BooksBuddhistRole of ...

Role of Heretical Teachers in Making of the Buddha and His Teachings (As in Pali Nikayas and Chinese Agamas)

Description Read Full Description
About the Book The Buddha rose above the extreme positions of Brahmanism and Sramannism and propounded his middle way, law of karma and transmigration without permanent soul to migrate. He gave thus a new turn to the ethical and philosophical thinking of the time. Brahmanism upheld the efficacy of karma and transmigration and permanent soul that transmigrates with resultants of karma. On the other hand some heretical teachers of Sramanism denied the efficacy of karma and believed in d...
About the Book

The Buddha rose above the extreme positions of Brahmanism and Sramannism and propounded his middle way, law of karma and transmigration without permanent soul to migrate. He gave thus a new turn to the ethical and philosophical thinking of the time.

Brahmanism upheld the efficacy of karma and transmigration and permanent soul that transmigrates with resultants of karma. On the other hand some heretical teachers of Sramanism denied the efficacy of karma and believed in determinism. Another was materialist who denied after birth. Yet another laid excessive emphasis on rigorous penances and moral laws and presented a synthesized view of soul as both permanent and transient.

This study has gone a long way to analyze the text of heretical views and assess their role in making of the Buddha and his teachings and also show whatever differences there are in the text of Pali and of Chinese, are due to oral transmission of early scriptures. Inadvertently some portion of one's teachings went in name of other holding similar views.

About the Author

An alumnae of the University of Delhi, Dr Parmita Shekhar is a bright young scholar of Buddhism, interested particularly in comparative study on topics presented in the Pali and corresponding Chinese texts.

She did M.Phil and PhD from the Department of Buddhist Studies and the course of Post-Intensive Diploma in Chinese from the Dept. of Chinese. Before that she did B.A. (Hons) in Pali from Magadh Univ., Bodh Gaya and M.A. in Pali from the Institute for Study and Research in Pali and Buddhism, Nalanda.

As she has easy access to Pali and Chinese scriptures, her researches based on original Pali and Chinese materials give some new information on the divergences in the corresponding texts of early Buddhist teachings and new insight into the compilation of early Buddhist scriptures of different schools.

Preface

The present work is in fact a revised copy of the thesis submitted to the University of Delhi for Ph.D degree in 2003. Dr K.T.S.Sarao was on the chair of the Department of Buddhist Studies, when I proposed to work on this topic. On his good advice Dr R. K. Rana and Dr Bhikshti Satyapala agreed to supervise the work. At every step of this work they readily spared their valuable time to discuss things. Without their help the work would not have been in the form it is now going to be before the readers. The author owes to them sincerely her gratitude and indebtedness. Other teachers and colleagues at the Department also at times shared their knowledge and experience in formal writing and helped in preparing the drafts of the thesis. Her heartfelt thanks are due to them. It would be a great injustice if she fails to acknowledge help received from elsewhere in improving the thesis, literally and in methodology. She is profusely thankful. Taking it as an opportunity she fondly remembers and feels indebted to the members of her family who always encouraged her going for higher studies. Lastly her thanks to the press for taking it to the readers.

Introduction

The present work is designed to study the heretical views as the necessary antecedent condition in making of the Buddha, his teachings and his religious movement. The Pali term titthiya is an equivalent of heretic or heretical teacher and titthiyavada of heretical views. The Sanskrit term for titthiya is tirthika (pilgrim) and the Chinese term, wai dao (non-Buddhist). The meaning of heresy is given as "opinion or doctrine at variance with the orthodox or accepted doctrine, asp. of a church or religious system"' and heretic is given as "a professed believer who maintains religious opinions contrary to those accepted by his church or rejects doctrines prescribed by his church". It means that a heretic or heretical teacher beongs to the same circle and living within holds heterodox view.

There were six heretical views (titthiyavada/ wai dao jiao) propounded by six heretical teachers (wai dao liu shi). It was the early Buddhist scriptures, which called them and their views heretical because they were not of the Buddhist fold. But seen in the broader Indian context of the time they were not outsiders either.

In the 6th century B.C. when the Buddha as prince Siddhartha appeared, two religious currents were flowing side by side. One was of Brahmanism and the other was of Sramanism or Asceticism. Siddhartha was born and lived one third of his early life in the Brahmanic society. He came out of it and joined the Sramanic fold. He realized Bodhi and became Buddha. He framed his own teachings and preached them. With him came a sharp turn in the religio-philosophical thinking of the time. His approach was free from dogmatism, rational and scientific, and the goal of life was attainable through own efforts in this very life.

In the making of the Buddha and his teachings, Brahmanism and Sramanism both played important roles. Brahmanism literature is available to us to assess the role of Brahmanism. In fact he imbibed things of Brahmanism from his childhood. He retained some and discarded others. He gave a new meaning, new context to what he retained. He also did the same from Sramanism, but the Sramanism literature is scarcely available to assess its role. Information about heretical teachers of the Sramanism fold has to be gathered from the early Buddhist literature itself and some also from Jain literature.

Contents

Preface iii
Introduction v-x
Abbreviations xiii-xvi
Chapter I: 1-32
Deals with the volatile religio-philosop-hical, socio-political and economic condition of the time, emergence of such a towering personality of the Buddha, dynamism of his teachings and source materials concerning heretical teachers and their views  
Chapter II: 33-75
Makes assessment of life and doctrines of heretical teachers in broader context of Sramarjas-Brahmanas and place of their doctrines in sixty-two wrong views or metaphysical speculations of the time.  
Chapter III: 76-102
Studies the Chinese text side by side the Pali one noting down the differences and their overall impact on the heretical views discussed in the preceding chapter  
Chapter IV: 103-122
Critically analyses and knits together the heretical doctrines as a Sramanic stand against Brahmanism.  
Chapter V: 123-146
Presents an account of Buddha's teachings and impacts of heretics' way of life and doctrines on the development of his teachings.  
Chapter VI: Conclusion 147-152
Bibliography 153-161
Index 162-167

 





Item Code: NAP384 Author: Parmita Shekhar Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2012 Publisher: Eastern Book Linkers ISBN: 9788178542300 Language: English Size: 8.5 inch X 5.5 inch Pages: 183 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 355 gms
Price: $25.00
Viewed 203 times since 26th Dec, 2018
Based on your browsing history
Loading... Please wait

Items Related to Role of Heretical Teachers in Making of the Buddha and His Teachings... (Buddhist | Books)

प्राचीन भारत की सामाजिक एवं आर्थिक संस्थाएं: Social and Economic Institutions in The Pali Nikayas
The Chinese Madhyama Agama and the Pali Majjhima Nikaya
An Analytical Study Of Four Nikayas
Ten Suttas From Digha Nikaya (Long Discourses of the Buddha)
Life in Ancient India (As Depicted in The Digha-Nikaya): An Old Book
Buddhist Psychology (An Inquiry into the Analysis and Theory of Mind in Pali Literature)
Studies on Pali Commentaries
A Literary Appraisal of Pali Poetical Works (An Old and Rare Book)
Exegetical Literature In Pali: Origin and Development
Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge
Dictionary of Buddhist Doctrinal and Technical Terms
Sankhepatthajotani Visuddhimaggacullatika Sila Dhutanga: A Study of The First and Second Chapters of The Visuddhimagga and its Commentaries
STUDIES IN THE ORIGINS OF BUDDHISM
Mulamadhyamakakarika of Nagarjuna- The Philosophy of the Middle Way
The Dhammapada: A Collection of Verses
Testimonials
Kailash Raj’s art, as always, is marvelous. We are so grateful to you for allowing your team to do these special canvases for us. Rarely do we see this caliber of art in modern times. Kailash Ji has taken the Swaminaryan monks’ suggestions to heart and executed each one with accuracy and a spiritual touch.
Sadasivanathaswami, Hawaii
Good selections. and ease of ordering. Thank you
Kris, USA
Thank you for having books on such rare topics as Samudrika Vidya, keep up the good work of finding these treasures and making them available.
Tulsi, USA
Received awesome customer service from Raje. Thank You very much.
Victor, USA
Just wanted to let you know the books arrived on Friday February 22nd. I could not believe how quickly my order arrived, 4 days from India. Wow! Seeing the post mark, touching and smelling the books made me long for your country. Reminded me it is time to visit again. Thank you again.
Patricia, Canada
Thank you for beautiful, devotional pieces.
Ms. Shantida, USA
Received doll safely and gift pack was a pleasant surprise. Keep up the good job.
Vidya, India
Thank you very much. Such a beautiful selection! I am very pleased with my chosen piece. I love just looking at the picture. Praise Mother Kali! I'm excited to see it in person
Michael, USA
Hello! I just wanted to say that I received my statues of Krishna and Shiva Nataraja today, which I have been eagerly awaiting, and they are FANTASTIC! Thank you so much, I am so happy with them and the service you have provided. I am sure I will place more orders in the future!
Nick, USA
Excellent products and efficient delivery.
R. Maharaj, Trinidad and Tobago