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Books > Philosophy > Tarkasamgraha: (A Most Useful Book for Understanding Indian Logic) (Sanskrit Text, Roman Transliteration, English Translation and Detailed Explanatation)
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Tarkasamgraha: (A Most Useful Book for Understanding Indian Logic) (Sanskrit Text, Roman Transliteration, English Translation and Detailed Explanatation)
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Preface to the First Edition

Kanadam Paniniyam ca sarvasastropakarakam, “Logic and grammar are indispensable aids for every branch of knowledge.”

This little book, called A PRIMER OF INDIAN LOGIC, is primarily based on Annambhatta’s Tarka-samgraha and is designed to serve as an introduction, the Nyaya-Vaisesika literature in Sanskrit, but also to the study of Indian philosophy in its diverse systems. In preparing this book, the oft-quoted Sanskrit dictum given above was borne in mind. This book comprises three parts. Part I contains an historical introduction. Part II gives the Sanskrit text of the Tarkasamgraha in the Devanagari script and in English transliteration. Part III forms the bulk of this work and contains an English rendering of the Sanskrit text accompanied by a critical and comparative exposition of each topic in English. In this exposition, an endeavour is made to combine strict fidelity to the original Sastraic texts in Sanskrit with an intelligible presentation of the technical ideas of Indian systems of philosophy in an English garb. In the course of this endeavour, it has become unavoidably necessary to coin and bring into vogue certain technical terms, which, at first sight, look some what uncouth.

Nearly two years ago, I undertook to write this book for the benefit of modern University students, more especially B.A. students offering philosophy as their optional subject, in compliance with a suggestion made by my esteemed friend, Prof. P.N. Srinivasa charier, M.A., Professor of Philosophy in the Pachai-yappa’s College, Madras. Messrs. P. varadachari & Co., Publishers and Book-sellers, 8, Linga Chetty Street, Madras, kindly undertook to publish this work. The printing of parts II and III was finished in January 1931 and these two parts were separately made available to students in the beginning of 1931. The complete work, with part I also and a very useful Sanskrit glossary, is now made available in a complete form; and in this form, it is hoped that it will be received well by all the students and scholars interested in Indian philosophy.

The bulk of the matter in this book is directly based on Sastraic texts in Sanskrit. In the course of the preparation of this work, I consulted well-known English books on Indian philosophy like Prof. Radha-krishnan’s ‘Indian Philosophy’, Dr. Keith’s ‘Atomism and Indian Logic’, and Dr. Randle’s ‘Indian Logic in the Early Schools’. My thanks are due, in particular, to two of my young friends and former pupils-to Mr. T.R. Chintamani, M.A., Senior Lecturer in Sanskrit, Madras University, for preparing the table of contents and the Sanskrit glossary, and to Mr. T. Chandrasekharan, M.A., (Diploma in German), Professor of History of Sanskrit Language and Literature, Madras Sanskrit College, and Manager, Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, for reading the proofs. I should also take this opportunity to express my thank-fulness to the Madras Law Journal Press, Mylapore, for its very kind and efficient co-operation in seeing this work through the press and to Pandit T.S. Subrahmanya Sastri (Sahitya-Siromani) of the M.L.J. Press for the alert and willing assistance which he rendered at various stages in getting me to do the work in the midst of my multifarious duties.

Preface to the Second Edition

The authorities of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute have great pleasure in bringing out this second edition of the Primer of Indian logic by Prof. S. Kuppuswami Sastri, and publishing it on the occasion of the Seventh Foundation Day celebrations of the Institute founded in the name of the author.

Dr. A. Sankaran, M.A., Ph.D., and Dr. V. Raghavan, M.A., Ph.D., were in charge of the work of bringing out this second edition.

The corrections noted by the author in his own copy of the book preserved in the Institute Library have been incorporated here.

Sri K. Venkateswara Sarma, M.A., was of much assistance in the reading of the proofs and seeing the work through the press.

The thanks of the Institute authorities are specially due to Sri N. Ramaratnam, M.A., B.L., Proprietor, M.L.J. Press, for his continued co-operation in the work of the Institute.

Preface to the Third Edition

The Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute has great pleasure in bringing out this third edition of Mm. Prof. S. Kuppuswami Sastri’s Primer of Indian Logic, demand for which has been growing. The Institute is thankful to students, friends and admirers of the late professor who contributed funds, and to Messrs Diocesan Press, Vepery, Madras 7, and Messrs Rajan & Co., Paper Merchants, Madras I, for their help in bringing out expeditiously this third impression by Photo Offset process.

 

Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
 
Logic in the West and in India: iii to v
The meaning of the term Logic iii
Sanskrit Equivalents of the term Logic Logic-a system of Philosophy iv
Tarkasastra contrasted with other sastras iv & v
Antecedents and foreshadowings of the Vaisesika and Nyaya v & ix
Intuitionistic and rationalistic tendencies v & vi
Origin of the Nyaya system of Philosophical thought vi & vii
Darsanas-Astika and Nastika vii & viii
Beginnings of the Vaisesika and Nyaya systems viii & ix
How the Vaisesika and Nyaya schools emerged and when the doctrines were redacted into sutras ix to xx
Manu and Yajnavalkya: their attitude jto Tarkasastra ix & x
Rise of pre-Buddhistic logic and metaphysic x & xi
Anti-vedic Vaisesika xi & xii
Nyaya-sutras and Vaisesika-sutras xii
Date of the sutras, Jacobi’s views criticised xiii to xv
Tarkasastra pre-supposed by Kautalya. xvi to xviii
Nyaya in Patanjali xix
The Names Vaisesika and Nyaya; The Nature, Aim and Scope of the two systems xx to xxiii
Syncretism and Synthesis xxiii to xxv
Pairs of allied systems xxv
After the sutras to Udayana xxvi to xxxiv
Is Vatsyayana himself the author of the aphoristic statements in the Bhasya? xxviii & xxix
Uddyotakara and Dharmakirti xxx & xxxi
Vacaspatimisra xxxi & xxxii
Jayanta xxxii
Bhasarvajna xxxiii
Udayana and his contribution xxxiii & xxxiv
Sridharar xxxiv
After Udayana to Annambhatta xxxiv to liii
Sivaditya’s Saptapadarthi xxxiv & xxxv
Gangesa and his special contribution (The categoristic method replaced by the epistemological) xxxv to xxxviii
Vardhamanopadhyaya xxxviii
Rucidatta xxxviii
Raghunatha-siromani, Jagadisa and Gadadhara xxxix & xl
Samkaramisra and Visvanatha xl
Annambhatta xli & xlii
Concluding remarks and general estimate xlii & xliii
Sanskrit text with English transliteration 1 to 37
PART III
 
Mangala 3
Explanation of the term Tarkasamgraha 4
The Seven categories 4 & 5
General Remarks on the Categories 5 to 8
The Categories of Annambhatta compared with those of Gautama 6
Categories according to the Mimamsakas 6
Categories according to the Samkhyas 6
Sakti as a category 7 to 8
Category Dravya, Classified 8 to 12
General Remarks on the Classincation 9 to 10
Basis of Classification 9 & 10
Definition and its functions 10 & 12
Category Guna 13
Patanjali’s conception of Guna 13
The Mimamsaka’s conception of Guna 13
The Samkhya conception of Guna 13 & 14
The Vedantin’s conception of Guna 14
Visesa-gunas and Samanya-gunas 14 & 15
Category Karma 15
Kanada’s classification of Karma 15 & 16
Duration of a Karma 16 & 17
The Vaiyakarana’s view of Karma 17
Kriya according to the Mimamsakas 17 & 18
Categories Samanya, Visesa, and Samavaya 18
General Remarks on these categories 18 to 24
Kanada’s conception of Samanya 24 to 26
General Remarks on Visesas 26 to 28
General Remarks on Samavaya 28 to 29
Varieties of relationship 29 to 30
The conception of Jati according to the Vaiyakaranas 30
The conception of Jati Bhattas 30 to 31
The conception of Jati Prabhakaras 31 to 32
The conception of Jati Bauddhas 32
The conception of Jati Advaitins 32 to 33
Samavaya according to the Prabhakaras  
Samavaya according to the Bhattas and Advaitins 33
Jatibadhaka according to Udayana 33 to 36
General Discussion on Samanya and Visesa 36 to 37
Category Abhava 37
Nature and Classification of Abhava 37 to 45
Abhava according to the Bhattas 45 to 46
Abhava according to the Prabhakaras 46 to 47
Moksa a variety of Abhava 48
The Nyaya conception of Sambandha as external relation 48 to 52
Definition of Prthivi and its classification 52
Definition of Ap 52 to 53
Definition of Tejas 53 to 54
Definition of Vayu 54 to 55
Definition of Akasa 55
General remarks on these five substances 55 to 56
The Atomic Theory 56 to 58
Nature of Paramanu, Dvyanuka and Tryanuka 58 to 62
Weak points in the Atomic theory 62 to 63
Greek influence on the Atomic theory 63 to 64
A discussion on Prthivi and Ap 64 to 67
A discussion on Tejas 67 to 68
A discussion on Vayu 68
A discussion on Akasa 69
Definition and classification of Kala and Dik 69 to 70
General remarks on Kala and Dik 70 to 72
Conception on Mahakala 72 to 73
The Vaiyakarana conception of Kala 73
Bauddha Conception of Kala 73
Advaita Conception of Kala 73
Samkhya Conception of Kala 73
Definition of Atman and its classification,  
Definition of Manas 74 to 75
General discussion on the nature etc., of  
Atman discussion on the nature etc., of 75 to 78
Jivatman and Paramatman 78 to 80
Atman in the Samkhya and Yoga systems 80
Atman according to the Prabhakaras 80 to 81
Atman according to the Ramanuja 81
Atman according to the Bauddhas 81
Atman according to the Advaitins 81
General discussion regarding Manas 81 to 83
Manas according to the Bhattas 82
Manas according to the Advaitins 83
Nyaya Realism 83 & 84
God in the Nyaya and Vaisesika systems 84 & 85
Rupa and its classification 86
Rasa and its classification 86
Gandh and its classification 86 & 87
Sparsa and its classification 87
General remarks on these Gunas 87 to 89
Pilupakavada and Pitharapakavada 89 to 90
Samkhya and its varieties 90 to 91
General remarks on numbers 91 to 93
Apeksabuddhi 91 to 93
Parimana and its varieties 94
Prthaktva 94
Samyoga 94
Vibhaga 94
Paratva and Aparatva 94 to 95
General remarks on these qualities 95 to 100
Gurutva 100
Dravatva 100
Sneha 100 to 101
General remarks on these qualities 101
Sabda and its kinds 101
General remarks on the nature of sound 101 to 103
Conception of sound according to the Bhattas and the Prabhakaras 103
The Doctrine of Sphota 103 to 104
Cognition and its kinds 104
Recollection 104
Experience and its kinds 104
Valid experience 104
Erroneous experience 104
Four kinds of valid experience 105
Instruments of valid experience 105
General remarks on the nature of Buddhi 105
Buddhi according to Samkhyas and Advaitins 105
Nirvikalpaka and Savikalpaka Jnana 105 to 107
Refutation of the Samkhya view of Buddhi 107 to 110
Smrti and Anubhava 110 to 112
Varieties of Anubhava 112 to 113
Nyaya theory of Truth and Error 113 to 123
Khyativadas (Theories of Error) 123 to 127
Atmakhyativada 123 to 124

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Tarkasamgraha: (A Most Useful Book for Understanding Indian Logic) (Sanskrit Text, Roman Transliteration, English Translation and Detailed Explanatation)

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Sanskrit Text, Roman Transliteration, English Translation and Detailed Explanatation
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Preface to the First Edition

Kanadam Paniniyam ca sarvasastropakarakam, “Logic and grammar are indispensable aids for every branch of knowledge.”

This little book, called A PRIMER OF INDIAN LOGIC, is primarily based on Annambhatta’s Tarka-samgraha and is designed to serve as an introduction, the Nyaya-Vaisesika literature in Sanskrit, but also to the study of Indian philosophy in its diverse systems. In preparing this book, the oft-quoted Sanskrit dictum given above was borne in mind. This book comprises three parts. Part I contains an historical introduction. Part II gives the Sanskrit text of the Tarkasamgraha in the Devanagari script and in English transliteration. Part III forms the bulk of this work and contains an English rendering of the Sanskrit text accompanied by a critical and comparative exposition of each topic in English. In this exposition, an endeavour is made to combine strict fidelity to the original Sastraic texts in Sanskrit with an intelligible presentation of the technical ideas of Indian systems of philosophy in an English garb. In the course of this endeavour, it has become unavoidably necessary to coin and bring into vogue certain technical terms, which, at first sight, look some what uncouth.

Nearly two years ago, I undertook to write this book for the benefit of modern University students, more especially B.A. students offering philosophy as their optional subject, in compliance with a suggestion made by my esteemed friend, Prof. P.N. Srinivasa charier, M.A., Professor of Philosophy in the Pachai-yappa’s College, Madras. Messrs. P. varadachari & Co., Publishers and Book-sellers, 8, Linga Chetty Street, Madras, kindly undertook to publish this work. The printing of parts II and III was finished in January 1931 and these two parts were separately made available to students in the beginning of 1931. The complete work, with part I also and a very useful Sanskrit glossary, is now made available in a complete form; and in this form, it is hoped that it will be received well by all the students and scholars interested in Indian philosophy.

The bulk of the matter in this book is directly based on Sastraic texts in Sanskrit. In the course of the preparation of this work, I consulted well-known English books on Indian philosophy like Prof. Radha-krishnan’s ‘Indian Philosophy’, Dr. Keith’s ‘Atomism and Indian Logic’, and Dr. Randle’s ‘Indian Logic in the Early Schools’. My thanks are due, in particular, to two of my young friends and former pupils-to Mr. T.R. Chintamani, M.A., Senior Lecturer in Sanskrit, Madras University, for preparing the table of contents and the Sanskrit glossary, and to Mr. T. Chandrasekharan, M.A., (Diploma in German), Professor of History of Sanskrit Language and Literature, Madras Sanskrit College, and Manager, Journal of Oriental Research, Madras, for reading the proofs. I should also take this opportunity to express my thank-fulness to the Madras Law Journal Press, Mylapore, for its very kind and efficient co-operation in seeing this work through the press and to Pandit T.S. Subrahmanya Sastri (Sahitya-Siromani) of the M.L.J. Press for the alert and willing assistance which he rendered at various stages in getting me to do the work in the midst of my multifarious duties.

Preface to the Second Edition

The authorities of the Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute have great pleasure in bringing out this second edition of the Primer of Indian logic by Prof. S. Kuppuswami Sastri, and publishing it on the occasion of the Seventh Foundation Day celebrations of the Institute founded in the name of the author.

Dr. A. Sankaran, M.A., Ph.D., and Dr. V. Raghavan, M.A., Ph.D., were in charge of the work of bringing out this second edition.

The corrections noted by the author in his own copy of the book preserved in the Institute Library have been incorporated here.

Sri K. Venkateswara Sarma, M.A., was of much assistance in the reading of the proofs and seeing the work through the press.

The thanks of the Institute authorities are specially due to Sri N. Ramaratnam, M.A., B.L., Proprietor, M.L.J. Press, for his continued co-operation in the work of the Institute.

Preface to the Third Edition

The Kuppuswami Sastri Research Institute has great pleasure in bringing out this third edition of Mm. Prof. S. Kuppuswami Sastri’s Primer of Indian Logic, demand for which has been growing. The Institute is thankful to students, friends and admirers of the late professor who contributed funds, and to Messrs Diocesan Press, Vepery, Madras 7, and Messrs Rajan & Co., Paper Merchants, Madras I, for their help in bringing out expeditiously this third impression by Photo Offset process.

 

Contents

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I
 
Logic in the West and in India: iii to v
The meaning of the term Logic iii
Sanskrit Equivalents of the term Logic Logic-a system of Philosophy iv
Tarkasastra contrasted with other sastras iv & v
Antecedents and foreshadowings of the Vaisesika and Nyaya v & ix
Intuitionistic and rationalistic tendencies v & vi
Origin of the Nyaya system of Philosophical thought vi & vii
Darsanas-Astika and Nastika vii & viii
Beginnings of the Vaisesika and Nyaya systems viii & ix
How the Vaisesika and Nyaya schools emerged and when the doctrines were redacted into sutras ix to xx
Manu and Yajnavalkya: their attitude jto Tarkasastra ix & x
Rise of pre-Buddhistic logic and metaphysic x & xi
Anti-vedic Vaisesika xi & xii
Nyaya-sutras and Vaisesika-sutras xii
Date of the sutras, Jacobi’s views criticised xiii to xv
Tarkasastra pre-supposed by Kautalya. xvi to xviii
Nyaya in Patanjali xix
The Names Vaisesika and Nyaya; The Nature, Aim and Scope of the two systems xx to xxiii
Syncretism and Synthesis xxiii to xxv
Pairs of allied systems xxv
After the sutras to Udayana xxvi to xxxiv
Is Vatsyayana himself the author of the aphoristic statements in the Bhasya? xxviii & xxix
Uddyotakara and Dharmakirti xxx & xxxi
Vacaspatimisra xxxi & xxxii
Jayanta xxxii
Bhasarvajna xxxiii
Udayana and his contribution xxxiii & xxxiv
Sridharar xxxiv
After Udayana to Annambhatta xxxiv to liii
Sivaditya’s Saptapadarthi xxxiv & xxxv
Gangesa and his special contribution (The categoristic method replaced by the epistemological) xxxv to xxxviii
Vardhamanopadhyaya xxxviii
Rucidatta xxxviii
Raghunatha-siromani, Jagadisa and Gadadhara xxxix & xl
Samkaramisra and Visvanatha xl
Annambhatta xli & xlii
Concluding remarks and general estimate xlii & xliii
Sanskrit text with English transliteration 1 to 37
PART III
 
Mangala 3
Explanation of the term Tarkasamgraha 4
The Seven categories 4 & 5
General Remarks on the Categories 5 to 8
The Categories of Annambhatta compared with those of Gautama 6
Categories according to the Mimamsakas 6
Categories according to the Samkhyas 6
Sakti as a category 7 to 8
Category Dravya, Classified 8 to 12
General Remarks on the Classincation 9 to 10
Basis of Classification 9 & 10
Definition and its functions 10 & 12
Category Guna 13
Patanjali’s conception of Guna 13
The Mimamsaka’s conception of Guna 13
The Samkhya conception of Guna 13 & 14
The Vedantin’s conception of Guna 14
Visesa-gunas and Samanya-gunas 14 & 15
Category Karma 15
Kanada’s classification of Karma 15 & 16
Duration of a Karma 16 & 17
The Vaiyakarana’s view of Karma 17
Kriya according to the Mimamsakas 17 & 18
Categories Samanya, Visesa, and Samavaya 18
General Remarks on these categories 18 to 24
Kanada’s conception of Samanya 24 to 26
General Remarks on Visesas 26 to 28
General Remarks on Samavaya 28 to 29
Varieties of relationship 29 to 30
The conception of Jati according to the Vaiyakaranas 30
The conception of Jati Bhattas 30 to 31
The conception of Jati Prabhakaras 31 to 32
The conception of Jati Bauddhas 32
The conception of Jati Advaitins 32 to 33
Samavaya according to the Prabhakaras  
Samavaya according to the Bhattas and Advaitins 33
Jatibadhaka according to Udayana 33 to 36
General Discussion on Samanya and Visesa 36 to 37
Category Abhava 37
Nature and Classification of Abhava 37 to 45
Abhava according to the Bhattas 45 to 46
Abhava according to the Prabhakaras 46 to 47
Moksa a variety of Abhava 48
The Nyaya conception of Sambandha as external relation 48 to 52
Definition of Prthivi and its classification 52
Definition of Ap 52 to 53
Definition of Tejas 53 to 54
Definition of Vayu 54 to 55
Definition of Akasa 55
General remarks on these five substances 55 to 56
The Atomic Theory 56 to 58
Nature of Paramanu, Dvyanuka and Tryanuka 58 to 62
Weak points in the Atomic theory 62 to 63
Greek influence on the Atomic theory 63 to 64
A discussion on Prthivi and Ap 64 to 67
A discussion on Tejas 67 to 68
A discussion on Vayu 68
A discussion on Akasa 69
Definition and classification of Kala and Dik 69 to 70
General remarks on Kala and Dik 70 to 72
Conception on Mahakala 72 to 73
The Vaiyakarana conception of Kala 73
Bauddha Conception of Kala 73
Advaita Conception of Kala 73
Samkhya Conception of Kala 73
Definition of Atman and its classification,  
Definition of Manas 74 to 75
General discussion on the nature etc., of  
Atman discussion on the nature etc., of 75 to 78
Jivatman and Paramatman 78 to 80
Atman in the Samkhya and Yoga systems 80
Atman according to the Prabhakaras 80 to 81
Atman according to the Ramanuja 81
Atman according to the Bauddhas 81
Atman according to the Advaitins 81
General discussion regarding Manas 81 to 83
Manas according to the Bhattas 82
Manas according to the Advaitins 83
Nyaya Realism 83 & 84
God in the Nyaya and Vaisesika systems 84 & 85
Rupa and its classification 86
Rasa and its classification 86
Gandh and its classification 86 & 87
Sparsa and its classification 87
General remarks on these Gunas 87 to 89
Pilupakavada and Pitharapakavada 89 to 90
Samkhya and its varieties 90 to 91
General remarks on numbers 91 to 93
Apeksabuddhi 91 to 93
Parimana and its varieties 94
Prthaktva 94
Samyoga 94
Vibhaga 94
Paratva and Aparatva 94 to 95
General remarks on these qualities 95 to 100
Gurutva 100
Dravatva 100
Sneha 100 to 101
General remarks on these qualities 101
Sabda and its kinds 101
General remarks on the nature of sound 101 to 103
Conception of sound according to the Bhattas and the Prabhakaras 103
The Doctrine of Sphota 103 to 104
Cognition and its kinds 104
Recollection 104
Experience and its kinds 104
Valid experience 104
Erroneous experience 104
Four kinds of valid experience 105
Instruments of valid experience 105
General remarks on the nature of Buddhi 105
Buddhi according to Samkhyas and Advaitins 105
Nirvikalpaka and Savikalpaka Jnana 105 to 107
Refutation of the Samkhya view of Buddhi 107 to 110
Smrti and Anubhava 110 to 112
Varieties of Anubhava 112 to 113
Nyaya theory of Truth and Error 113 to 123
Khyativadas (Theories of Error) 123 to 127
Atmakhyativada 123 to 124

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