विश्व के प्रमुख कालदर्शक (राष्ट्रीय एवं अंतराष्ट्रीय पंचांगों का विवेचन) - A Description of National and International Panchangas

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Introduction Sanskrit literature is exceptionally rich both in form and content, and one is amazed to have a look at the diverse forms that originated in the early hours of human civilisation and .also at the analysis made of these diversities by literary theoreticians. Sanskrit literary theory has described Rasa as the centre of gravity of Poetic Art, and in introducing the nature of this element has explained It as total unfragmented beauty, the experience of which gener...


Sanskrit literature is exceptionally rich both in form and content, and one is amazed to have a look at the diverse forms that originated in the early hours of human civilisation and .also at the analysis made of these diversities by literary theoreticians. Sanskrit literary theory has described Rasa as the centre of gravity of Poetic Art, and in introducing the nature of this element has explained It as total unfragmented beauty, the experience of which generates supramundane delight, because Beauty and Bless conjointly constitute part and parcel of the Absolute, the Infinite, even the partial reflection of which inducts special charmingness to a specimen of Art and makes it pleasurable and enjoyable.

In its endeavour to classify Rasa into diverse types Sanskrit literary theory enumerates nine varities of Rasa, namely the Erotic, the Comic, the Tragic, the furious, the Heroic, the frightful the Disgustful, the surpriseful and the qrietistic. Though the Comic is regarded as a variety 'of Rasa it is not allowed the same seat with other emotional moods because, as the theory states, at the -time of experiencing this emotional mood, the truncateor personality of the experiencer is not. burled into sleep, rather it makes itself more strongly felt. in as much as, laughter is caused by the feeling that the man enjoying the Comic is superior to the person or character centering round whom amusement and consequential laughter are sought to be created Sanskrit Theory, therefore, gives the designation of Uparaniaka Rasa or pseudo aesthetic concept to it in sharp contradistinction to the proper aesthetic content or Rasa, at- the time of experiencing which the truncated personality of the connoisseur is rendered docile and the boundaries of his ego are expanded in such a manner that the whole universe is comprehended und . its orbit. At this material moment he has this feeling that tr~ hearts of all appreciators and experiences have been united and that he is experiencing the mood not in his individual capacity, but rather as a representative of the community of connoisseurs, each member of which is endowed with the capacity of identifying himself with the character-s and situations, enabling him to savour aesthetic delight. At one experiences the comic he, on the other hand, is not lifted above the boundaries of truncated ego, and the slow of thoughts concerning his truncated existence is not suspended temporarily.

This explains the inferior status to which the comic is relegated and the neglect shown to it by literary theoreticians and literary artists alike. As a matter of fact no poet or ' dramatist makes the comic the dominant emotion of his composition. The rules of dramaturgy stand in the way of selection of the comic as the predominant sentiment in a. Heroic Play, which required to centre round the Erotic or the Heroic. The comic finds entry into the Heroic through the backdoor, furnished by the dialogue of the jester, who presents laughter by his references to oddities and incongruties. When the question of allowing a prominent position to the comic arises; Sanskirt literary theory points out to the Prahasana and the Bhana, that are regarded as inferior type of social plays. In these types again coarse type of humour is presented through depletion of inappropriate sex impulse and odd sex hunger. Sometimes incongruous and incompatible thoughts are brought into relation or queer situations are depicted sending the appreciator to roll into laughter.

It is strange that fine humour that is presented in short stories, .contained in Hitopadesa and Pancatantra disappears in Poetry and Drama, considered as best specimens of Poetic Art . In short stories the saint and the villain, the selfish and the noble, the virtuous and the sinful jostle with each other in the garb of beasts and birds and ultimately leave as message for the eternal man. These stories bear testimony to the fin~. sense of humour of story tellers, who betray their awareness of the pitfalls of" the society, and do not hesitate to give lusty lash of satire to the social structure, that reward the sinful and the cunning.AII this shows that there was a tremendous possibility of handling the comic in best specimens of Poetic Art in a manner in which its presentation would not have kept the connoisseur confined within the forewalls of truncated ego, but. rather would have expanded his ego bounderies, enabling him to savour aesthetic delight and at the same time to become conscious of the ills of the society. Thus Poetry would have served the purpose of tendering advice in the sweet ineffable manner of the beloved, Kantasammitopadesayuje.

It is refreshing to note that in order to remove a long felt want Dr. Deepak Ghosh has come forward with his magnum size lyric entitled Rajanitililamrtam in which the present degeneration in the Socity due to infiltration of Politics in all the areas of human endeavours has been made the butt of ridicule. Gifted with a Vedantic insight Ghosh believes in the solidarity of the Universe as also in the proposition that . \ all members in the Universe are permeated by One Absolute, . and placing politics in the seat of the Absolute describes it as the supreme force controlling and regulating all human . exercises. Politics, it is said, has the unbelivable power of ushering in a new creation and at the same time of destroying the cosmos. The lyric of Ghosh starts by singing hallelujahs to the immense power of Politics and tracing the degeneration visible in all sectors ultimately closes its observation by describing this power as multi-dimensional and endless. Not only Politics, but demoralised representatives of all sectors also are struck with lusty lash of satire, exciting laughter in all connoisseurs.

Ghosh has already established himself as a modern Sanskrit Poet, and has demonstrated profundity of skill in effecting harmonious blend between charmingness of expression and splendour of content. This skill is demonstrated in Rajanilililamrtam also, in which Ghosh does not use a single indecorous word or loathsome content, but creates a marvellous satirical effect by drawing familiar scenes . from contemporary 'society and casting sarcastic flings at community leadership. In course of his presentation Ghosh introduces concepts from all branches of learning, demonstrating, thereby, his mastery over all areas of Knowledge, which goes ultimately to prove the veracity of the statement that one of the causal factors of Poetry is represented by skill, obtained through acquaintance with ways of the -world and all branches of learning,-nipunata lokasatradyaveksanat. In fact by presenting satire in the cup of a flawless lyric, that has rested itself on the ideals of a great and grand Poetry, as enunciated by ancient literary theoreticians Deepak Ghosh has created a new genre, which will serve as a model satire, inspiring future artistes to continue this tradition. and enrich modern Sanskrit Literature.

With great pleasure. I congratulate Ghosh and welcome his Rajanitililamrtam to the field of modern Sanskrit Literature, which is becoming richer day by day through contributions of new talents.

Sample Pages

Item Code: NZJ809 Author: महर्षि अभय कात्यायन (Maharishi Abhaya Katyayan) Cover: Paperback Edition: 2004 Publisher: Chaukhamba Surbharati Prakashan Language: Hindi Size: 8.5 inch X 5.5 inch Pages: 170 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 190 gms
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