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Apsarases in Indian Literature and the Legend of Urvasi and Pururavas

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From the Jacket Indian literature abounds in a variety of myths and legends narrating allegorical/historical stories with moral teachings where celestial or semi-celestial beings, in particular the apsarases, occupy an important place. Of such legends, a few have become much popular and they reappear in the course of the history of literature at various stages. One such legend is that of Urvasi and Pururavas which is one of the most ancient legends of India, owing its origin to the Rgveda...

From the Jacket

Indian literature abounds in a variety of myths and legends narrating allegorical/historical stories with moral teachings where celestial or semi-celestial beings, in particular the apsarases, occupy an important place. Of such legends, a few have become much popular and they reappear in the course of the history of literature at various stages. One such legend is that of Urvasi and Pururavas which is one of the most ancient legends of India, owing its origin to the Rgveda.

This scholarly work, based on extensive original sources - primary, comprising ancient Sanskrit texts, commentaries and glosses and modern literary pieces, kavyas and plays, as well as critical writings on these original works, studies the origin and development of the institution of apsarases and their characteristics as described in the vast corpus of Vedic, Epic-Puranic and classical works. In this context, it undertakes an interesting survey of the concept of nymphs (apsarases) in Indo-European, especially Greek mythology. Dr. Handique then thoroughly examines the depiction of the legend of Urvasi and Pururavas - a favourite theme that has been immortalized in literary masterpieces in Indian literature as a whole: from the ancient Vedas and Puranas, the Harivamsa and Vikramorvasiyam to modern works like Urvasi Janani and Abhisapta Urvasi and stray poetic pieces.

Presenting anew angle to the study, the book attempts to explore aspects of an age old tradition that bears close affinity with the institution of the apsarases in terms of mode of living worship and ideals - like system of the devadasis.

The book will prove invaluable to scholars of Indian mythology, culture and literature as well as interest general readers of ancient India's legends and tales.

About the Author

Dr. Krishna Kanta Handique is a reputed scholar of Sanskrit and folk literature who has presented research papers and represented the country in world conferences. His published works are Dvatrsaputtalika, Nagananda, Drama by Sriharsa, Uduyana: Vasavadutta and Bohe Brahmadaka Bhedi.

 

Preface

THIS book on presents a study of the popular traditional legend of Pururavas and Uravasi in some detailed form. It pays adequate attention to the origin, development and characte- ristics of the apsaras or 'nymphs' in Indo-European and Indian works. Lastly, it tries to deal with the social problem of the devadasis of a later age.

I was greatly helped and inspired by my friend, philosopher and guru Dr. Thaneswar Sarmah, the seniormost Reader in the Sanskrit Department, Gauhati University in the course of my research. I am greatly indebted to him and I shall ever remain grateful to him.

Besides, my siksa-gurus Dr. M.M Sharma, Dr. A.K Goswami, Dr. A.c. Barthakuria and Dr. R.N. Sharma also encouraged me to undertake this work and strive diligently towards its completion. I am thankful to all of them. I thank my erstwhile teacher Sjt. Ramchandra Bhattacharya, my associates in the department and my colleagues Dr. Akan Chandra Saikia, Dr. Pradip Gogoi, Prof. Jatin Bora, Prof. Guna Baruah, and Prof. Namal Gogi of Tinsukia College, my student and colleague Mrs. Anupama Mahanta, Prof. Chitralata Phukan, Head of Assamese Department of our college for their encouragement. I would like to mention here the librarians of the K.K Handique Library, G.U., and J.B. College Library and also Dimbeswar Sarma, a teacher of Narmal School, Jorhat, who helped me procure books for study. I am much indebted to my family members for their constant support.

 

Introduction

MYTHS and legends, stories and anecdotes allure the minds of not only the masses but also intellectuals and scholarly persons. Through the ages human imagination has given rise to a vast literature replete with myths and legends, wherein the free thought of men finds easy expression. Sometimes, absurdities surpass the dictates of rationality, only to evoke or rouse interest in the human mind. But that does not prevent the listener or reader from enjoying the myths or legends. Therefore, myths and legends are accepted on all hands irrespective of barriers of caste, creed, race and ethnic group. Thus, every language culture preserves this sort of literature from over ages. And the Indians are no exception to it; rather they have preserved a vast literature abounding with myths, legends, stories, parables, tales and narratives. In fact, no other literature can claim equal footing with Indian literature where this literary form is concerned.

Myths and legends are abundantly found in the folk literature of any and every nation. It forms a component part of the folk culture. The older generation conveys this form of art and literature to the younger generation. The younger folks lend their attentive ear to learn the many myths and legends from their elders. Thus, this piece of literature is carried forward from generation to generation.

The themes of myths and legends are varied. On many occasions, the historical pieces intrude into it. Sometimes, the allegorical stories relating to animals, birds and such other lower beings have hidden moral teachings. Fantasies too, connected with absurd activities of the celestial or semi-celestial beings, find a place in such myths and legends. The apsarases, gandharvas, vidyadharas and kinnaras occupy an important place in such myths and legends in Indian literature. In all stages of Indian literature beginning from the Rgveda down to modern literature, fantastic myths and legends about gods and demi- gods are abundantly found. Some legends become so appealing to the people that the same legend reappears at various stages of the literature, repeatedly changing its outer form and assuming new attire. The legend of Pururavas and Urvasl appears to be such a piece for it has continued to be a favourite theme throughout our literature. It is, of course, very interesting to follow the course of such a legend and study the same, making a note of all elements, original and peripheral, new innovations and so on relating to such a legend. With that end in view, the legend of Pururavas and Urvasi is now undertaken for a detailed study.

 

Contents

 

  Preface v
  Abbreviations xi
1 INTRODUCTION 1
Part I Apsarases in Indian Literature  
2 ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF APSARASES ORIGIN OF THE NYMPHS IN INDO-EUROPEAN 13
  Literature 13
  Characteristics of nymphs 15
  Apsarases' relation with the gandharvas 16
  Origin of the nymphs or apsarases in Indian literature 20
  Apsarases in the Ramayana: Post-Vedic period 23
  The Apsarases in the Mahabharata 35
  The Apsarases in the Puranas 42
  Apasarases in the Katha Literature 47
  Apsarases in the Kath-sarit-sagara 48
Part II The Legend of Urvasi and Pururavas  
3 LEGEND OF URVASI AND PURURAVAS IN VEDIC LITERATURE 69
  The dialogue hymn of the RV, 10.95 70
  Urvasi and Pururavas in the YV 77
  Urvasi: One of the female seers of the Vedic mantras 78
  Urvasi-Pururavas: Akhyana theory 79
  The legend is an allegory 79
  The dramatic element in the legend 79
  A love legend 79
  Analysis of the word, 'Urvasi' and 'Pururavas' 80
  Urvasi and Pururavas in Brhaddevata 80
  Urvasi and Pururavas in Nitimanjari 81
  Urvasi and Pururavas in Vedarthadipika 82
4 THE LEGEND OF URVASI AND PURURAVAS IN POST-VEDIC PERIOD 89
  Urvasi and Pururavas in Ramayana 89
  Urvasi and Pururavas in the Mahabharata 90
  Urvasi and Pururavas in the Puranas 96
  Urvasi and Pururavas in the Harivamsa  
  Urvasi and Pururavas in the Katha-sarit-saara 114
  Urvasi and Pururavas in the Upapuranas 116
  Urvasi in the holy places 118
  Urvasi in the fairy tales 118
  Urvasi: Incarnation of Durga 120
  Urvasi and Pururavas in Vikramorvasiyam of Kalidasa 121
5 LEGEND OF URVASI AND PURURAVAS IN MODERN LITERATURE 133
  Urvasi Janani 133
  Urvasi: Ramdhari Singh Dinakar 137
  Abhisapta Urvasi 142
6 URVASI AND DEVADASI 149
  Temples and devadasis 151
  Citrangada 153
  Devadasi: Profession prevailed in Kerala 154
  Evidence of devadasis and Siva temples 155
  Devadasi and Sankaradeva 156
  Yogini Tantra and devadasi 156
  Ahom queen Phulesvari was originally a devadasi 157
  The origin of Bharat Natyam 158
  Madhava Kandali's Ramayana 158
  Devadasi: A holy tradition 158
  Devadasi: Social evils and Indian women 159
  Devadasi: Source hailed from Western countries 159
7 CONCLUSION 165
  Appendices  
  1. Genealogy of the Lunar Race 169
  2. An alphabetical list of apsarases 181
  Bibliography 183
  Index 191

Sample Pages




Item Code: IDD226 Author: Krishnakanta Handique Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2001 Publisher: D. K. Printworld Pvt. Ltd. ISBN: 8186921168 Language: English Size: 8.9" x 5.9" Pages: 201 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 470 gms
Price: $35.00
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