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Books > Hindu > Gods > Krishna > The Story of Krishna (Part Two): Part of a Sanskrit Course for Children
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The Story of Krishna (Part Two): Part of a Sanskrit Course for Children
The Story of Krishna (Part Two): Part of a Sanskrit Course for Children
Description
Introduction

Language is fundamental to a human being. For this reason, it is a primary element in education. How children learn to speak is all-important and will be determined by the examples they are given. So the aim of the educator should be to present the finest language.

Linguists agree that one of the finest languages is Sanskrit. Sir William Jones, recognised as a founder of modern linguistics, said in 1786:

“The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure: more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the latin, and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than can possibly have been produced by accident.”

The considerable benefits of studying the classical languages, Greek and Latin, have been known in the West for hundreds of years; indeed, in recent centuries some of the best education available in the world has been based upon them. However Sir William Jones has discovered a classical language par excellence, more ancient than Greek or Latin, which had been preserved intact for thousands of years.

The word ‘Sanskrit’ means ‘perfected’, for its sound system and grammar are scientifically structured. It has even been put forward as being the most suitable language for use in computers (see ‘Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence’, The A.I Magazine, Spring 1985).

Sanskrit also has one of the greatest literatures known to humanity. The Sanskrit epics, The ‘Ramayana’ and the ‘Mahabharata’, are inspiring and fascinating. Children love those stories and enjoy the company of great and heroic men and women.

Notes for Teachers

THE COURSE
This book forms the second part of the ‘Stories of Krishna’ and is suitable for children of about eight years of age. Part One is aimed at children familiar with reading and writing the Sanskrit script and covers:

- some of the basic parts of a sentence;
- the first four case-endings;
- three stories based on the childhood of Krishna;
- practice for reading the script.

Part Two starts with a brief revision of the main grammatical points covered in the first volume and then presents:

- the final three case-endings;
- an introduction to all the forms of a typical noun in each of the three genders;
- an introduction to all the forms of a typical verb in the present, future and past tenses;
- nine further stories based on the early life of Krishna.

The second volume leads on to a textbook of more advanced material based on the stones of Prince Rama.

WRITING
Part Two, unlike the earlier volume, is not intended to be a workbook in which children write, they will need separate lined exercise books for this purpose. Where children were asked to copy words which, in this volume, are shown in grids, the gridlines themselves need not be copied.

STORIES
By the time the stories are reached in this book, the teacher would do well to have familiarised himself or herself with the tales of Krishna’s childhood, around which the book is based. These will be found in the ‘Srimad Bhagavatum’, available in many translations, some expressly for children. Such familiarity will enable the teacher to tell the story naturally and simply just before it is met by the children in the Sanskrit version. As with most situations, it is best not to read from a book but rather to speak from a well funded memory and the inspiration of the moment.

Before a new story is begun, the new words should be practised orally over the course of several lessons. Words which the children have met before should also be practised again. Then the teacher should read the story, one sentence at a time, with the children merely listening and repeating the sentence after the teacher.

Following this, the children should first read the story one sentence at a time, then give a translation of each word, and finally give a translation of the whole sentence.

After this, the children should copy each Sanskrit sentence into the exercise book, writing the meaning of each word immediately underneath that word, and then, starting a new line, write a translation of the whole sentence.

In writing translations of individual words the children should include the preposition corresponding with the Sanskrit ending of the word (e.g., ‘from Rama’, ‘in the house’ etc.). For words with the Second Ending the abbreviation [2nd] should be added. Not every child will complete the whole of every exercise. Once the class has understood the particular point of grammar being taught, the teacher should move on.

TEXTS FOR RECITATION
Appendix 1 to this volume comprises a small selection of suggested Sanskrit texts which the children could recite on a daily basis. It has been found that this often enhances the children’s experience of the beauty of the language and of its fluent pronunciation. The selection is, of course, only a sample of what can be found. Teachers may wish to add some of their own favourite texts.

OTHER DETAILS
Regular practice of all the noun declensions and of the conjugations of verbs so far covered needs to continue as the course proceeds.

Content:

Introduction vi
Notes for Teachers vii
The Course vii
Writing vii
Stories vii
Texts for Recitation viii
Other Details viii
Key to Transliteration and Pronunciation ix
Chapter 1: What We Learnt in Part One1
The Forms of Ram2
Exercise 1 3
Chapter 2: The Fifth Ending 5
Exercises 2 to 5 6
The Forms of Ram 12
Exercises 6 to 7 13
Story 1: ‘Krsna Overcomes the Serpent Demon’ 16
Chapter 3: The Sixth Ending 19
Exercises 8 to 12 20
The Forms of Ram 26
The ‘Whose Is It?’ Game 27
Exercises 13 and 14 28
Story 2: ‘Putana Tries to Poison Krsna’ 31
Chapter 4: The Seventh Ending 34
Exercises 15 to 19 35
The ‘Where Is It?’ Game 41
Chapter 5: The Forms of Ram 43
The First Eight Forms of Ram 43
The Parts Played by a Noun 44
Exercises 20 and 21 45
Story 3: ‘The Demon Agha Swallows Krsna’ 48
Chapter 6: The Forms of Sita 51
Exercise 22 52
Endings for Feminine Words (Four Forms of Sita) 54
Exercises 23-26 55
More Endings for Sita 59
The First Eight Forms of Sita 60
Exercises 27-31 61
Chapter 7: The Forms of Mittram 65
Exercise 32 66
The First Eights Forms of Mittram 68
Exercises 33 to 3668
Story 4: ‘The Whirlwind Demon’72
Chapter 8: The Dual – ‘Speaking of Two’75
The ‘Nauka’ Game 77
The Dual and Singular forms of Ram 79
Exercises 37-41 80
The Dual and Singular Forms of Sita 83
Exercises 42 to 43 84
The Dual and Singular Forms of Mittram 85
Exercises 44 to 46 86
Verbs Speaking of Two 88
Exercises 47 to 50 90
Story 5: ‘Krsna Releases the Sons of Kubera’ 93
Chapter 9: The Plural – ‘Speaking of Many’ 96
All the Forms of Ram 98
Exercises 51 to 55 99
Verbs Speaking of Many 103
Exercises 56 to 60 104
Story 6: ‘Brahma Hibes the Cowherd Boys and the Calves’ 109
Exercise 61 112
All the Forms of Sita 113
Exercises 62 to 66 114
All the Forms of Mittram 119
Exercises 67 to 70 120
Chapter 10: Person 122
Exercise 71 123
The First Person 124
Exercise 72 125
The Middle Person 127
The Best Person 127
Exercises 73 and 74 128
Nine Forms of Bhavti 130
Exercises 75 to 81 131
Chapter 11: The Three Times 138
Exercise 82 139
The Future Time 140
The Future Forms of Bhavti 141
Exercises 83 and 84 141
Special Use of the First Ending 144
Exercise 85 145
The Use of Iti 145
Exercise 86 146
Story 7: ‘The Lifting of the Mountain’147
The Past Time 150
The Past Forms of Bhavti 151
Exercises 87 to 89 152
Story 8: ‘The Wrestling Match’ 155
Chapter 12: The Forms of Asti 158
First Person Present of Asti 159
The Past Time of Asti 160
Exercise 90 161
Story 9: ‘Kamsa’s Destruction’ 162
Appendices 165
1. Verses of Recite 166
2. Lists of Word Forms 169
3. List of Words: English-Sanskrit 175
4. List of Words: Sanskrit-English 182

The Story of Krishna (Part Two): Part of a Sanskrit Course for Children

Item Code:
NAC565
Cover:
Spiral Bound
Edition:
2006
Language:
English
Size:
11.8 Inch X 8.5 Inch
Pages:
199 (Illustrated throughout In B/W)
Other Details:
Weight of the Book: 665 gms
Price:
$30.00   Shipping Free
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Introduction

Language is fundamental to a human being. For this reason, it is a primary element in education. How children learn to speak is all-important and will be determined by the examples they are given. So the aim of the educator should be to present the finest language.

Linguists agree that one of the finest languages is Sanskrit. Sir William Jones, recognised as a founder of modern linguistics, said in 1786:

“The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure: more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the latin, and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than can possibly have been produced by accident.”

The considerable benefits of studying the classical languages, Greek and Latin, have been known in the West for hundreds of years; indeed, in recent centuries some of the best education available in the world has been based upon them. However Sir William Jones has discovered a classical language par excellence, more ancient than Greek or Latin, which had been preserved intact for thousands of years.

The word ‘Sanskrit’ means ‘perfected’, for its sound system and grammar are scientifically structured. It has even been put forward as being the most suitable language for use in computers (see ‘Knowledge Representation in Sanskrit and Artificial Intelligence’, The A.I Magazine, Spring 1985).

Sanskrit also has one of the greatest literatures known to humanity. The Sanskrit epics, The ‘Ramayana’ and the ‘Mahabharata’, are inspiring and fascinating. Children love those stories and enjoy the company of great and heroic men and women.

Notes for Teachers

THE COURSE
This book forms the second part of the ‘Stories of Krishna’ and is suitable for children of about eight years of age. Part One is aimed at children familiar with reading and writing the Sanskrit script and covers:

- some of the basic parts of a sentence;
- the first four case-endings;
- three stories based on the childhood of Krishna;
- practice for reading the script.

Part Two starts with a brief revision of the main grammatical points covered in the first volume and then presents:

- the final three case-endings;
- an introduction to all the forms of a typical noun in each of the three genders;
- an introduction to all the forms of a typical verb in the present, future and past tenses;
- nine further stories based on the early life of Krishna.

The second volume leads on to a textbook of more advanced material based on the stones of Prince Rama.

WRITING
Part Two, unlike the earlier volume, is not intended to be a workbook in which children write, they will need separate lined exercise books for this purpose. Where children were asked to copy words which, in this volume, are shown in grids, the gridlines themselves need not be copied.

STORIES
By the time the stories are reached in this book, the teacher would do well to have familiarised himself or herself with the tales of Krishna’s childhood, around which the book is based. These will be found in the ‘Srimad Bhagavatum’, available in many translations, some expressly for children. Such familiarity will enable the teacher to tell the story naturally and simply just before it is met by the children in the Sanskrit version. As with most situations, it is best not to read from a book but rather to speak from a well funded memory and the inspiration of the moment.

Before a new story is begun, the new words should be practised orally over the course of several lessons. Words which the children have met before should also be practised again. Then the teacher should read the story, one sentence at a time, with the children merely listening and repeating the sentence after the teacher.

Following this, the children should first read the story one sentence at a time, then give a translation of each word, and finally give a translation of the whole sentence.

After this, the children should copy each Sanskrit sentence into the exercise book, writing the meaning of each word immediately underneath that word, and then, starting a new line, write a translation of the whole sentence.

In writing translations of individual words the children should include the preposition corresponding with the Sanskrit ending of the word (e.g., ‘from Rama’, ‘in the house’ etc.). For words with the Second Ending the abbreviation [2nd] should be added. Not every child will complete the whole of every exercise. Once the class has understood the particular point of grammar being taught, the teacher should move on.

TEXTS FOR RECITATION
Appendix 1 to this volume comprises a small selection of suggested Sanskrit texts which the children could recite on a daily basis. It has been found that this often enhances the children’s experience of the beauty of the language and of its fluent pronunciation. The selection is, of course, only a sample of what can be found. Teachers may wish to add some of their own favourite texts.

OTHER DETAILS
Regular practice of all the noun declensions and of the conjugations of verbs so far covered needs to continue as the course proceeds.

Content:

Introduction vi
Notes for Teachers vii
The Course vii
Writing vii
Stories vii
Texts for Recitation viii
Other Details viii
Key to Transliteration and Pronunciation ix
Chapter 1: What We Learnt in Part One1
The Forms of Ram2
Exercise 1 3
Chapter 2: The Fifth Ending 5
Exercises 2 to 5 6
The Forms of Ram 12
Exercises 6 to 7 13
Story 1: ‘Krsna Overcomes the Serpent Demon’ 16
Chapter 3: The Sixth Ending 19
Exercises 8 to 12 20
The Forms of Ram 26
The ‘Whose Is It?’ Game 27
Exercises 13 and 14 28
Story 2: ‘Putana Tries to Poison Krsna’ 31
Chapter 4: The Seventh Ending 34
Exercises 15 to 19 35
The ‘Where Is It?’ Game 41
Chapter 5: The Forms of Ram 43
The First Eight Forms of Ram 43
The Parts Played by a Noun 44
Exercises 20 and 21 45
Story 3: ‘The Demon Agha Swallows Krsna’ 48
Chapter 6: The Forms of Sita 51
Exercise 22 52
Endings for Feminine Words (Four Forms of Sita) 54
Exercises 23-26 55
More Endings for Sita 59
The First Eight Forms of Sita 60
Exercises 27-31 61
Chapter 7: The Forms of Mittram 65
Exercise 32 66
The First Eights Forms of Mittram 68
Exercises 33 to 3668
Story 4: ‘The Whirlwind Demon’72
Chapter 8: The Dual – ‘Speaking of Two’75
The ‘Nauka’ Game 77
The Dual and Singular forms of Ram 79
Exercises 37-41 80
The Dual and Singular Forms of Sita 83
Exercises 42 to 43 84
The Dual and Singular Forms of Mittram 85
Exercises 44 to 46 86
Verbs Speaking of Two 88
Exercises 47 to 50 90
Story 5: ‘Krsna Releases the Sons of Kubera’ 93
Chapter 9: The Plural – ‘Speaking of Many’ 96
All the Forms of Ram 98
Exercises 51 to 55 99
Verbs Speaking of Many 103
Exercises 56 to 60 104
Story 6: ‘Brahma Hibes the Cowherd Boys and the Calves’ 109
Exercise 61 112
All the Forms of Sita 113
Exercises 62 to 66 114
All the Forms of Mittram 119
Exercises 67 to 70 120
Chapter 10: Person 122
Exercise 71 123
The First Person 124
Exercise 72 125
The Middle Person 127
The Best Person 127
Exercises 73 and 74 128
Nine Forms of Bhavti 130
Exercises 75 to 81 131
Chapter 11: The Three Times 138
Exercise 82 139
The Future Time 140
The Future Forms of Bhavti 141
Exercises 83 and 84 141
Special Use of the First Ending 144
Exercise 85 145
The Use of Iti 145
Exercise 86 146
Story 7: ‘The Lifting of the Mountain’147
The Past Time 150
The Past Forms of Bhavti 151
Exercises 87 to 89 152
Story 8: ‘The Wrestling Match’ 155
Chapter 12: The Forms of Asti 158
First Person Present of Asti 159
The Past Time of Asti 160
Exercise 90 161
Story 9: ‘Kamsa’s Destruction’ 162
Appendices 165
1. Verses of Recite 166
2. Lists of Word Forms 169
3. List of Words: English-Sanskrit 175
4. List of Words: Sanskrit-English 182
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