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Books > Hindu > Vedas > Vedanta Desika a Study
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Vedanta Desika a Study
Vedanta Desika a Study
Description
Introduction

Beginnings of Desika Studies

Vedanta Desika. The Sri Vaisnava poet-philosopher had been, even in his life-time, (the 13th-14th centuries) a great subject of study. A subject of study he was as his life was a real spiritual inspiration for people given to spiritual yearnings. People studied him for his poetry which was relished in comparison with the poetry of Kalidasa. He was an object of veneration as his whole life was a long experiment with his own moral and spiritual philosophy. A moving figure of his time, he dominated the world of Indian scholarship in the succeeding centuries also. His life, works and philosophy were installed not only in the Desika shrines or the temples dedicated to him, but in the minds of men of thinking. He was fortunate in having in his own son, Varada Natha Vedantacarya, a profound scholar of his works. In fact Varada Natha Vedantacarya may be looked upon as the pioneer of Desika studies. Besides him, there was the sage Parakala, who spared no pains in the dissemination of the teachings of Vedanta-Desika's life, works and philosophy. In fact Vedanta-Desika because an institution as early as his life-time.

Desika studies in the 15th-16th centuries

In the succeeding centuries (the 15th and the 16th) Desika studies became the privilege of such great scholars as Mahacarya (or Doddayacarya), Sri Nivasa, Nrsimha Deva and Appayya Diksita. It was through the efforts of these savants that the Desika-literature found its proper place in the literary and the philosophical history of India. What Mahacarya did for the logical exposition of Desika's philosophy, Appayya Diksita did for the spiritual appeal of Desika's life and works. These scholars were chiefly responsible for removing the doubts or disillusionments in the minds of people concerning Desika's philosophy.

Desika-studies in the 17th-18th and the 19th centuries.

In the 17th-18th and the 19th centuries, the students of poetry and philosophy did not neglect Desika-studies. A popular appreciation of Vedanta-Desika's life, works and philosophy resulted in panegyric poems, raising him to a superhuman stature. Vedanta Desika had become, in fact, a spiritual myth by this time. Such works as the Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika, the Saptati Ratna Malika, the Vedanta Desika Mangalasasana and so on written by the authors of these centuries are in fact the songs of spiritual glories of Vedanta Desika. Centres of Desika-studies had sprung up at places of learning like Kanci, Tirupati, Tiruvahindrapuram, Srirangam and so on. The Sanskrit scholars and the Tamil savants both had an equal share in the study and appreciation of Vedanta Desika and his works. While and Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika and the Saptati Ratna Malika spoke of Vedanta Desika's greatness to the Sanskrit-knowing public, the Guruparampara Prabhavam and the Kovilolugu brought forth the spiritual significance of Vedanta Desika's life and mission, the institution of the Desika-study circles propagated to the thinking minds the ideals of Vedanta Desika's works and philosophy.

Desika-studies in the 20th Century.

In the 17th-18th and the 19th centuries, the students of poetry and philosophy did not neglect Desika-studies. A popular appreciation of Vedanta-Desika's life, works and philosophy resulted in panegyric poems, raising him to a superhuman stature. Vedanta Desika had become, in fact, a spiritual myth by this time. Such works as the Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika, the Saptati Ratna Malika, the Vedanta Desika Mangalasasana and so on written by the authors of these centuries are in fact the songs of spiritual glories of Vedanta Desika. Centres of Desika-studies had sprung up at places of learning like Kanci, Tirupati, Tiruvahindrapuram, Srirangam and so on. The Sanskrit scholars and the Tamil savants both had an equal share in the study and appreciation of Vedanta Desika and his works. While the Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika and the Saptati Ratna Malika spoke of Vedanta Desika's greatness to the Sanskrit-knowing public, the Guruparampara Prabhavam and the Kovilolugu brought forth the spiritual significance of Vedanta Desika's life and works to the Tamil-knowing public. While the institution of the Desika-shrine inculcated popular faith in the ideals of Vedanta Desika's life and mission, the institution of the Desika-study circles propagated to the thinking minds the ideals of Vedanta Desika's works and philosophy.

Desika-studies in the 20th Century.

The present century of Indological study and research has its own interest in the study of Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy. There are, first, the Srivaisnava (Vadagalai) scholars who look upon their Acarya with the same profound faith as their predecessors. Vedanta Desika's spiritual greatness is a great reality for them. They are enamoured of the old halo on Vedanta Desika's birth and life, works and philosophy. Then there are the students of Sanskrit literature and the Indian religious and philosophical systems who also have taken the cause of Desika studies in their own way. Their idea is to view Vedanta Desika in a real historical perspective and in his real human achievements.

The following may be looked upon as the various kinds of Desika-studies in vogue in the present century :

(1) Firstly, mention may be made of the schools of Desika studies started by the Vadagalai Srivaisnava scholars for the propagation of the teachings of their Acarya and the revival of the Desika-cult. Such academies as the Desika Sampradaya Vivardhini Sabha (Madras and Kumbhakonam) and the Vedanta Desika Vijaya Vaijayanti Pathasala (Conjeevaram) made no secret of their aim and object. It is under their aegis that the poetical, the theological and the philosophical writings of Vedanta Desika have seen the light of day. The recently established Sri Venkatesvara Oriental Research Institute at Tirupati, has, as one of its aims, the publication and the exposition of the works of Vedanta Desika.

(2) Secondly, there are certain publications started chiefly for the propagation of the writings and the teachings of Vedanta Desika, the Sastra Muktavali Series publications started at Conjeevaram have presented to the world of Indologists some of the major works of Desika. The Vedanta Desika Granthamala Series publications begun by P.B. Annangarachariar Swami have brought out cheap and handy editions of almost all of Desika's works. The Sathakopadya-carya Shri Suktisudha Svadini Series and the Vani Vilas Sanskrit Series deserve our consideration. The Shri Nigamanta Mahadeshika Memorial Edition beginning though ending also at the publication of the Nyaya Parisuddhi can not be lost sight of. Besides, these South Indian projects of Desika studies, the 'Pandita' of Banaras also deserves a special mention for it was through its volumes (28 to 38) alone that the North Indian students of Sanskrit literature and Indian Philosophy were attracted to the Desika-Kavya and the Desika-Darsana.

(3) Thirdly, we notice scholarly attempts at the reconstruction of Vedanta Desika's life and times in the pages of various research journals given to Indology. The articles of Shree Gopinatha Rao in the Madras Review (1905), of Shree Govindacharya in the J.R.A.S. Bombay Branch (1909-1912), of Shree V. Raghavachari in the issues of the J.R.A.S. and so on, all touching on the life and mission of Vedanta Desika, still form the handy raw material for further finish and perfection. Apart from articles exclusively written on Vedanta Desika, the above research journals as well as the Epigraphica India, the Indian Antiquary and the J.R.A.S. Bengal Branch all abound in copious allusions to Desika and his works, then there is the Sough Arcot Gazeteer which contains the traditional anecdotes of Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy. The Sri Venkatesvara Oriental Research Journal has taken the cause of Desika study anew.

(4) Further, Desika studies have been greatly facilitated by so many authentic Sanskrit Catalogues compiled by such learned scholars as Dr. Hultzsch, Rice, Dr. Keith, M.M. Kuppuswami Sastriar, P.P.S. Shastriar and so on who all record Vedanta-Desika's minor or major works and note down anecdotes concerning his life and times. Though there is some confusion in some of these catalogues, as for instance in the D.C.S. Mss. (Madras, Author Index 1940) which identifies our Srivaisnava poet-philosopher Venkatanatha Vedanta-Desika with some other authors of similar names or surnames, as for instance one Vedantacarya, the author of the Kavya Prakasa-Vyakhya and the Vedanta Kaustubha or one Vedantacarya, the author of the Vedantacarya Vijaya Campu or for that matter, one more Vedantacarya, the author of the Siddhanta-Candrika and so on. Be it as it may, these catalogues remain the basis for the student of Indology to acquaint himself with the range and the nature of Vedanta Desika's writings.

(5) Moreover, we find the writers of the histories of Sanskrit literature as for instance Dr. Keith and Dr. Krishnamachariar giving some place or the other in their scheme to the literary writings of Vedanta Desika. Whereas the older historians of Sanskrit literature show no acquaintance with Vedanta-Desika, the latter ones-Dr. Keith being the pioneer amongst them-seem to have no dispassionate opinion on his literary endeavours or achievements.

(6) Coming to the histories of Indian religious order sand schools as compiled by scholars like Monier Williams, Barth, Wilson, Farquhar and others, we notice Vedanta Desika's importance recorded either as a Srivaisnava-teacher next to the great Ramanuja or as a leader at the head of the Srivaisnava Schism. One thing is clear that the historians of Indian religious literature can ill afford to forget Vedanta Desika as a religious teacher of India.

(7) Though the histories of Indian philosophical systems written by the pioneers such as Paul Deussen, Prof. Max Muller, Dr. Vidya Bhushan and so on know nothing about Vedanta Desika's philosophical contributions, but the recent detailed histories of Indian philosophical schools written by Dr. Keith, Dr. Radhakrishnan, Dr. S.N. Dasgupta, Prof. Hirianna and others show keen interest in finding some place or the other for the philosophical ideas of Desika in the galaxy of India's philosophical thoughts and speculations.

(8) Apart from the historians of India's literary, religious or philosophical achievements, the political historians of medieval India as for instance, those who have written on the Vijayanagar empire, the Nayaka dynasty and so on, have all recorded the political importance of Vedanta-Desika, the Srivaisnava teacher-philosopher.

(9) Now, we come to notice some poetical works of Vedanta Desika published along with their English notes or translations or appreciations such as:

(i) the Hainsa Sandesa (Madras Edn. 1902, 1903 and the Journal of Mythic society, Banglore Vol. 18).

(ii) the Subhasita-Nivi (Madras and Srirangan Edn.).

(iii) the Yadavabhyudaya (A.V. Gopalachari Edn.) and,

(iv) the Sankalpa Suryodaya (Narayanachari Edn.). The authors of the editions of the above works have all touched upon the life-story and the literary achievement of Vedanta Desika. But what strikes one most therein is the Vedagalai Srivaisnavite fervour of the authors for their Desika's literary greatness rather than any critical literary evaluation or balanced dispassionate judgment.

(10) Last but not the least, there are a few works, though small in scope, written on Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy, which all must form the ground for further intensive research on the subject. One such work, "The Life and Writings of Vedanta Desika" by M. K. Tatacharya, the other, "The Bibliography of Vedanta Desika's work" by Dr. K.C. Varadachari and the third, the Vaisnavite Reformers of India-which includes discussion on Vedanta Desika also-by Rajagopalachari, have all served their purpose as they have introduced our author to the students of Indology.

The Scope and purpose of the present work.

The scope and purpose of the present work is defined and determined, by the scope and purpose of the long unbroken tradition of Desika-studies. No one denies, now, the importance of Vedanta Desika, in the history of the medieval poetical and philosophical literature of India. While Vedanta Desika enriched Sanskrit literature with his major poems, philosophical writings and religious discussions, he gave some rare literary gems in his Mani Pravala-contributions to Tamil also. Whereas the Sanskrit-knowing student can study and appreciate him as the man, the poet, the philosopher and the teacher, the Tamil-knowing votary is especially privileged to master the secrets of Desika's Srivaisnava esotericism. Though Desika's mental make-up must needs be presumed to contain the Vedic and the Prabandhic strains in equal measure, the Vedic indicative of the Aryan intellectualism and the Prabandhic, of the Dravidian emotionalism, but, it must be said to his great credit that he was clear in his mind as to the difference of the types of his audiences, the Sanskritic and the Dravidic and the matter he had to give to both of them and the method he had to adopt to appeal to their minds and susceptibilities. Thus it is that one's lack of knowledge of Tamil does not present any insurmountable difficulty in one's progress with the study of his life, works and philosophy.

Now, coming to the various papers published in the journals, the tracts or the pamphlets written by the Vadagalai Srivaisnava enthusiasts and a few references or chapters inserted in the literary, the political, the religious and the philosophical histories of India, all concerning Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy, it can be safely pointed out that none of them has any comprehensive picture in view. Here, for the first time, an all-comprehensive scope of Desika-studies is chalked out and an attempt made, in the following pages, at a thorough discussion of the whole problem as far as practicable and within the means of the author. The scheme of the treatment is as follows :-

(A) Vedanta Desika, the man-In this section the life-story of Desika is presented not for its own sake, but, with a view to studying the various influences working in upon his mind, resulting ultimately in the progression of his thought and the foundation of what came to be known as the Desika-Kavya and the Desika-Darsana.

(B) Vedanta Desika : His contributions to Visistadvaita.-This section deals with Desika's synthetic outlook on Indian philosophical systems and his contribution to Ramanuja's Visistadvaita, ultimately resulting in the foundation of the Desika-Darsana.

(C) Vedanta Desika : His contributions to Srivaisnavism-In this section, Desika's Srivaisnavism is shown in its broad outlines as emerging from the Vedic and the Prabandhic devotional trends.

(D) Vedanta Desika : The Poet of Bhakti and Prapatti. – In this section, the poet in Desika as manifest in the vast field of Desika's writings is presented and appreciated.

As regards the purpose of the present work, the writer may humbly lay down-

(i) That his attempt, in the following pages, will be to bring out the man in Vedanta Desika whose daily worship as a divinity in the Vidagalai Srivaisnava shrines has so far been keeping him away from the gaze of the student of Indian thought,

(ii) That his study of Desika's philosophical works will comprise the study of the philosophy of Ramanuja Influencing and influenced by what is called the Desika-Darsana.

(iii) That his interest will chiefly lie in seeing through the religious teachings of Desika, the contemporary religious urge of India.

(iv) That his concern primarily will be to analyse the ingredients of Desika's poetic personality and to study his contributions to the cause of Sanskrit poetry of the medieval times.

Be it as it may, the real purpose of the present work will have been served if it could but generate a sincere desire in the minds of the votaries of Desika to view and appraise their Acarya as a great teacher rather than a god, a gifted poet rather than the personification of Lord Hayagriva and to crown all, a philosopher with a mission rather than Lord Venkatesa in flesh-and-blood.

Before concluding, it is the privilege of the author to gratefully acknowledge his deep indebtedness to Prof. K.A.S. Iyer, Vice-Chancellor, Lucknow University, for his guidance and interest in the publication of this study. It is also the author's pleasant duty to express his deep gratefulness to the Late Mahamahopadhyaya Shri C. Narasimhachariar and the Late M.M. Shri Cinnaswami Shastrigal for their unstincted help in this study of Desika. All thanks of the author are also due to His Holiness Shri Parakala Swamin, the Head of the Parakala Muth, Mysore, for evincing keen interest in the progress of the study at each and every step.

The author is also glad to record his thanks to Shri Jaya Krishna Das Gupta, the managing proprietor of the Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, for all the pains undertaken by him in the publication of the work. The manager of the Tara Printing Works, Varanasi, deserves the author's thanks for his hearty co-operation in the printing of these pages.

Contents

SubjectPage
Introductionxi
Bibliographyxxi
Abbreviationsxxiii
Part I
Vedanta Desika : The Man.
CHAPTER I-Vedanta Desika : His Life-Sketch
His birth and Parentage1
Childhood6
Education7
Life as a married man11
Sojourn at Tiruvahindrapuram11
Residence in Conjeevaram15
Holy trip to Tirupati18
Visit to Northern India18
South Indian Pilgrimage21
Home-Coming22
Life in Srirangam22
The End29
His Character30
Characteristics of His Mind32
His Special Faculty35
A Resume37
CHAPTER II-His Works: Their Contents, their Views and Reviews
Manuals of Sri Vaisnava Religion and Esotericism (Sanskrit and Tamil and Mani-Pravala)
Theses on Sri Vaisnava Theology and Ritualism (Sanskrit and Mani-Pravala)40
Devotional and Didactic Poetry.40
Literary work of epic, drama and lyric type41
Original philosophical treatises41
Commentaries41
Manuals of Sri Vaisnava Religion and Esotericism (Discussed)42
Theses on Srivaisnava theology and Ritualism (Discussed).48
Devotional and Didactic Poetry (Discussed)52
Literary Works of Epic Drama and Lyric type (Discussed)65
Sankalpa Suryodaya68
Hamsa Sandesa70
Daya Sataka71
Goda Stuti71
Yamaka Ratnakara.72
Samasya Sahasra73
Original Philosophical Treatises (Discussed)73
Literary Works of Epic Drama and Lyric type Discussed 65
Sankalpa Suryodaya 68
Hamsa Sandesa 70
Daya Sataka 71
Goda Stuti 71
Yamaka Ratnakara. 72
Samasya Sahasra 72
Original Philosophical Treatises (Discussed) 73
Commentaries (Discussed) 88
CHAPTER III-Chronology of His Works 97
CHAPTER IV-Literature known to Him
Vedic Literature 106
The Brahmanas and the Aranyakas 107
The Upanisads 107
The Sutra-Works 107
The Ramayana and Upapuranas 108
The Puranas and Upapuranas 108
The Smrti-Works 109
The Agamas and the Samhitas 110
Early Visistadvaitic Literature 113
Natha Muni 114
Pundarikaksacarya 116
Rama Misra I. 117
Yamunacarya and Ramauja 117
Rama Misra II 118
Sri Vatsanka Misra 119
Parasara Bhatta 120
Varada Visnu Misra 122
Narayana Muni 124
Visnu Citta 125
Varada Narayana Bhattaraka 126
Varadacarya 127
Senesvararya 128
Sudarsana Bhattaraka 128
Narayanarya 129
Atreya Ramanuja 130
Meghanadari Suri 131
Yadava Prakasa 132
Tatparya Tulika-Kara 133
Vamana 133
Varadaraja Pandita 133
Bhoja Raja 134
Sri Krsna Muni 134
Valadevacarya 134
Vasudeva Svamin 134
Grdhra Saromuni 134
Vangi Vamsesvara 135
Pratapa Bhupa 135
Sri Visnu Vaibhavadhikara 135
Bharata Muni 135
Bhavasvamin 135
Narayanacarya 135
Varadarajacarya 136
Varadarajacarya 136
Sadgunya Viveka 136
Parakala!Suri 136
CHAPTER V-His Successors
Varadanatha or Kumara Vedantacarya 137
Prativadi Bhayankaram Annanacarya 139
Sri Nivasa Dasa 139
Brahma Tantra Svatantra Svamin or Parakala Yati III (14th-15th Century A.D.) 140
Ramanuja Dasa alias Mahacarya (16th Century A.D.) 140
Appayya Diksita (16th-17th Century A.D.) 140
Ranga Ramanuja Muni (16th-17th Century A.D.) 141
Venkatadhvarin (16th-17th Century A.D.) 141
CHAPTER VI-His Place in Srivaisnavism 143
CHAPTER VII-His Place in Visistadvaita 147
CHAPTER VIII-As a Religious Reformer of India 151
Part II
Vedanta Desika : His Contributions to Visistadvaita.
CHAPTER I-Nyaya-Vedanta-Syncretism (Epistemologica) 155
Visistadvaitic Epistemology 155
Visistadvaitic epistemology contrasted with Nirvisesadvaitic epitemology 156
Nature of knowledge 157
Self-luminosity as the essential character of knowledge 163
The Nyaya-contention that knowledge is not self-evident is unfounded 166
The Mimamsaka-view that knowledge is revealed through the revelation of objects is unscientific. 167
Self-Validity of knowledge 169
What is Prama or right apprehension ? 175
What is Aprama or Erroneous Cognition ? 184
The Conception of 'Bheda' 192
The Nirvisesadvaitic theory of error viz. Anirvacaniya-Khyati is against reason and common-sense. 195
The Atmakhyati of the Buddhist Idealist is self-contradictory 197
The Asatkhyati of Buddhist Nihilist has no foundation in facts 199
The Central idea of Visistadvaitic theory of knowledge 200
CHAPTER II-Nyaya-Vedanta-Syncretism (Logical)
Visistadvaitic Logic 202
Pratyaksa or perception 202
Visnucitta's definition of perception 203
Parasara Bhattaraka's exposition of Pratyaksa 203
Varada Visnu Misra's analysis of perceptive experience 204
Vedanta Desika's approach to the problem of perception 204
Two-fold immediacy of awareness in perceptive experience 209
Two-fold aspects of perception 213
The Naiyayika Conception of indeterminate perception untenable 214
The Nirvisesadvaitic speculation about Nir-vikalpaka Pratyaksa is unsound. 216
The Visistadvaitic analysis of Nirvikalpaka Pratyaksa. 218
The Buddhistic conception of Savikalpaka Pratyaksa unacceptable to Visistadvaita 220
The assumption of the grammarians concerning Savikalpaka Pratyaksa is inadmissible. 222
The verbal perception of the Sankara-school of Vedanta is against common human experience. 222
The significance of the Pratyaksa Pramana. 223
Anumana or Inference: The nature of Anumana. 224
Anusandhana or Paramarsa is the essential element of Anumana. 225
Anusandhana is of the Vyapya or the reason. 226
Unconditional correlation between 'Vyapya' and 'Vyapaka' is necessary for valid inference. 227
The character of Vyapya. 231
The two kinds of Anumana. 233
Kevala-Vyatireki-Anumana is devided into 'Svartha' and 'Parartha'. 236
Component parts of the formal inference and their utility. 239
Inference includes confutation or Tarka. 241
Invalid Reasoning 246
The supreme sense of Anumana as a means of knowledge 249
Sabda or verbal knowledge 250
Verbal knowledge is not inference 250
Verbal knowledge is not recollection 251
Verbal knowledge is valid knowledge 252
Verbal knowledge does not require any pre-established convention that such and such a word means such and such a thing. 252
The validity of verbal knowledge does not depend upon Karyartha-Vyutpatti 253
Words primarily signify the Siddhartha 254
Is the Jati or the generic attribute the import of words ? 254
There is no Sphota or Sound-Absolute as the ground of all sound-phenomena 257
The sentence and its meaning are not superimpositions on Eternal Indivisible consciousness 258
The Visistadvaitic theory of Verbal Knowledge 258
Verbal Knowledge is never about an unqualified and undifferentiated object 261
Texts of Verbal Authority according to Visistadvaita 263
The Supreme significance of Verbal Knowledge 264
A Note on the number of knowledge 265
Smrti as a valid means of knowledge
CHAPTER III-Nyaya-Vedanta-Syncretism
(Dialectical)
Visistadvaitic Dialectics 276
What is Katha or Dialectics 277
The Scope of Dialectics 277
What occasions Dialectics 278
Vedanta Desika's View 278
Natha Muni's View 279
What is the theme of Dialectics 279
The Nyaya-View 280
Vatsyayana's View 281
Udyotakara's View 281
Vacaspati Misra's View 282
Udayana's View 282
Jayanta Bhatta's View 282
Varadaraja's View 283
The View of the practice of Dialectics 285
The view of the Nyaya and its exponents 286
The view of Vedanta Desika 286
The Adhikarin of the practice of Dialectics 285
The view of the Nyaya and its exponents 286
The view of Vedanta Desika 286
Varadaraja's View 291
Its criticism 291
Pre-requisites to dialectical procedure 293
The demerits of debate 294
Vatsyayana's View 295
Its criticism 291
Pre-requisites to dialectical procedure 293
The demerits of debate 294
Vatsyayana's View 295
Udyotakara's View 295
Vacaspati Misra's View 295
Jayanta Bhatta's View 295
Vedanta Desik's View 295
The merits of debate 311
CHAPTER IV-Exposition
Categories of Ramanuja Darsana 312
Isvara or God 326
God can be known by intuition alone 327
God is the first and the final cause of the Cosmos 328
Creation is the spontaneous manifestation of joy in the heart of Reality 330
Isvara, the highest of religion is identical with Brahman, the highest of philosophy and He is knowable as well as nameable 331
God is qualified with Divine qualities 331
God is immune from all change and imperfection 332
Isvara as 'Cidacidvisista is the subject of Vedantic enquiry and Vedantic realisation 333
Jiva or soul 334
The soul as the Self-proved spiritual reality can also be psychologically know and experienced 334
The soul is eternally existent 336
The soul is the knower, the doer and the enjoyer 336
The soul is atomic 337
Souls are of different categories 337
The destiny of the Soul 338
Jada Dravya or matter 339
Matter defying logical proof is integrally intuited 339
Matter is Dravya 340
Mutation is the law of matter 340
Divine Energy is immanent in material evolution 341
Time as the inert substance is experienced as the adjunct of the objects of experience 342
Visistadvaitam : The Unity of Reality 342
Sarira-Sariri-Bhava 345
Adhara-Adheya-Bhava 357
The Isvara-Isitavya-Bhava 361
Sesa-Sesi-Bhava 365
Pt. III. Vedanta Desika : His Contributions to Sri Vaisnavism
CHAPTER I-The Concept of Sri Vaisnava
Dharma
Bhakti VS Prapatti 373
Prapatti as the Brahmavidya par excellence382
The Culture of Prapatti 385
Essentials of Prapatti 386
The Supreme Significance of Prapatti 393
The Universality of the Prapatti Dharma 39
The Synthesis of the Vadagalai and the Tengalai concepts of Prapatti 395
CHAPTER II-The Ethics of Sri Vaisnavism
Abhigamana 402
Upadana 408
Ijya 410
Svadhyaya 413
Yoga 415
CHAPTER III-The Sri Vaisnava Cult and Ritualism 417
Pt. IV: Vedanta Desika : The Poet of Bhakti and Prapatti.
CHAPTER I-His Hymns and Devotional Poems
Paduka Sahasra 433
Hayagriva Stotra 436
Bhagavaddhyana Sopana 437
Sri Stuti 441
Abhitistava 442
Varadaraja Pancasat 443
Devanayaka Pancasat 444
Acyuta Sataka 446
Dehalisa Stuti 446
Bhu Stuti 449
CHAPTER III-His Lyrics
Hamsa Sandesa 450
Daya Sataka 454
Goda Stuti 462
CHAPTER III-His Drama, the Sankalpa Suryodaya 464
CHATPER IV-His Mahakavya, the Yadavabhyudaya 472
Appendix 481

Vedanta Desika a Study

Item Code:
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2008
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Introduction

Beginnings of Desika Studies

Vedanta Desika. The Sri Vaisnava poet-philosopher had been, even in his life-time, (the 13th-14th centuries) a great subject of study. A subject of study he was as his life was a real spiritual inspiration for people given to spiritual yearnings. People studied him for his poetry which was relished in comparison with the poetry of Kalidasa. He was an object of veneration as his whole life was a long experiment with his own moral and spiritual philosophy. A moving figure of his time, he dominated the world of Indian scholarship in the succeeding centuries also. His life, works and philosophy were installed not only in the Desika shrines or the temples dedicated to him, but in the minds of men of thinking. He was fortunate in having in his own son, Varada Natha Vedantacarya, a profound scholar of his works. In fact Varada Natha Vedantacarya may be looked upon as the pioneer of Desika studies. Besides him, there was the sage Parakala, who spared no pains in the dissemination of the teachings of Vedanta-Desika's life, works and philosophy. In fact Vedanta-Desika because an institution as early as his life-time.

Desika studies in the 15th-16th centuries

In the succeeding centuries (the 15th and the 16th) Desika studies became the privilege of such great scholars as Mahacarya (or Doddayacarya), Sri Nivasa, Nrsimha Deva and Appayya Diksita. It was through the efforts of these savants that the Desika-literature found its proper place in the literary and the philosophical history of India. What Mahacarya did for the logical exposition of Desika's philosophy, Appayya Diksita did for the spiritual appeal of Desika's life and works. These scholars were chiefly responsible for removing the doubts or disillusionments in the minds of people concerning Desika's philosophy.

Desika-studies in the 17th-18th and the 19th centuries.

In the 17th-18th and the 19th centuries, the students of poetry and philosophy did not neglect Desika-studies. A popular appreciation of Vedanta-Desika's life, works and philosophy resulted in panegyric poems, raising him to a superhuman stature. Vedanta Desika had become, in fact, a spiritual myth by this time. Such works as the Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika, the Saptati Ratna Malika, the Vedanta Desika Mangalasasana and so on written by the authors of these centuries are in fact the songs of spiritual glories of Vedanta Desika. Centres of Desika-studies had sprung up at places of learning like Kanci, Tirupati, Tiruvahindrapuram, Srirangam and so on. The Sanskrit scholars and the Tamil savants both had an equal share in the study and appreciation of Vedanta Desika and his works. While and Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika and the Saptati Ratna Malika spoke of Vedanta Desika's greatness to the Sanskrit-knowing public, the Guruparampara Prabhavam and the Kovilolugu brought forth the spiritual significance of Vedanta Desika's life and mission, the institution of the Desika-study circles propagated to the thinking minds the ideals of Vedanta Desika's works and philosophy.

Desika-studies in the 20th Century.

In the 17th-18th and the 19th centuries, the students of poetry and philosophy did not neglect Desika-studies. A popular appreciation of Vedanta-Desika's life, works and philosophy resulted in panegyric poems, raising him to a superhuman stature. Vedanta Desika had become, in fact, a spiritual myth by this time. Such works as the Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika, the Saptati Ratna Malika, the Vedanta Desika Mangalasasana and so on written by the authors of these centuries are in fact the songs of spiritual glories of Vedanta Desika. Centres of Desika-studies had sprung up at places of learning like Kanci, Tirupati, Tiruvahindrapuram, Srirangam and so on. The Sanskrit scholars and the Tamil savants both had an equal share in the study and appreciation of Vedanta Desika and his works. While the Vedanta Desika Vaibhava Prakasika and the Saptati Ratna Malika spoke of Vedanta Desika's greatness to the Sanskrit-knowing public, the Guruparampara Prabhavam and the Kovilolugu brought forth the spiritual significance of Vedanta Desika's life and works to the Tamil-knowing public. While the institution of the Desika-shrine inculcated popular faith in the ideals of Vedanta Desika's life and mission, the institution of the Desika-study circles propagated to the thinking minds the ideals of Vedanta Desika's works and philosophy.

Desika-studies in the 20th Century.

The present century of Indological study and research has its own interest in the study of Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy. There are, first, the Srivaisnava (Vadagalai) scholars who look upon their Acarya with the same profound faith as their predecessors. Vedanta Desika's spiritual greatness is a great reality for them. They are enamoured of the old halo on Vedanta Desika's birth and life, works and philosophy. Then there are the students of Sanskrit literature and the Indian religious and philosophical systems who also have taken the cause of Desika studies in their own way. Their idea is to view Vedanta Desika in a real historical perspective and in his real human achievements.

The following may be looked upon as the various kinds of Desika-studies in vogue in the present century :

(1) Firstly, mention may be made of the schools of Desika studies started by the Vadagalai Srivaisnava scholars for the propagation of the teachings of their Acarya and the revival of the Desika-cult. Such academies as the Desika Sampradaya Vivardhini Sabha (Madras and Kumbhakonam) and the Vedanta Desika Vijaya Vaijayanti Pathasala (Conjeevaram) made no secret of their aim and object. It is under their aegis that the poetical, the theological and the philosophical writings of Vedanta Desika have seen the light of day. The recently established Sri Venkatesvara Oriental Research Institute at Tirupati, has, as one of its aims, the publication and the exposition of the works of Vedanta Desika.

(2) Secondly, there are certain publications started chiefly for the propagation of the writings and the teachings of Vedanta Desika, the Sastra Muktavali Series publications started at Conjeevaram have presented to the world of Indologists some of the major works of Desika. The Vedanta Desika Granthamala Series publications begun by P.B. Annangarachariar Swami have brought out cheap and handy editions of almost all of Desika's works. The Sathakopadya-carya Shri Suktisudha Svadini Series and the Vani Vilas Sanskrit Series deserve our consideration. The Shri Nigamanta Mahadeshika Memorial Edition beginning though ending also at the publication of the Nyaya Parisuddhi can not be lost sight of. Besides, these South Indian projects of Desika studies, the 'Pandita' of Banaras also deserves a special mention for it was through its volumes (28 to 38) alone that the North Indian students of Sanskrit literature and Indian Philosophy were attracted to the Desika-Kavya and the Desika-Darsana.

(3) Thirdly, we notice scholarly attempts at the reconstruction of Vedanta Desika's life and times in the pages of various research journals given to Indology. The articles of Shree Gopinatha Rao in the Madras Review (1905), of Shree Govindacharya in the J.R.A.S. Bombay Branch (1909-1912), of Shree V. Raghavachari in the issues of the J.R.A.S. and so on, all touching on the life and mission of Vedanta Desika, still form the handy raw material for further finish and perfection. Apart from articles exclusively written on Vedanta Desika, the above research journals as well as the Epigraphica India, the Indian Antiquary and the J.R.A.S. Bengal Branch all abound in copious allusions to Desika and his works, then there is the Sough Arcot Gazeteer which contains the traditional anecdotes of Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy. The Sri Venkatesvara Oriental Research Journal has taken the cause of Desika study anew.

(4) Further, Desika studies have been greatly facilitated by so many authentic Sanskrit Catalogues compiled by such learned scholars as Dr. Hultzsch, Rice, Dr. Keith, M.M. Kuppuswami Sastriar, P.P.S. Shastriar and so on who all record Vedanta-Desika's minor or major works and note down anecdotes concerning his life and times. Though there is some confusion in some of these catalogues, as for instance in the D.C.S. Mss. (Madras, Author Index 1940) which identifies our Srivaisnava poet-philosopher Venkatanatha Vedanta-Desika with some other authors of similar names or surnames, as for instance one Vedantacarya, the author of the Kavya Prakasa-Vyakhya and the Vedanta Kaustubha or one Vedantacarya, the author of the Vedantacarya Vijaya Campu or for that matter, one more Vedantacarya, the author of the Siddhanta-Candrika and so on. Be it as it may, these catalogues remain the basis for the student of Indology to acquaint himself with the range and the nature of Vedanta Desika's writings.

(5) Moreover, we find the writers of the histories of Sanskrit literature as for instance Dr. Keith and Dr. Krishnamachariar giving some place or the other in their scheme to the literary writings of Vedanta Desika. Whereas the older historians of Sanskrit literature show no acquaintance with Vedanta-Desika, the latter ones-Dr. Keith being the pioneer amongst them-seem to have no dispassionate opinion on his literary endeavours or achievements.

(6) Coming to the histories of Indian religious order sand schools as compiled by scholars like Monier Williams, Barth, Wilson, Farquhar and others, we notice Vedanta Desika's importance recorded either as a Srivaisnava-teacher next to the great Ramanuja or as a leader at the head of the Srivaisnava Schism. One thing is clear that the historians of Indian religious literature can ill afford to forget Vedanta Desika as a religious teacher of India.

(7) Though the histories of Indian philosophical systems written by the pioneers such as Paul Deussen, Prof. Max Muller, Dr. Vidya Bhushan and so on know nothing about Vedanta Desika's philosophical contributions, but the recent detailed histories of Indian philosophical schools written by Dr. Keith, Dr. Radhakrishnan, Dr. S.N. Dasgupta, Prof. Hirianna and others show keen interest in finding some place or the other for the philosophical ideas of Desika in the galaxy of India's philosophical thoughts and speculations.

(8) Apart from the historians of India's literary, religious or philosophical achievements, the political historians of medieval India as for instance, those who have written on the Vijayanagar empire, the Nayaka dynasty and so on, have all recorded the political importance of Vedanta-Desika, the Srivaisnava teacher-philosopher.

(9) Now, we come to notice some poetical works of Vedanta Desika published along with their English notes or translations or appreciations such as:

(i) the Hainsa Sandesa (Madras Edn. 1902, 1903 and the Journal of Mythic society, Banglore Vol. 18).

(ii) the Subhasita-Nivi (Madras and Srirangan Edn.).

(iii) the Yadavabhyudaya (A.V. Gopalachari Edn.) and,

(iv) the Sankalpa Suryodaya (Narayanachari Edn.). The authors of the editions of the above works have all touched upon the life-story and the literary achievement of Vedanta Desika. But what strikes one most therein is the Vedagalai Srivaisnavite fervour of the authors for their Desika's literary greatness rather than any critical literary evaluation or balanced dispassionate judgment.

(10) Last but not the least, there are a few works, though small in scope, written on Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy, which all must form the ground for further intensive research on the subject. One such work, "The Life and Writings of Vedanta Desika" by M. K. Tatacharya, the other, "The Bibliography of Vedanta Desika's work" by Dr. K.C. Varadachari and the third, the Vaisnavite Reformers of India-which includes discussion on Vedanta Desika also-by Rajagopalachari, have all served their purpose as they have introduced our author to the students of Indology.

The Scope and purpose of the present work.

The scope and purpose of the present work is defined and determined, by the scope and purpose of the long unbroken tradition of Desika-studies. No one denies, now, the importance of Vedanta Desika, in the history of the medieval poetical and philosophical literature of India. While Vedanta Desika enriched Sanskrit literature with his major poems, philosophical writings and religious discussions, he gave some rare literary gems in his Mani Pravala-contributions to Tamil also. Whereas the Sanskrit-knowing student can study and appreciate him as the man, the poet, the philosopher and the teacher, the Tamil-knowing votary is especially privileged to master the secrets of Desika's Srivaisnava esotericism. Though Desika's mental make-up must needs be presumed to contain the Vedic and the Prabandhic strains in equal measure, the Vedic indicative of the Aryan intellectualism and the Prabandhic, of the Dravidian emotionalism, but, it must be said to his great credit that he was clear in his mind as to the difference of the types of his audiences, the Sanskritic and the Dravidic and the matter he had to give to both of them and the method he had to adopt to appeal to their minds and susceptibilities. Thus it is that one's lack of knowledge of Tamil does not present any insurmountable difficulty in one's progress with the study of his life, works and philosophy.

Now, coming to the various papers published in the journals, the tracts or the pamphlets written by the Vadagalai Srivaisnava enthusiasts and a few references or chapters inserted in the literary, the political, the religious and the philosophical histories of India, all concerning Vedanta Desika's life, works and philosophy, it can be safely pointed out that none of them has any comprehensive picture in view. Here, for the first time, an all-comprehensive scope of Desika-studies is chalked out and an attempt made, in the following pages, at a thorough discussion of the whole problem as far as practicable and within the means of the author. The scheme of the treatment is as follows :-

(A) Vedanta Desika, the man-In this section the life-story of Desika is presented not for its own sake, but, with a view to studying the various influences working in upon his mind, resulting ultimately in the progression of his thought and the foundation of what came to be known as the Desika-Kavya and the Desika-Darsana.

(B) Vedanta Desika : His contributions to Visistadvaita.-This section deals with Desika's synthetic outlook on Indian philosophical systems and his contribution to Ramanuja's Visistadvaita, ultimately resulting in the foundation of the Desika-Darsana.

(C) Vedanta Desika : His contributions to Srivaisnavism-In this section, Desika's Srivaisnavism is shown in its broad outlines as emerging from the Vedic and the Prabandhic devotional trends.

(D) Vedanta Desika : The Poet of Bhakti and Prapatti. – In this section, the poet in Desika as manifest in the vast field of Desika's writings is presented and appreciated.

As regards the purpose of the present work, the writer may humbly lay down-

(i) That his attempt, in the following pages, will be to bring out the man in Vedanta Desika whose daily worship as a divinity in the Vidagalai Srivaisnava shrines has so far been keeping him away from the gaze of the student of Indian thought,

(ii) That his study of Desika's philosophical works will comprise the study of the philosophy of Ramanuja Influencing and influenced by what is called the Desika-Darsana.

(iii) That his interest will chiefly lie in seeing through the religious teachings of Desika, the contemporary religious urge of India.

(iv) That his concern primarily will be to analyse the ingredients of Desika's poetic personality and to study his contributions to the cause of Sanskrit poetry of the medieval times.

Be it as it may, the real purpose of the present work will have been served if it could but generate a sincere desire in the minds of the votaries of Desika to view and appraise their Acarya as a great teacher rather than a god, a gifted poet rather than the personification of Lord Hayagriva and to crown all, a philosopher with a mission rather than Lord Venkatesa in flesh-and-blood.

Before concluding, it is the privilege of the author to gratefully acknowledge his deep indebtedness to Prof. K.A.S. Iyer, Vice-Chancellor, Lucknow University, for his guidance and interest in the publication of this study. It is also the author's pleasant duty to express his deep gratefulness to the Late Mahamahopadhyaya Shri C. Narasimhachariar and the Late M.M. Shri Cinnaswami Shastrigal for their unstincted help in this study of Desika. All thanks of the author are also due to His Holiness Shri Parakala Swamin, the Head of the Parakala Muth, Mysore, for evincing keen interest in the progress of the study at each and every step.

The author is also glad to record his thanks to Shri Jaya Krishna Das Gupta, the managing proprietor of the Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, for all the pains undertaken by him in the publication of the work. The manager of the Tara Printing Works, Varanasi, deserves the author's thanks for his hearty co-operation in the printing of these pages.

Contents

SubjectPage
Introductionxi
Bibliographyxxi
Abbreviationsxxiii
Part I
Vedanta Desika : The Man.
CHAPTER I-Vedanta Desika : His Life-Sketch
His birth and Parentage1
Childhood6
Education7
Life as a married man11
Sojourn at Tiruvahindrapuram11
Residence in Conjeevaram15
Holy trip to Tirupati18
Visit to Northern India18
South Indian Pilgrimage21
Home-Coming22
Life in Srirangam22
The End29
His Character30
Characteristics of His Mind32
His Special Faculty35
A Resume37
CHAPTER II-His Works: Their Contents, their Views and Reviews
Manuals of Sri Vaisnava Religion and Esotericism (Sanskrit and Tamil and Mani-Pravala)
Theses on Sri Vaisnava Theology and Ritualism (Sanskrit and Mani-Pravala)40
Devotional and Didactic Poetry.40
Literary work of epic, drama and lyric type41
Original philosophical treatises41
Commentaries41
Manuals of Sri Vaisnava Religion and Esotericism (Discussed)42
Theses on Srivaisnava theology and Ritualism (Discussed).48
Devotional and Didactic Poetry (Discussed)52
Literary Works of Epic Drama and Lyric type (Discussed)65
Sankalpa Suryodaya68
Hamsa Sandesa70
Daya Sataka71
Goda Stuti71
Yamaka Ratnakara.72
Samasya Sahasra73
Original Philosophical Treatises (Discussed)73
Literary Works of Epic Drama and Lyric type Discussed 65
Sankalpa Suryodaya 68
Hamsa Sandesa 70
Daya Sataka 71
Goda Stuti 71
Yamaka Ratnakara. 72
Samasya Sahasra 72
Original Philosophical Treatises (Discussed) 73
Commentaries (Discussed) 88
CHAPTER III-Chronology of His Works 97
CHAPTER IV-Literature known to Him
Vedic Literature 106
The Brahmanas and the Aranyakas 107
The Upanisads 107
The Sutra-Works 107
The Ramayana and Upapuranas 108
The Puranas and Upapuranas 108
The Smrti-Works 109
The Agamas and the Samhitas 110
Early Visistadvaitic Literature 113
Natha Muni 114
Pundarikaksacarya 116
Rama Misra I. 117
Yamunacarya and Ramauja 117
Rama Misra II 118
Sri Vatsanka Misra 119
Parasara Bhatta 120
Varada Visnu Misra 122
Narayana Muni 124
Visnu Citta 125
Varada Narayana Bhattaraka 126
Varadacarya 127
Senesvararya 128
Sudarsana Bhattaraka 128
Narayanarya 129
Atreya Ramanuja 130
Meghanadari Suri 131
Yadava Prakasa 132
Tatparya Tulika-Kara 133
Vamana 133
Varadaraja Pandita 133
Bhoja Raja 134
Sri Krsna Muni 134
Valadevacarya 134
Vasudeva Svamin 134
Grdhra Saromuni 134
Vangi Vamsesvara 135
Pratapa Bhupa 135
Sri Visnu Vaibhavadhikara 135
Bharata Muni 135
Bhavasvamin 135
Narayanacarya 135
Varadarajacarya 136
Varadarajacarya 136
Sadgunya Viveka 136
Parakala!Suri 136
CHAPTER V-His Successors
Varadanatha or Kumara Vedantacarya 137
Prativadi Bhayankaram Annanacarya 139
Sri Nivasa Dasa 139
Brahma Tantra Svatantra Svamin or Parakala Yati III (14th-15th Century A.D.) 140
Ramanuja Dasa alias Mahacarya (16th Century A.D.) 140
Appayya Diksita (16th-17th Century A.D.) 140
Ranga Ramanuja Muni (16th-17th Century A.D.) 141
Venkatadhvarin (16th-17th Century A.D.) 141
CHAPTER VI-His Place in Srivaisnavism 143
CHAPTER VII-His Place in Visistadvaita 147
CHAPTER VIII-As a Religious Reformer of India 151
Part II
Vedanta Desika : His Contributions to Visistadvaita.
CHAPTER I-Nyaya-Vedanta-Syncretism (Epistemologica) 155
Visistadvaitic Epistemology 155
Visistadvaitic epistemology contrasted with Nirvisesadvaitic epitemology 156
Nature of knowledge 157
Self-luminosity as the essential character of knowledge 163
The Nyaya-contention that knowledge is not self-evident is unfounded 166
The Mimamsaka-view that knowledge is revealed through the revelation of objects is unscientific. 167
Self-Validity of knowledge 169
What is Prama or right apprehension ? 175
What is Aprama or Erroneous Cognition ? 184
The Conception of 'Bheda' 192
The Nirvisesadvaitic theory of error viz. Anirvacaniya-Khyati is against reason and common-sense. 195
The Atmakhyati of the Buddhist Idealist is self-contradictory 197
The Asatkhyati of Buddhist Nihilist has no foundation in facts 199
The Central idea of Visistadvaitic theory of knowledge 200
CHAPTER II-Nyaya-Vedanta-Syncretism (Logical)
Visistadvaitic Logic 202
Pratyaksa or perception 202
Visnucitta's definition of perception 203
Parasara Bhattaraka's exposition of Pratyaksa 203
Varada Visnu Misra's analysis of perceptive experience 204
Vedanta Desika's approach to the problem of perception 204
Two-fold immediacy of awareness in perceptive experience 209
Two-fold aspects of perception 213
The Naiyayika Conception of indeterminate perception untenable 214
The Nirvisesadvaitic speculation about Nir-vikalpaka Pratyaksa is unsound. 216
The Visistadvaitic analysis of Nirvikalpaka Pratyaksa. 218
The Buddhistic conception of Savikalpaka Pratyaksa unacceptable to Visistadvaita 220
The assumption of the grammarians concerning Savikalpaka Pratyaksa is inadmissible. 222
The verbal perception of the Sankara-school of Vedanta is against common human experience. 222
The significance of the Pratyaksa Pramana. 223
Anumana or Inference: The nature of Anumana. 224
Anusandhana or Paramarsa is the essential element of Anumana. 225
Anusandhana is of the Vyapya or the reason. 226
Unconditional correlation between 'Vyapya' and 'Vyapaka' is necessary for valid inference. 227
The character of Vyapya. 231
The two kinds of Anumana. 233
Kevala-Vyatireki-Anumana is devided into 'Svartha' and 'Parartha'. 236
Component parts of the formal inference and their utility. 239
Inference includes confutation or Tarka. 241
Invalid Reasoning 246
The supreme sense of Anumana as a means of knowledge 249
Sabda or verbal knowledge 250
Verbal knowledge is not inference 250
Verbal knowledge is not recollection 251
Verbal knowledge is valid knowledge 252
Verbal knowledge does not require any pre-established convention that such and such a word means such and such a thing. 252
The validity of verbal knowledge does not depend upon Karyartha-Vyutpatti 253
Words primarily signify the Siddhartha 254
Is the Jati or the generic attribute the import of words ? 254
There is no Sphota or Sound-Absolute as the ground of all sound-phenomena 257
The sentence and its meaning are not superimpositions on Eternal Indivisible consciousness 258
The Visistadvaitic theory of Verbal Knowledge 258
Verbal Knowledge is never about an unqualified and undifferentiated object 261
Texts of Verbal Authority according to Visistadvaita 263
The Supreme significance of Verbal Knowledge 264
A Note on the number of knowledge 265
Smrti as a valid means of knowledge
CHAPTER III-Nyaya-Vedanta-Syncretism
(Dialectical)
Visistadvaitic Dialectics 276
What is Katha or Dialectics 277
The Scope of Dialectics 277
What occasions Dialectics 278
Vedanta Desika's View 278
Natha Muni's View 279
What is the theme of Dialectics 279
The Nyaya-View 280
Vatsyayana's View 281
Udyotakara's View 281
Vacaspati Misra's View 282
Udayana's View 282
Jayanta Bhatta's View 282
Varadaraja's View 283
The View of the practice of Dialectics 285
The view of the Nyaya and its exponents 286
The view of Vedanta Desika 286
The Adhikarin of the practice of Dialectics 285
The view of the Nyaya and its exponents 286
The view of Vedanta Desika 286
Varadaraja's View 291
Its criticism 291
Pre-requisites to dialectical procedure 293
The demerits of debate 294
Vatsyayana's View 295
Its criticism 291
Pre-requisites to dialectical procedure 293
The demerits of debate 294
Vatsyayana's View 295
Udyotakara's View 295
Vacaspati Misra's View 295
Jayanta Bhatta's View 295
Vedanta Desik's View 295
The merits of debate 311
CHAPTER IV-Exposition
Categories of Ramanuja Darsana 312
Isvara or God 326
God can be known by intuition alone 327
God is the first and the final cause of the Cosmos 328
Creation is the spontaneous manifestation of joy in the heart of Reality 330
Isvara, the highest of religion is identical with Brahman, the highest of philosophy and He is knowable as well as nameable 331
God is qualified with Divine qualities 331
God is immune from all change and imperfection 332
Isvara as 'Cidacidvisista is the subject of Vedantic enquiry and Vedantic realisation 333
Jiva or soul 334
The soul as the Self-proved spiritual reality can also be psychologically know and experienced 334
The soul is eternally existent 336
The soul is the knower, the doer and the enjoyer 336
The soul is atomic 337
Souls are of different categories 337
The destiny of the Soul 338
Jada Dravya or matter 339
Matter defying logical proof is integrally intuited 339
Matter is Dravya 340
Mutation is the law of matter 340
Divine Energy is immanent in material evolution 341
Time as the inert substance is experienced as the adjunct of the objects of experience 342
Visistadvaitam : The Unity of Reality 342
Sarira-Sariri-Bhava 345
Adhara-Adheya-Bhava 357
The Isvara-Isitavya-Bhava 361
Sesa-Sesi-Bhava 365
Pt. III. Vedanta Desika : His Contributions to Sri Vaisnavism
CHAPTER I-The Concept of Sri Vaisnava
Dharma
Bhakti VS Prapatti 373
Prapatti as the Brahmavidya par excellence382
The Culture of Prapatti 385
Essentials of Prapatti 386
The Supreme Significance of Prapatti 393
The Universality of the Prapatti Dharma 39
The Synthesis of the Vadagalai and the Tengalai concepts of Prapatti 395
CHAPTER II-The Ethics of Sri Vaisnavism
Abhigamana 402
Upadana 408
Ijya 410
Svadhyaya 413
Yoga 415
CHAPTER III-The Sri Vaisnava Cult and Ritualism 417
Pt. IV: Vedanta Desika : The Poet of Bhakti and Prapatti.
CHAPTER I-His Hymns and Devotional Poems
Paduka Sahasra 433
Hayagriva Stotra 436
Bhagavaddhyana Sopana 437
Sri Stuti 441
Abhitistava 442
Varadaraja Pancasat 443
Devanayaka Pancasat 444
Acyuta Sataka 446
Dehalisa Stuti 446
Bhu Stuti 449
CHAPTER III-His Lyrics
Hamsa Sandesa 450
Daya Sataka 454
Goda Stuti 462
CHAPTER III-His Drama, the Sankalpa Suryodaya 464
CHATPER IV-His Mahakavya, the Yadavabhyudaya 472
Appendix 481
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Thank you for great service in the past. I am a returning customer and have purchased many Puranas from your firm. Please continue the great service on this order also.
Raghavan, USA
Excellent service. I feel that there is genuine concern for the welfare of customers and there orders. Many thanks
Jones, United Kingdom
I got the rare Pt Raju's book with a very speedy and positive service from Exotic India. Thanks a lot Exotic India family for such a fantabulous response.
Dr. A. K. Srivastava, Allahabad
It is with great pleasure to let you know that I did receive both books now and am really touched by your customer service. You developed great confidence in me. Will again purchase books from you.
Amrut, USA.
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Angela, UK
Dear sir/sirs, Thanks a million for the two books I ordered on your website. I have got both of them and they are very much helpful for my paper writing.
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Exotic India has excellent and speedy service.
M Sherman, USA
Your selection of books is impressive and unique in USA. Thank you.
Jaganath, USA
Exotic India has the best selection of Hindu/Buddhist Gods and Goddesses in sculptures and books of anywhere I know.
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