

 

  Foreword v
  Blessings vii
  Preface xv
  Note Regarding Transliteration xix
  Abbreviations xxi
  Introduction 1
  Short History of the Author of the Text 37
  Short Notes on Manavalamuni, The Commentator 41
  Verses in Praise of the Tet (Taniyankal) 51
  Preface (URAIPAYIRAM) Graciously Affored by Manavalamamuni 63
  Prologue (Payiram) 73
  The authorritative texts to specify the subject matter of Veda and among them one is more imprtant…. 73
I. The Greatness of Purusakara and Upaya 90
  The Subject-matter conveyed in the Epics-Sri Ramayana and Sri Mahabharata Sutras….. 90
  Explanation of the characteristic features of Purusakara…. 98
  Purusakara as expounded in Sri Mahabharata…. 115
  Explanation of the greatness of Purusakara as well as upaya….. 122
  Errors committed by Arjuna…… 129
  Reason for the Lord Krsna not to kill the Pandavas; assuming as Messenger to the Court of Dhartarastra; and took in -charge as Charioteer to Arjuna…. 132
II. Means (Upaya) 149
  Lack of disciplinary observances like place, time, etc. to prapatti Sutras…. 149
  Concurrence of the subject where to perform the prapatti and it is arcavatara 'incarnation in the form of holy idols in the temples to perform prayer upon them'; and the greatness of arcavatara.. 163
  Three kind of Authorities to perform prapatti upon the arcavatara and their differentiated qualities with proper testimony… 175
  When devotional attitude reaches certain stage, the prapatti may collapse, whereas there is different ways of performing to the upon… 186
  The defect when assuming prapatti as upaya… 192
  The nature of prapatti; and Goda alone is the subject matter to the upaya… 193
III. Order of the the Religious Practices to the Authorities Who Prapatti 229
  Necessary qualifications for the authorities who perform prpatti 229
  Stating that, since the activities of Pillai Tirunaraiyur Araiyar are the outcome of the inseparable attachment with the Lord and they should not be reproachable… 238
  Prapanna should not follow karma, jnana and bhakti as upayas and the defects of them… 272
  Absence of defects as in the other upayas and the qualificans of prapatti… 289
  Not the svagata but paragatasvikara alone will be the upaya 297
  Superiority of paragatasvikara 303
  God accepts the soul through purusakara… 305
  Specialities of the result for the expectation of the purusakara by the Lord as well as the soul… 306
  Necessities of the purusakara for the three Kinds of Authorities… 312
  Erroneousness of the independent sesatva as well as paratanrya… 314
  Affection of the Lord upon the oly sarira of the jnanis who know the realities… 318
  Even thimking to protect by himseklf would cause destruction… 331
  Harshness of ahankara… 335
  Harshness of the sensuality towards the ladies… 336
  Harshness of the bhagavadabhicara… 342
  Not the higher or lower births stand as the reason for maksa but the presence of the relationaship with the Lord… 360
  The devotees of the higher castes who possess the relationship with the devotees of the lower castes who in turn also posess the relation with the Lord; and these devotees of the lower castes are superior than that of the higher castes.. 362
  With the relationship of there kinds of bhagavatas only the two defects, which are possessed by the higher castes could be eliminated and the testimony for the same… 367
  The greatness of bhagavatas… 370
  The Specialities of the status after elimination of the rags, which are acquired by out of the Lord's grace.. 390
  The reasons for the Superiors to hate the higher caste births and the reason to desire to take birth in the lower castes… 392
  The daily routiness of the prapanna… 393
  The reason for the benediction upon the Lord who creates and protects us… 402
  Expressing benediction is the established line of conduct… 404
  Regarding the benediction, the status of the Alvars and that of Periyalvar among them… 410
  Benedictive prayer upon the Lord would be appropriate with the essential nature of the soul… 420
  The well-disposed and their nature… 421
  The ill-disposed and the specialities of their nature… 425
  Though te subject matters related to the Lord are against the essential nature of te soul and they are tough to relinquish… 435
  The explanation of the subject matters which are referred to at the end of the sutra… 437
  Way to understand kainkarya , its kinds, the place where to perform it, how it is emerging out, etc… 439
  The four states before the state of kainkarya; the four categories such as ajnanas for the prapanna to get the enlightenment of the soul in the specific status; the reason for the elimination of the four categories such as ajnanas; and the first cause for 450
  There is four qualities of prapanna; as such there is also four qualities to the Lord; and the fuits of the qualities… 455
  Four kinds of prohibite things, their explanations and natures... 459
IV. The Prescribed Fitness of a Good Acarya who follows the Siddhopaya 522
  Characteristic features of good acarya Sutra… 522
  He becom good acarya who teaches the Tirumantra… 529
  The reasons for the lack of fullness to the acarya who teaches the other mantras… 531
  Characteristic features of a good disciple… 533
  Code of conduct between good acarya and good disciple… 538
  Abstinence of the things by the discipl for the sake of pleasure of his acarya… 553
  The disciple should show the remembrance and gatitude of favour upon his acarya… 556
  Mentioning of the evil qualities in the mind… 557
  Faultlessness of the Lord as well as His devotees; the questions and answers regarding the same; lck of time to think about them and the reasons for the same … 558
  The aspirant should think about the fault of thers as his own and the reason for the same… 565
  One should be revealed of the faults committed upon himself to the Lord as well his fellow bhagavatas and the reasons for the same… 568
  One should hve patience and pleasure upon the opponents whocommitted faults towards him… 570
V. The Glory of the Lord's Spontaneous Grace 580
  The Lord out of His independency without considering an reasons accepts the souls through His supreme grace Sutra… 580
  The series of efforts taken by the Lord for the sake of the upliftment of the soul… 593
  The nature of ignarant who is accepted by Lord through His causeless grace and the attachment of the Knowledgeables… 603
  The tradition for the acceptance through causeless grace… 606
  Creation of the Lord and emerging of incidental activities, etc… 608
  Acceptance through the acuseless grace as expressed in the sastras… 612
  The wise utterances of the Alvars about the acceptance of the Lord through causeless grace, the hesitation among them and their removal of the hesitations… 614
  The reason for cetana's lake of aversion toward the Lord and the turning the fact towards the soul by the Lord are due to the grace of Him only… 615
  The subject matters are left to discuss due the fear upon didduseness… 617
  By thinking about the causeless grace of the Lord, the cetana may be free from worries… 619
  Comtemplation of the knowledgeable upon the acceptance of the Lord through causeless grace… 620
  Like the fruits of the karma, the fruit of the grace also should be nullified out of experience; and nobody could restrict the flow of causeless grace… 623
  Until the attainment of maksa, the fear and fearlessness will continue along with the existence of th sould… 624
  The reason for fear and fearlessness… 626
VI. Investigation iupon the Status of the Means 638
  There would not be repetition of fear and fearlessness to the disciple who obtained the acaryabhimana Sutras… 638
  The testimony to assert that the acaryabhimana as the upaya… 640
  The tradition for acaryabhimana… 645
  Explnation of the three steps… 646
  The proper means o the proper upaya.., 647
  Rareness to obtain the status of the final ground of the sole means… 648
  Upaya should be in appropriation with upeya; oif not there wouldn't be in appropriation between them… 657
  The gretness of acarya… 659
  If there is absence of relationship with the acarya, though there is soul qualities, there wouldn't be any fruita; and due to the absencwe of the relation, there is chance for the angry of the Lord… 666
  If there is absence of the relationship with the acarya it is hard to obtain the relationship with the Lord… 669
  Necessities of the relationship with the bhagavata to obtain that of the acarya… 670
  There is no other upaya except the acaryabhimana for the emancipation; and the testimony for the fact… 672
  The definite stand, that, the acaryabhimana alone the proper upaya to obtain the supreme state of moksa… 674
  The fruits of the knowkedge and conduct of the cetana who follows the acaryabhimana as the sole means… 676
  The cetana who follows the acaryabhimana should not have sexual contact with other's wife as well as specifically even with his wife… 682
  The status to be obtained by the disciple for the absence of the destruction of his essential nature of the soul… 687
  Necessities of three, such as the indomitable desire to be possessed by him… 688
  The testimony for the svagata and paragata svikaras of the subject matter related with carya… 690
  The disciption who are eligible for acaryabhimana… 695
  The series of fruits which are produced out of acaryabhimana… 697
  Appendix - Original Sutras 713
  Glossary 742
  Bibliography 763
  Index 776

 

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Srivacana Bhusanam of Pillai Lokacarya (Translation and Commentary of Manavalamamuni)

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Srivacanabhusanam, the magnum opus with its authentic commentary exhaustively elucidates the interinisic meanings and teachings of the three Rahasya Mantra of Tirumantra, Dvaya Mantra and Caramasloka. The book explicitly condenses the metaphysical and theological doctrines of the Alvars: dialectical views of Vedantic order; devotional attitudes of Itihasa-purana; and the socio-cultural and linguistic lextures of indigenous literature of the Tamil Country.

Thispolemic work factually elaborate the following religious themes with panoramic outlook; I. Theo-philosophy behind Goddess Sri Laksmi and her intermediate state between the Lord and devotee as purusakara; and countless aesthetic quelities of Lord Sriman Narayana as the means as well as the end in itself for the mukti, the liberation. 2. Prapatti, the complete surrender to the Lord for his redemptive grace where it never considers the limitation like time and place, ceremonial procedure, eligibility but with the object only, i.e., to whom one has to perform it to fulfill his cherished desire; and the necessary qualifications to follow the destined means 3. Routines of the prapanna and the necessities to perform the kainkarya ‘service’ to the Lord 4. Characteristic features and the pleasing conduct between the good teacher and that of the good disciple; and the subjectmatters along with the ways to be taught by the former to the latter. 5. Innate nature of the Lord’s nirhetukakrpa, ‘causeless grace’ within which He without any restrictins and expectations help his devotee for their final emancipation. 6. Need of acarybhimana as the simplest means to attain paramapada, the abode of the Lord.

Apart from these, the esoteric text with its scientific treatments towards varnasramadharma, by giving prime importance to bhakti than status of the birth religiously regulates the mankind towards Universal Brothrhood with the cosmopolitan societal perspectives, within which, all kinds of differences among the individuals and nations would be nullified in the name of God, which in long run makes the humanity as the Unique Globle Spiritual Community.

 

About the Author

J. Rangawami (b.1956; Solaiudiyanpatty [Thirumalaipatty]; Namakkal Dt., in Tamilnadu), Associate Professor, School of Philosophy, Tamil University, Thanjavur, India is the rank holder of M.A (1980) and M.Phi (1981) in Pkhilosophy along with Diploma. in Sanskrit (1983); his Ph.D thesis on Bhagavadgita was ‘highly commended’ at the Department of Philosophy, Annamalai University. He has completed 10 Research Projects at School of Philosophy and credited UPC Research Associate (1994-1996) at the Department of Philosophy and Religion, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi; and Associate of Institute of Advanced Study (196-1998), Shimla. He has assiduously published more than 45 research articles and participated in 85 national and international conferences, seminar and symposia. He completes this book under the scheme (1999-2002) of Major Research Project, financed by UGC, New Delhi. Currently he is indefatigably transating Acarya Hrdaya, the another canonical text of Srivaisnavism with the Commentary of Manavalamamuni into English under the same scheme (2004). Recently, he as Commonwealth Fellow visited the Department of Religious Studies, Lancaster University, United Kingdom and completed a project on Samkhya darsana, within which, by criticizing the dualistic Nirisvara Samkhya, authoritatively establishes the existence of third higher spiritual principle within background of British Thinkers. His erudite scholarship on Srivaisnavism fueled with modern trend of Western Philosophy is quite remarkable.

 

Foreword

Dr Jaganathan an influential strand of post-Ramanuja Srivaisnavism.

Dr Rangaswami belong to this strand by virtue of birth, it is not mere sentiment that has led him to pursue a study of Lokacary along sympathetic but nevertheless analytic lines. He has understood the need for bringing suchsophisticated theology to a larger, English-speaking audience. He has done an admirable task in this regard.

Lokacarya is significant in this he takes very seriously Ramanuja’s theological commitment to bhakti. But whereas the Master, even while speaking of devotion, nevertheless develops his position with highly intellectual care, Lokacarya presents a wholeheartedly devotional version of Srivaisnava theology. His very sources indicated this: where Ramanjua works out of the Upanisads, the Brahma Sutras and the Gita, Lokacarya draws on the Pancaratra Agamas, the hymns of the Alvars, and the narratives of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. His devotionalist theology, in other words, is entirely consistent with his sources. In this way, he speaks for a form of Srivaisnavism that addresses a wider populaer culture. It may well be that there more intellectually precise, emotionally restrained and philosophically strict interpretations of Srivsnavism, but Lokacarya’s has shown the potential to take in the concern of a larger audience. In Manavalmamuni, he found a commentator who was both deeply in tune with the movement of Srivaisnava devotionalism and committed to an inclusive reading of it.

Dr Rangaswami ably pursues this interpretive heritage, indeed placing Lokacarya and Manavalmamuni in tune with contemporary demands and the urgent need for a more socially aware theology.

Dr Rangawami has been able to carry out s wide range of philosophical work in recent times; he was a Commonwealth Visiting Fellow at my department in 2004, when I had the opportunity to observe him and work with him. I am sure many other serious works of philosophy will be existentially dedicated book to the scholarly reader interested in both Srivaisnava history of thought and modern Hindu theology.

 

Preface

Translating a Srivaisnava canonical treatise with its specific commentary in manipravala style in an articulated English would be a challenging endeavour, rather difficult also. Genuinely, concise and precise terms of the esoteric text certainly may not have the approximately parallel synonyms in English because both the languages much of widely different expressions, factual contents, grammatical structures etc. For instance, to me, though the expressions like ‘avapta samasta kamatva’, ‘purusakaratva’; the Tamil wordings like ‘jnanpurttu. ‘matimankay ittu’; and the manipravala phrases like ‘piramma metattale samskarittar’, ‘atmasvarupattai avalampittirukkum’ may have the respective English expressions as, ‘being filled with all desires’, ‘meditorship,; ‘complete knowledge’, ‘finding faults falsely’; and ‘performed a brahma-medha ritual’, ‘it also depends upon the soul’s essential nature’. But they would be unavoidably absurd, more specifically ludicrous, because, for more accuracy, each and every word, phrase, idiom, etc., of a particular language would be understood along with the regional sensitivity and indigenous faith and believes within their socio-cultural set up. Since Srivacanabhusana is a polemical literature with local imports, obviously the compressed and loaded logical as well as thematic syntax etc., need much stress and strain in translation. Undeniably, since this theo-philosophical text bears religious charm, logical vigour with aesthetic value, the sheer literal translation with its intellectual beauty and thoughtful content would never fulfill the mission. So, with the academic commitment, an honest translator with freedom of using non-literal and precise English rendering with the possible expressiveness of the literal quality could be a reliable solution to this intellectual venture. Therefore, the present translator honestly accepts this course and adopted the modus-operandi. He also somehow believes that scholars with some acquaintance with Vaisnavism may faithfully follow the text along with its inner meaning.

Before beginning with the original translation of the commentary, the Translator truthfully provides a comprehensive ‘Introduction’ about the text, which will guide all the readers to understand the specific tenets of the system. Then, by relying upon the authentic remarks about the author, Pillai Lakacarya, and commentator, Manavalamuni made by the editor Pandit Vidvan B.R. Purusottama Nidu, an erudite Srivaisnava scholar, a short history of them along with their family background is precisely compiled. In it, the importance of this commentary along with its feasibleness is properly noted. Over here, it is to be referred to, that this translation closely follows the holy approach as Manavalamamuni observes, which is briefly noted in the ‘Short Note’ about him, so to say, if a reader grasps it, then, he could, as such understand the cardinal thesis of the text.

In the appendix, a glossary of important technical terms which expresses the basic concept of the Srivaisnavism is annexed. Perhaps, this part does not provide the translation or meanings based on Manier-Williams’ A Sanskrit-English Dictionary or Fabricius’ Tamil and Rnglish Dicitionary, but supply possible definitions, which carry limited meaning of the Srivaisnava literature. At the end, a selected bibliography is added. However, since this work is a translation, the books that directly or indirectly helped to understand the main themes of the text, dictionaries widely used and the primary as well as secondary works related with mainstream of the subject are appropriately listed.

It is my privilege to acknowledge the noted scholars who graced and guided myself for the successful completion of this laborious task. My deep regards are due to late Dr. P.K. Sundaram, former Director of the School of Philosophy Tamil University who in 1988 affectionately suggested me to master the text. Following his advice, I have completed two research projects, submitted to the Tamil University in the years 1994 and 1998. Equally well, I should also remember late Dr. K.N. Misra, former Prrofessor, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. When I was there as UGC Visiting Associate during 1994-1996, we along Dr. T. Seenisamy, Former Professor, Department of Literature and Dean, Faculty of Language systematically planned to translate this volunibous text in English as well as I Hindi. However, under the UGC’s direction I alone devotedly engaged with this pleasant task. There are many other scholars who generously contributed their much of time for valuable discussion and needful co-operation. Among them, I should immensely remember Sri Vaishnava Sudarsanar U.V. Puttur Krishnawami Ayyangar, Tiruchirappalli and Dr. S.Kodantaraman, fromer Professor of Sanskrit, Thiruvaiyaru. I strongly felt comfortable that without traditional as modern scholarship, it would not be possible to complete this translation with galore intellectual caliber and religious tempo. Along with them, I also express my honour to Dr. Palani Arangasamy, former Profess and Head, Department of Translation and presently Head of the Department of English, E.V. Periyar Maniammai Engineering College, Thanjavur, who by going through the manuscript, trained me to use the right word with respect to the circumstance and context.

Dr. Raju Kalidos, Senior Professor, Department of Sculpture and Art History, Tamil University was a constant source of inspiration and encouragement, who inspecte and reviewed the final manuscript. But for him this book would not have reached the press, who commended it to Shri B. L. Bansal for publication.

I would be obediently obliged to Dr. e. Sundaramurthi, former Vice Chancellor or Tamil University for his pleasing encouragement and the moral support to complete this assignment successfully. As such sincere tanks are due to Dr. G. Bhaskaran, present Director, School of Philosophy. It is to be recognized, that, without the assistance extended by my Research Scholars, the completion of this Major Research Project would been difficult. I humbly submit my solicitation to the Enlightened Readers of this work, that as, Universal Ethical Code Tirukkual states,

“Kunamnatik kurramum nati avarrul
Mikainati mikka kolal” (504)
“Let (a king) consider (aman’s) good qualities; let him also consider his faults, and let him judge (of his character) by that which prevails’.

If there are flaws and faults in the translation, kindly by omitting the same, understand and realize the poised theories of Srivaisnavism. The Author honestly awaits valid and constructive criticisms for the betterment of this volume. Yet! By experiencing all odds and laboriousness. I do endorse, Dr. Prema Nandakumar, he serious translator and versatile scholar’s following statement on translation. “Be prepared to work very hard. There is no easy way out in this discipline. Close to cent percent, it is a constant struggle, change of phrase, idioms, phrases, the red and blue pencils at work tirelessly, a never-ending honeymoon with dictionaries, lexicons and volumes of grammar. Translation is a job with which one lives whether awake or asleep! (Prema Nandakumar, 1999:16).

 

Introduction

If it is revealed the extraordinary circumstances of the birth of Pillai Lokacarya, his significance in the Srivaisnava lore could be better understood. His father, Vatakkutiruppillai though married, lived at Srirangam as brahmacari, without having sexual contact with Sriranganacciya, his wife. Understanding the situation, his mother appropriately complained the matter to his guru, Nampillai. As a result, Nampillai invited Sriranganacciyar to his place and blessed her with a gracious stock at her stomach and ordained her to have a son. By the same time, he also instructed properly Vatakkutiruvitippillai not to renounce family life but to have sexual contact with his wife. In course of time, his wife gave birth to a son who is nobody else but Pillai Lokacarya.

There are two incidents, out of these it may be strongly suggested that Pillai Lokacarya who was scientific and he graciously composed this glorified treaty under the supreme command of the Lord of Kancipuram through the incidents of dreaming of Manalpakkattu Nambi. In that dream, Lord Vradaraja taught him the special meanings of saranagati and order him to go to Srirangam to meet Pillai Lokacarya. He taught the meanings of Srivaisnavism as such to his disciption. In continuation of the meeting of Manalpakkattu Nampi with Pillai Lokacarya, after sometime, Nampi had a dream in which Lord Varadaraja appeared and instructed him to request Pillai Lokacarya to write a treaty on Srivaisnavism ina systematic way. The second incident is discussed in Yatindrapravanaprabhava. It is a well known fact in the Srivaisnava community, that the theo-philosophy and the teachings of the system which through the ages derived from the Veda and Upanisads are not taught to all but to very few eligible intellects because the highest truth has to be guarded much from the malicious persons and underserved fools. After completion of the Srivacanabhusanam, some of the leading members of Srivaisnava community objected to the theme behind the bhagavata, i.e., the devotees of the Lord that have right relationship with the Lord. Pillai Lokacarya argues that the bhagavata certainly transcends caste, creed and colour. He adds that one may be from the lower caste, but if he is a true bhagavata, he should be given the highest honour in the Srivaisnava community and all the other bhagavatas ought to extend their nhagavatasesatva to him without fail. The story goes, his case is taken by his brother Alagiya Manavala Perumal Nayanar to Lord Ranganathascami at Srirangam. The Lord through the priest indicated and endorsed the themes of Pillai Lokacarya in the presence of Srivaisnava community.

As such, who followed the foot-steps of the great acaryas like Nadamuni and Sri Yamunacarya, by preserving the secret teachings, they impart them only to a selected few who are all having moral maturity and necessary qualifications to reach the highest goal. But Sri Ramanuja with the thinking that the predecessors were too hard upon the disciples, has broken the tradition and taught the Srivaisnava principles to all, whereas the graciously has felt that if not as such, in due course the whole secret themes would altogether may disappear. Though he preached the teaching to all, he beautifully and carefully has introduced the theistic philosophy in writings, within which the average reader could not fathom the deep meaning of the Srivaisnava philosophy. After Sri Ramanuja, the secret teachings have gained circulation among the wider mass of the community. Thus through the ages after two centuries, another great teacher Pillai Lokacarya, due to the circumstances of the religious set-up, has honestly viewed that all the teaching of the system could be in white and black, if not perhaps quite possibly in due course course all of them may ubdergo undersirable change. So, the highest credit goes to Pillai Lokacarya as the acarya who wote the Rahasya Texts which deal with the meaning and elaration the three esoteric Srivaisnava Mantra i.e., Tirumantra, Dvayamantra anf Caramasloka along their allied secret teachings.

Out of the eighteen works, traditionally well known as Astadasa Rahasya, Srivacanabhusana, Tattvatraya and Mumuksuppati are very important, within which the previous one by all considerations is regarded a magnum opus. The mere name itself shown Sri-great; vacana-sayings of the great teachers; bhusana-an ornament, i.e., an ornament (to be worn by the aspirant for total emancipation) made up of gem like sayings of our great teachers of the Srivaisnava yore. The last acarya of the tradition, Manavlamamuni, has written the extensive commentary upon this great work. So, the whole Text and its Commentary superbly contain all the teachings preached and practiced in the long line of teachers of Srivaisnava fold.

Our tradition scholars followed the custom to teach the above work to a few selected Srivaisanavas and restricted to give the lecture about the subject in public. As such the Text and it commentary were safeguarded as a treasure and preserved the same with utmost care. But in the modern days it is very hard to by-pass the content as the traditional way because the devotees of the system have neither the opportunity nor the time to sit under the gracious feel of a guru to learn the text with the touch of traditional sanctity. There are also other problems to the modern scholars to read and grasp the crux of the Text with its Commentary because of its wordings, scholarly diction, sentence construction and formation and so the style of language. For the sake to help the people who have the real desire to taste the vast ocean of the nectar, Pandita Vidvan B.R. Purusottama Naidu with much care has lucidly translated the originals into modern Tamil without any loss to the vigor and the in-depth meaning with authentic notes on the Author as well as the Commentator. He has also added proper notes upon references and included the necessary appendix.

After a full-fledged analytical study, the central teaching of the Srivacanabhusana could be derived, that, almost at the end, the soul doesn’t need anything but it could understand its essential nature, i.e., eternally performing the pratantriyasesatva ‘dependent subservience’ to the where it has o perform the eternal kainkarya through the mediation of the acarya; whereas gaining even the full-fledged affinities towards acarya i.e., acryabhimana, which in due course fruitfully helps to attain the highest aim, i.e., the moksa.

The book is categorized into six chapters within which almost all the Srivaisnava principles are carefully in-loaded. To have a panoramic perspective of the Text, the important themes discussed could be condensed systematically. As a prelude, the Author before commencing his full-fledges discussions speaks about the pramanas for the subject-matter, which are systematically analysed through the Text. While discussing about the supremacy of the Veda, the Author properly synthesizes the two major divisions of the Veda, its karmakanda with their uparamanas as Dharmasastras and jnankanda with their upapramanas as Sri Ramayana and Sri Mahabharata.

In the discussion, the value of the Veda as the supreme pramana and if doubts arise, the ways to clarify the same are sharply placed. In this part, the Author commends that, though the Vedebhahyas, i.e., aliens like Charvakas, Jains, Buddhist, etc., won’t admit the authority of the Vedas , while the other sectarians like Nyaya- Vaisesikas, Mimamsakas, Vedantins, etc., have inflinching faith in the Vedas as their Supreme pramana along with the pratyaksa ‘perception’,i.e., ocular ‘verifiable by the naked eye’ and the anumana ‘inference’. If there is doubt who admit the sruti as the only authority, they have to resolve them with the help of the smrit, i.e., the upapramanas like Dharmasastras which were compiled by sages like Manu, Atri, Yajnavalky; the Ithihasas like Ramayana and Mahabharata and the Puranas, i.e., the elaborated historic delineation like Brahma, Visnu, Bhagvata, wtc. So, by discussing the above states of Veda, it is authentically stated, that the Text Srivcanabhusana includes the themes which are widely discussed in the upapramanas.

 

Contents

 

  Foreword v
  Blessings vii
  Preface xv
  Note Regarding Transliteration xix
  Abbreviations xxi
  Introduction 1
  Short History of the Author of the Text 37
  Short Notes on Manavalamuni, The Commentator 41
  Verses in Praise of the Tet (Taniyankal) 51
  Preface (URAIPAYIRAM) Graciously Affored by Manavalamamuni 63
  Prologue (Payiram) 73
  The authorritative texts to specify the subject matter of Veda and among them one is more imprtant…. 73
I. The Greatness of Purusakara and Upaya 90
  The Subject-matter conveyed in the Epics-Sri Ramayana and Sri Mahabharata Sutras….. 90
  Explanation of the characteristic features of Purusakara…. 98
  Purusakara as expounded in Sri Mahabharata…. 115
  Explanation of the greatness of Purusakara as well as upaya….. 122
  Errors committed by Arjuna…… 129
  Reason for the Lord Krsna not to kill the Pandavas; assuming as Messenger to the Court of Dhartarastra; and took in -charge as Charioteer to Arjuna…. 132
II. Means (Upaya) 149
  Lack of disciplinary observances like place, time, etc. to prapatti Sutras…. 149
  Concurrence of the subject where to perform the prapatti and it is arcavatara 'incarnation in the form of holy idols in the temples to perform prayer upon them'; and the greatness of arcavatara.. 163
  Three kind of Authorities to perform prapatti upon the arcavatara and their differentiated qualities with proper testimony… 175
  When devotional attitude reaches certain stage, the prapatti may collapse, whereas there is different ways of performing to the upon… 186
  The defect when assuming prapatti as upaya… 192
  The nature of prapatti; and Goda alone is the subject matter to the upaya… 193
III. Order of the the Religious Practices to the Authorities Who Prapatti 229
  Necessary qualifications for the authorities who perform prpatti 229
  Stating that, since the activities of Pillai Tirunaraiyur Araiyar are the outcome of the inseparable attachment with the Lord and they should not be reproachable… 238
  Prapanna should not follow karma, jnana and bhakti as upayas and the defects of them… 272
  Absence of defects as in the other upayas and the qualificans of prapatti… 289
  Not the svagata but paragatasvikara alone will be the upaya 297
  Superiority of paragatasvikara 303
  God accepts the soul through purusakara… 305
  Specialities of the result for the expectation of the purusakara by the Lord as well as the soul… 306
  Necessities of the purusakara for the three Kinds of Authorities… 312
  Erroneousness of the independent sesatva as well as paratanrya… 314
  Affection of the Lord upon the oly sarira of the jnanis who know the realities… 318
  Even thimking to protect by himseklf would cause destruction… 331
  Harshness of ahankara… 335
  Harshness of the sensuality towards the ladies… 336
  Harshness of the bhagavadabhicara… 342
  Not the higher or lower births stand as the reason for maksa but the presence of the relationaship with the Lord… 360
  The devotees of the higher castes who possess the relationship with the devotees of the lower castes who in turn also posess the relation with the Lord; and these devotees of the lower castes are superior than that of the higher castes.. 362
  With the relationship of there kinds of bhagavatas only the two defects, which are possessed by the higher castes could be eliminated and the testimony for the same… 367
  The greatness of bhagavatas… 370
  The Specialities of the status after elimination of the rags, which are acquired by out of the Lord's grace.. 390
  The reasons for the Superiors to hate the higher caste births and the reason to desire to take birth in the lower castes… 392
  The daily routiness of the prapanna… 393
  The reason for the benediction upon the Lord who creates and protects us… 402
  Expressing benediction is the established line of conduct… 404
  Regarding the benediction, the status of the Alvars and that of Periyalvar among them… 410
  Benedictive prayer upon the Lord would be appropriate with the essential nature of the soul… 420
  The well-disposed and their nature… 421
  The ill-disposed and the specialities of their nature… 425
  Though te subject matters related to the Lord are against the essential nature of te soul and they are tough to relinquish… 435
  The explanation of the subject matters which are referred to at the end of the sutra… 437
  Way to understand kainkarya , its kinds, the place where to perform it, how it is emerging out, etc… 439
  The four states before the state of kainkarya; the four categories such as ajnanas for the prapanna to get the enlightenment of the soul in the specific status; the reason for the elimination of the four categories such as ajnanas; and the first cause for 450
  There is four qualities of prapanna; as such there is also four qualities to the Lord; and the fuits of the qualities… 455
  Four kinds of prohibite things, their explanations and natures... 459
IV. The Prescribed Fitness of a Good Acarya who follows the Siddhopaya 522
  Characteristic features of good acarya Sutra… 522
  He becom good acarya who teaches the Tirumantra… 529
  The reasons for the lack of fullness to the acarya who teaches the other mantras… 531
  Characteristic features of a good disciple… 533
  Code of conduct between good acarya and good disciple… 538
  Abstinence of the things by the discipl for the sake of pleasure of his acarya… 553
  The disciple should show the remembrance and gatitude of favour upon his acarya… 556
  Mentioning of the evil qualities in the mind… 557
  Faultlessness of the Lord as well as His devotees; the questions and answers regarding the same; lck of time to think about them and the reasons for the same … 558
  The aspirant should think about the fault of thers as his own and the reason for the same… 565
  One should be revealed of the faults committed upon himself to the Lord as well his fellow bhagavatas and the reasons for the same… 568
  One should hve patience and pleasure upon the opponents whocommitted faults towards him… 570
V. The Glory of the Lord's Spontaneous Grace 580
  The Lord out of His independency without considering an reasons accepts the souls through His supreme grace Sutra… 580
  The series of efforts taken by the Lord for the sake of the upliftment of the soul… 593
  The nature of ignarant who is accepted by Lord through His causeless grace and the attachment of the Knowledgeables… 603
  The tradition for the acceptance through causeless grace… 606
  Creation of the Lord and emerging of incidental activities, etc… 608
  Acceptance through the acuseless grace as expressed in the sastras… 612
  The wise utterances of the Alvars about the acceptance of the Lord through causeless grace, the hesitation among them and their removal of the hesitations… 614
  The reason for cetana's lake of aversion toward the Lord and the turning the fact towards the soul by the Lord are due to the grace of Him only… 615
  The subject matters are left to discuss due the fear upon didduseness… 617
  By thinking about the causeless grace of the Lord, the cetana may be free from worries… 619
  Comtemplation of the knowledgeable upon the acceptance of the Lord through causeless grace… 620
  Like the fruits of the karma, the fruit of the grace also should be nullified out of experience; and nobody could restrict the flow of causeless grace… 623
  Until the attainment of maksa, the fear and fearlessness will continue along with the existence of th sould… 624
  The reason for fear and fearlessness… 626
VI. Investigation iupon the Status of the Means 638
  There would not be repetition of fear and fearlessness to the disciple who obtained the acaryabhimana Sutras… 638
  The testimony to assert that the acaryabhimana as the upaya… 640
  The tradition for acaryabhimana… 645
  Explnation of the three steps… 646
  The proper means o the proper upaya.., 647
  Rareness to obtain the status of the final ground of the sole means… 648
  Upaya should be in appropriation with upeya; oif not there wouldn't be in appropriation between them… 657
  The gretness of acarya… 659
  If there is absence of relationship with the acarya, though there is soul qualities, there wouldn't be any fruita; and due to the absencwe of the relation, there is chance for the angry of the Lord… 666
  If there is absence of the relationship with the acarya it is hard to obtain the relationship with the Lord… 669
  Necessities of the relationship with the bhagavata to obtain that of the acarya… 670
  There is no other upaya except the acaryabhimana for the emancipation; and the testimony for the fact… 672
  The definite stand, that, the acaryabhimana alone the proper upaya to obtain the supreme state of moksa… 674
  The fruits of the knowkedge and conduct of the cetana who follows the acaryabhimana as the sole means… 676
  The cetana who follows the acaryabhimana should not have sexual contact with other's wife as well as specifically even with his wife… 682
  The status to be obtained by the disciple for the absence of the destruction of his essential nature of the soul… 687
  Necessities of three, such as the indomitable desire to be possessed by him… 688
  The testimony for the svagata and paragata svikaras of the subject matter related with carya… 690
  The disciption who are eligible for acaryabhimana… 695
  The series of fruits which are produced out of acaryabhimana… 697
  Appendix - Original Sutras 713
  Glossary 742
  Bibliography 763
  Index 776

 

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Santiago, USA
Thank you for great service in the past. I am a returning customer and have purchased many Puranas from your firm. Please continue the great service on this order also.
Raghavan, USA
Excellent service. I feel that there is genuine concern for the welfare of customers and there orders. Many thanks
Jones, United Kingdom
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