Shri Janardan Prasad has a long experience of teaching at the Department of Education (Central Institute of Education), University of Delhi. He is a self-education man. He did his educational and technical quations while he was working. He did his Certificate in Carpentry and Advance Diploma in wood working from Government Technical Institute, Gwaliar and Government Wood Working Institute, Jullunder, Punjab, National Diploma in Fine Art from Government College of Art, Delhi and B.Ed., M.Ed. and M.A. Philosophy from Delhi University and M.A. in Sociology from Meerut University
Art has a wide spectrum of creativity, aestheticity. It is very difficult, if not impossible to say anything about art in detail. Shri Janardan Prasad, the author of this work entitled ‘Art Education’ could match his diligency and tenacity of the purpose. Being a student of philosophy, sociology and education, also of art and wood craft and, a hereditary artizen, having a long teaching experience in Central Institute of Education, University of Delhi and in Industries Department of U.P. Government, he could elaborate the aestheticity, epistemacy and utility fact. He could also bring out sociological, philosophical and educational view point elaborately. Doing so, Shri Janardan Prasad has tried of cater to the needs of art and education students. I hope his effort will prove to be very useful for the students of art and education and also for schools and educational institutes.
I most humbly express my gratitude to Almighty God who very kindly rewarded me of good and congenial atmosphere and company of kind, sane and intelligent persons from childhood to old age. When I was a child, I had an opportunity of having company of my village elders and trio freedom fighters—(1) Mahasai Late Shri Harishchandra Ji, (2) Late Shri Babu Malkhan Singh Ji and (3) Late Shri Babu Ram Sharma (Munde) who had inspired me to be hardworking and continue my self-study. When I was serving as Carpentry Instructor in the Department of Industries, U.P., Late Professor B. Biswas (H.B.T.I., Kanpur) had inspired me for self-study. And I could do intermediate, B.A., Certificate in Carpentry and Advance Diploma in Wood Working because of his advice. It was he who had very kindly advised me to join as Wood Craft Instructor in Central Institute of Education, Delhi, on 9.9.1958, and if possible to continue my self-study. At C.I.E, I got an entirely congenial, helpful and family atmosphere than Prof. E.A. Pires and Late Prof. P.K. Roy and Late Shri H.A. Gade encouraged me to continue my studies. As such, I could do M.A. (Philo.), M.A. (Socio), B.Ed. and M.Ed. and National Diploma in Fine Art under their guidance. I am very thankful to all of them. In the field of art I learned a lot from Late Shri H.A. Gade. Though I do not find myself competent to contribute in the field of art, but as a due tribute to him I have tried to write a little bit on art. Being a student of philosophy, sociology and education I have tried to highlight the philosophical, sociological and pedagogical aspects of art. I hope my effort will bear some fruit and art students will be benefited.
Almighty God first created the universe and decorated it with splendid natural phenomena like mountains, hills, snow-covered glaciers, landscapes, deserts, rivers, water, seascapes, oceans, flora and fauna and agriculture lands etc. etc. Thereafter, he created living beings—animals, insects, bees and human beings with a topsy-turvy biological- diversical unity which enabled them to produce the offsprings and make social functioning possible. The human beings could develop human society and make humane social living possible. Almighty god endowed the human beings with a capacity to utilise the natural phenomena, flora and fauna for their personal use. He endowed the human beings with a big brain for thinking, reasoning and analysing, eyes for visualising, moving hands, for working and erect posture and legs for walking. All these enabled man to visualise, reason, comprehend and to analyse natural phenomena and fabricate it for human use. As such, the man from the beginning has been acting rationally in a creative manner. Whereas, other living beings could not do so. On the contrary, the human beings have been made very greedy by Almighty God, which always inspire them to create and make new things for their comfort. Such a human tendency has ever been forcing man to be acquisitive which always entails discriminations and favour that usually generate bad emotions. The hurted emotions are only minimised through art activities.
The human mentality of greed, inspite of rationality, made men and women self-centred. In such a situation they always think of their self-interests. They become acquisitive, xenophilic, consumeristic, ostentatious. For materialising all these, the human beings try to invent and create new things, as necessity is the mother of invention. In the beginning, the man lived in bushes in jungles in very bad conditions like animals. He used to eat jungle fruits and to cover his body with tree barks. In due couse of time he started living under the shadow of trees in jungle. He rationalised this situation and constructed huts out of jungle grass. In due course of time he found seeds of grains and developed the agriculture. And finally the man reached to the present heights, and he searched and landed on moon. The man’s efforts are still going on to find new cosmos. All this could happen because of the human rationality which could innovate and motivate the man to create new things, which is nothing but art. As such, the human beings, as they are rational beings, have ever been innovative and creative by their nature, though for their own interests. They always thought of their own interests from the very beginning though few of them thought of common interests also. Human beings have ever been creating things for their use and comfort. This human tendency always innovated human beings to create new things for their comfort. The creation of new things is nothing but Art.
There are mythological descriptions about art. All religions have mythological and folk tales about creativity and art. And all religions mentioned that Almighty is the Lord creator, who created the universe and living beings, who later on believed in different religions and made various religious alters and monuments which were made through creativity and art. In Hindu classical literature—Vedas, Suktas and Shrutis etc., Land Vishwakarma has been mentioned as the creator and sustainer of the Divine creations; In Epics Ramayana and Mahabharata there is a vivid mention about the creations of Lord Vishwakarma. He had created many versatile Bhawan, sculptures, alters of deities. He also created astras and sastras, vayuryans, bows etc. His sons Manu, Maya, Twesta, Shilpi and Devyagna followed their father Lord Vishwakarma and did creative arts throughout their father lives. Indian artisans claim that they are the descendents of Lord Vishwakarma. They call themselves Vishwakarma Artisans.
The second son of Vishwakarma Maya was expert in ship-building. During Ramayana period his disciples/followers went to Patal Lock, that is, present America. These were, later on, called Red-Indians. They spread the Indian art and culture through their creative skills. They constructed Sun temples in America. These Red-Indians were skilled artisans. When Portuguese of occupied some parts of America, they eliminated majority of the Red Indians by forcing them to work in Mercury mines. In India the Vishwakarma Artisans contributed a lot in the development of Indian art and culture of which we all are proud. The constructed temple of deities, Dharamshalas, Bhawans, forts and mahals sculptures and alters of deities. They also contributed in other arts as music, as they made, musical instruments. They also created agricultural implements and tools for cottage industries. Their creations may be classified in different arts and may be categorised in various art styles and forms.
After the industrialisation the art was categorised as ‘real arts’ and ‘survival arts’. Those who were pursuing arts for arts sake on non-inclinative basis were called fine artists, and those who were pursuing arts for their survival were called ‘survival artists’. As industries followed commercialisation in every field, the art was further categorised as- (1) fine art, (2) sculpture and (3) commercial art. Earlier the artists used to learn art hereditically. And still in many fields as music and dance hereditical training in these arts is considered best. Also many arts still are learned non-formally. Arts like singing, dancing, doing folk arts and cooking art learned non-formally. As the demographic situation has changed the population has increased a lot. The democratisation authorised everybody to learn and to do what he or she desire. The Government was bound to open art institutions, like— schools art, colleges of art and wood working institutions, and everyone is eligible to seek admission in these institutions. Now there is a rat-race in opening such institutions on commercial bases for earning money. But if the students do not know what art is? What is professional ethics of doing art, they cannot learn art? Some organisations link such art institutions with foreign universities having no real art content in their syllabus. Such institutions are spreading foul play in the field of art. The art is learned by one, himself of herself. The art learner has to translate his emotions into expressions. He or she has to be proficient in visualisation and comprehension of physical things and give these a proper form. The art teacher can only guide the learner to proceed in a proper way. Every physical thing is beautiful to some extent and, every person is creative to some extent. In the past under the Guru-Shishya Parampara, the guidance believe in Guru-Shishya Parampara. Creative skills always entail satisfaction. So art is very necessary for the help in personality development of an individual for a sound sociability.
The art education should start from home and should be perpetuated at school, which is not being done these days. The schools only devote for marks catching in annual examination. The present educational system, which is alien, only generate competition. We got freedom 57 years ago from the Britishers. But still we could not get rid off from the British Formal System of Education which was imposed on Indians by Lord Macaulay in 1833 A.D. for killing the Indian culture. He had been very successful in his mission. He might be enjoying his success in his grave and might be eating Indian sweets there. Art education has no due place in our present system of education. Most of the schools do not have art teacher. Whereas, art education is must for proper education. Without the knowledge of national culture, education is incomplete which could be possible through art skills. In school, emphasis is laid on teaching subjects and, not on artistic activities. Through teaching mere information about a subject can be given, and education which is not listening, but is taking out the hidden potentialities of the students is not possible. Now-a-days, the teachers training Institutes also lay emphasise on teaching subjects and not artistic activities which are essential for culture building. If a nation is to be strong, it should develop a sound enculturation system in the country which can only be possible through creative arts. And in present industrial age it can only be done by educational institutions—Schools, Colleges and College of Arts. And art education is necessary for good sane sociability of our future guardians. Then only one society can be a sane sociability of our future guardians. Then only one society can be a sane society. Art education can reduce the human greed, and can make the human beings sensible, ideal and good citizens. Art education is only alternative for achieving this social end.
|3||Philosophy of Structural Elements of Art||29|
|4||Versatility of Art||37|
|5||Classification of Arts||41|
|9||Recent Aesthetical Views||114|
|10||Indian Rasa View of Aesthetics of Art||123|
|11||Social Appropriation of Art||129|
|12||Art as a Profession||135|
|13||Art and Society||140|
|15||Teaching of Art||152|
|16||Effects of Acculturation on Art Activities||165|
|18||Historical Development of Education||179|
|19||Contemporary Indian Education System||197|
|20||Role of Art in Education||201|
|21||Effects of Industrialisation of Art and Education||205|
|22||Recent Position os Art in Educational Structure||209|
|23||Art Institutions in India||212|
|24||Role of Art in Dys-Functioning of Acculturation||216|
|25||Role of Art Institutions||220|
Item Code: NAL183 Author: Janardan Prasad Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2005 Publisher: Kanishika Publishers ISBN: 9788173917271 Language: English Size: 8.5 inch x 5.5 inch Pages: 248 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 404 gms