The power of speech is one of the greatest or perhaps the greatest of gifts with which man has been endowed. Through the development of this power, not only in the present period, but also in the ancient times, in Greece, in Rome, and also in other countries, the speakers and orators swayed public opinion and secured the leadership of their peoples. To this the Qur'an refers when it says
(He created the man, endowed him with power of expression).
The Arabs attached great importance to their language. "The Arabians," says Hitti, "created or developed no great art of their own. Their artistic nature found expression through one medium only: speech. By virtue of its peculiar structure Arabic lent itself admirably to a terse, trenchant, epigrammatic manner of speech." In Arabia, particularly before the advent of Islam, oratory was considered to be a great gift, lower only to poetry. An orator was greatly honoured and respected, at first less than the poet, but afterwards when the poet degraded himself by accepting rewards and gifts for his panegyrics and poems, the orator rose higher in rank to him.
The names of many of the pre-Islamic Arab orators have been handed down to us by the early historians and literature. 'Adi b. Zayd al-Abadi, Khuwaylad b. 'Amr al-Ghatfani al-Ushara b Jabir, Ka'b b. Luwayy, Ibn 'Ammar al-Tayi, 'Amar b. al-Ahtamm al-Minqari, al-Zibriqan b. Sadr, Suhayi,, b. 'Amr al- Qarashi are only a few of them who have been mentioned by al-jahiz in his' al-Bayan wal-Tabyin. One of the most celebrated of them was Quss b. Sa idah, some of whose orations were attended by Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, during the early period of his life. Some of his orations have been preserved, at least in parts, by some of the Arabic authors. These orations represent the model of pre-Islamic Arab oratory and give us a full view of the picture of the orations of one of the best pre-Islamic Arab orators, and of his general style and the method of treatment of the main topic, followed by him in his speeches.
"O people: assemble together, hear and remember. He who lives, dies and he who dies, is gone for ever. Everything to come is near." (And he said): "In these things are strong (incontrovertible) signs: rain and vegetation; fathers and mothers; the passer away and the newcomer (newly born one); stars which move and the fathomless oceans; a high roof (sky) and the ready cradle (the earth) the dark night and the heaven with zodiac signs. Why it is that I see that men die and do not return? Are they satisfied and therefore permanently settled or are imprisoned and fell asleep?" (And he said): "O the people of Iyad! Where are the Thamud and the Ad? Where are the fathers and grandfathers? Where are the good deeds for which no gratitude was shown? And where are the cruelties against which no protest was made. Quss swears by God that God has surely a religion which is more pleasant to Him than the present religion of yours."
It may be noted that the great orator's style was simple, free from involved metaphors, and far- fetched similies and ideas, or long introduction. His sentences were short. His method was direct. He drew the attention of his audience to the nature and natural phenomena and the 'historical events, the memory of which was still green in their mind and just suggested to them his own conclusion.
This was the, model which was followed by the Arabs till the early Umayyad period. All the important Arab orations of this period, which have come down to us, are of this very type having the same general features. The speeches of the early Caliphs, the governors of the provinces and other party leaders are all cast in this very mould.
A Speech of Abu Bakr, the First Caliph
"O people I am in charge of your affairs though I am not the best of you. But the Qur'an has been revealed, and the Prophet has created the precedents, and taught us the same and we have learnt them. Know you all that the best wisdom is the piety, and the most foolish thing is to commit sins! To me the strongest of you is the weakest until I regain from him his (the weak man's) right and the weakest of you is the strongest until I regain from him (the strong) the right. 0 people I verily I am a follower (of the Prophet's path) and not an innovator (of new principles). So if I do well, help me and if I go astray put me right."
|Oration of Muhammad:|
|1||The 1st Speech at Safa Hills In Mecca||17|
|2||The 2nd Speech delivered at a feast given to the Quraishites inviting them to embrace Islam||19|
|3||The 3rd Speech, addressing the Quraish, delivered in Mecca before migration||20|
|4||The 4th Speech (according to ibn Hajar First in Madina) delivered on Friday in the mosque of Banu Salim on his way from Quba to Madina , 1 A.H.||22|
|5||The 5th Speech (first in Madina) Delivered in Madina on Friday, 1 A.H.||26|
|6||The 6th Speech delivered at the battle of Badr on 17th Ramadan, 2 A.H.||27|
|7||The 7th Speech delivered in Madina after his return from the battle of Banu Mustaliq about his wife 'Ae'sha in Sha'ban, 5 A.H.||29|
|8||The 8th Speech (occasion as above),delivered when the Prophet went to 'Ae'sha at the house of Abu Bakr||31|
|9||The 9th Speech delivered after the conquest of Khaiber complained against their oppresion by Muslims||31|
|10||The 10th Speech delivered in the mosque of Madina when the battle was going on at Muta in Syria, Jumada 1, 8 A.H||32|
|11||The 11th Speech delivered on the Friday when Mecca was conquered in Ramadan, 8 A.H.(January 630 A.D.)||33|
|12||The 12th Speech delivered on the second day of the conquest of Mecca, Saturday, Ramadan, 8 A.H.||38|
|13||The 13th Speech delivered after the conquest of Mecca when Usama ibn Zaid pleaded for excusing Fatimah of Banu Makhzum who commited a theft||41|
|14||The 14th Speech delivered in Shawwal, 8 A.H. when he reached (from Hunain) je'erranah||42|
|15||The 15th Speech delivered at Je'erranah when the Prophet distributed the booty obtained in the battle of Hunain among the Quraish and the tribes of Arabia, excluding the Ansar who got angry Dhi'qa'dah, 8 A.H.||42|
|16||The 16th Speech delivered at Je'erranah in 8 A.H. about the return of the properties and captives obtained in the battle of Hawazin, when they embraced Islam||45|
|17||The 17th Speech delivered in Rajab, 9 A.H. at the battlefield of Tabuk in Syria||47|
|18||The 18th Speech delivered when 'Adi ibn Hatim came first to the Prophet , 9 A.H.||51|
|19||The 19th Speech delivered at Madina in 9 A.H. after'Adi's embracing Islam,when a deputation of some hungry Madarites came to see the Prophet||51|
|20||The 20th Speech delivered at the time when a deputation of Banu Muntafiq came to the Prophet, 9 A.H.||54|
|21||The 21st Speech delivered in 9 or 10 A.H. when the Pilgrimage was declared obligatory||65|
|22||The 22nd Speech delivered in 9 A.H.(vide sirat-un-Nabi, Vol II, pp.71,72)||66|
|23||The 23rd Speech delivered in the beginning of 10 A.H. when his son Ibrahim died||69|
|24||The 24th Speech considered very important, was delivered during his Farewell Pilgrimage at 'Arafat, Thursday,9th Dhul-Hijjah, 10 A.H.||75|
|25||The 25th Speech was delivered at Mina during his Farewell Pilgrimage on Friday, 10th Dhul-Hijjah, 10 A.H.||82|
|26||The 26th Speech delivered at Mina during his Farewell Pilgrimage on 11th or 12th Dhul-Hijjah, 10 A.H.||86|
|27||The 27th Speech delivered at Khumm, on his way from Mecca to Madina 10 A.H.||89|
|28||The 28th Speech delivered on Monday 26th Safar, 11 A.H.||90|
|29||The 29th, his last oration , delivered during his illness,five days before his demise when reclining on the shoulders of 'Ali and Fadi, he came to the mosque and spoke from the first step of the pulpit Thursday, 8th Rabi-ul-Awwal,11 A.H.||91|
Item Code: NAI062 Author: M.Muhammad Ubaidul Akbar Cover: Hardcover Edition: 1994 Publisher: Kitab Bhavan ISBN: 8171510477 Language: Urdu Text with English Translation Size: 7.5 inch X 5 inch Pages: 104 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 185 gms
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