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The Samksepasariraka of Sarvajnatman (An Old and Rare Book)

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Foreword   Dr N. Veezhinathan, Lecturer in Sanskrit at this Centre, worked as Research Scholar from 1960 to 1963 in the Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona, and wrote his doctoral thesis on the Samksepasariraka of Sarvajnatman. The thesis earned for him the Ph. D. Degree of the University of Poona in 1964. He joined this Centre as Lecturer, in 1964. My own observation of his thesis and the encomiums it has received from scholars who ...

Foreword

 

Dr N. Veezhinathan, Lecturer in Sanskrit at this Centre, worked as Research Scholar from 1960 to 1963 in the Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona, and wrote his doctoral thesis on the Samksepasariraka of Sarvajnatman. The thesis earned for him the Ph. D. Degree of the University of Poona in 1964. He joined this Centre as Lecturer, in 1964. My own observation of his thesis and the encomiums it has received from scholars who had occasion to see it made me feel that the thesis was a distinctively valuable contribution to scholarship in the field of Advaita and that its publication would do credit to any institution that sponsored it, more so to an institution like this Centre which has devoted itself to study and research in Advaita Vedanta for the past forty years. Accordingly, it was recommended for publication by this Centre, and, thanks to the publication grant made available by the University Grants Commission to the Centre and facilities provided by the University of Madras, it is now being published as No. 18 in the Madras University Philosophical Series.

 

The Samksepasariraka is an' important classic in the Advaita tradition, being a full metrical summary of the central teachings of Sri Sankara's Brahma-sutra-bhasya. The importance of the work for a student of Advaita is evident from the fact that it has eight commentaries, as Dr Veezhinathan has identified in his Introduction. The author of the work, Sarvajnatman, himself occupies a position of eminence in the line of preceptors following Sri Sankara, having been, according to tradition, ordained by the Bhagavatpada himself and nominated to succeed him and Suresvara in the central Sri Kamakoti-Pitha at Kanci.

 

The present work is a Critical Edition and English Translation of the classic, with a detailed Introduction, Notes, and Indexes. In the Introduction, Dr Veezhinathan discusses systematically the basic issues of Advaita Vedanta, such as Brahman, maya, adhyasa, jiva, Isvara, jagat, and moksa, and brings out the special contribution made by Sarvajnatman to the development of Advaita thought. The text has been definitively edited after collating several manuscripts. The translation is faithful and readable. The notes add to information and clarify subtle points. The four detailed Indexes render the edition highly useful to scholars.

 

I have great pleasure m commending this work to serious students of Advaita.

 

Preface

 

The present Critical Edition of the Samksepasariraka, a work on Advaita Vedanta, with Introduction, English Translation, Notes and Indexes, represents the research work completed under the guidance of the late Dr A. Sankaran, M.A., ph.d., Assistant Editor, Sanskrit Dictionary Department, and Honorary Professor of Sanskrit, Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona, for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of the University of Poona. The Samksepasariraka is a work of Sarvajnatman the disciple of Suresvaracarya ; it sets forth, in verses, the views of Sri Sankara as expounded i is bhasya on the Brahma-sutra. It contains 1240 verses and is divided into four Adhyayas.

 

The present thesis consists of three parts. The first part, the Introduction, again, is divided into two sections. In the first section, I discuss the life, date, and works of Sarvajnatman. In the second section, I discuss the basic doctrines of the Advaita Vedanta according to Sarvajnatman: (i) the Nature of the Ultimate Reality, (ii) Nescience (iii)(maya-avidya), (iii) Superimposition (adhyasa), (iv) the Individual soul and God (jiva and isvara), (v) the Phenomenal World (jagat), and (vi) Liberation (moksa). And, in the end, I have given an evaluation of Sarvajnatman's contribution to Advaita Vedanta. The second part presents the text with an English translation. Explanatory notes are added wherever necessary. In the notes are provided-the identification of the authors presupposed and references to the texts cited and implied. The third part consists of an alphabetical index of quotations, an index of the views of other authors referred to and implied in the text, an index of terms used in the text, and an index of the verses of the Samksepasariraka.

 

This edition of the Samksepasariraka of Sarvajnatman, who was a younger contemporary of Adi Sankaracarya and who, under the fostering care of his preceptor Suresvaracarya, adorned the great Kamakoti-pitha at Kanci as its head, I humbly dedicate to His Holiness Sri Candrasekharendra Sarasvati Sripujyapadah, the present head of that hoary Sankarite Institution at Kanci. All my activities in the pursuit of my study of Advaita and publications relating thereto have been possible only through the benign grace of His Holiness who remains ever for me as my inspiring Light and Guide. I offer my most respectful homage at the lotus-feet of His Holiness.

 

I offer my most respectful salutations to His Holiness Sri Anantanandendra Sarasvati Svami of the Upanisad-brahmendra Matha at Kanci for the inspiration and guidance I have always received at His feet.

 

To Dr S. M. Katre, the former Director of the Deccan College Post-graduate and Research Institute, Poona, I express my sincere gratitude for providing me with all facilities to carry on my research work there.

 

To the authorities of the University of Poona, I am thankful for permitting me to work for the doctorate degree of the University of Poona and also for granting me permission to publish the present thesis.

 

I express my sincere thanks to Brahmasri T.S. Srinivasa Sastri of the Dictionary Department, Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute, Poona, for suggesting to me this Advaita Classic for my thesis and for teaching me the text.

 

I express my deep sense of gratitude to my esteemed Professor the late Dr A. Sankaran for his kind guidance at every step.

 

To Dr T. M. P. Mahadevan, Director, Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy, University of Madras, I am now, as in the past, greatly indebted not only for recommending this work for publication under the auspices of the Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy, but also for kindly scrutinizing the entire typescript before it was sent to the press and for his kindness in having written a Foreword to this work. My obligations to him are indeed great.

 

To my friend and colleague Dr T. P. Ramachandran, I offer my grateful thanks for the encouragement he gave me at every stage in the printing of this work and for rendering valuable help in seeing the work through the press.

 

I am thankful to the authorities of the University of Madras for sanctioning the publication of this work under the auspices of the Centre for Advanced Study in Philosophy and to the University Grants Commission for the permission to utilize their grant.

 

I thank the Ramayana Printing Works for the care they have bestowed on the printing of this work.

 

Contents

 

Foreword

 

Preface

 

List of Abbreviations

 

Part One: Introduction

 

Sarvajnatman his life and date

1

His works

6

The nature of the Ultimate Reality

9

Nescience (maya -" avidya)

64

Superimposition (adhyasa)

84

The individual soul and God (jiva and Isvara)

101

The phenomenal world (jagat)

111

Liberation (moksa)

126

Conclusion

145

Part Two: Text, Translation, and Notes

 

FIRST ADHYAYA

 

Invocation

151

Result of inquiry

157

Avidya

159

The nature of the self

160

Superimposition

163

Brahman the object of inquiry

75

Qualifications of the aspirant

179

Instruction by the preceptor

191

(Doubts of the aspirant)

 

The self cannot be known through the Upanisads

193

Major texts do not give rise to immediate knowledge

207

Knowledge arising from Upanisads does not remove avidya

208

Anirvacaniyata a pseudo concept

210

Import of the Vedic texts is niyoga (Objections answered)

211

partite sense the import of the major texts

219

The self is secondarily signified

222

The primary senses of the terms satya, etc.

236

Identity of the secondary senses of the terms satya, etc.

240

Lordship not the essential nature of the self

243

Sequence through which the knowledge of the self arises

245

Words cannot primarily signify the self

265

Validity of the Upanisads in respect of the self

268

Niyoga is not the import of the Upanisads

316

Bhavana the import of the Vedic texts

336

Bhavana not the import of the Vedic texts

340

Knowledge cannot be enjoined

361

The import of the texts that convey the qualified self

367

Upanisads point to the existent entity

368

World the effect of a sentient being

382

Three kinds of definition

390

The definition of Brahman

392

SECOND ADHYAYA

 

Objection, Upanisadic teaching is stultified by perception, etc.

411

(Reply) Upanisadic teaching is not contradicted by perception, etc.

413

Definition of a proof

417

Distinction between real and indeterminable objects

420

Objection: Advaita view is identical with Vijnana-vada

421

(Reply) Distinction between Advaita and Vijnana -vada

422

Objection: waking and dream states are identical

424

(Reply) Distinction between the waking and dream states

424

Distinction between the real and indeterminable objects is possible only in Advaita

426

Perception does not reveal the reality

428

Basis for the acceptance of the parinam a-vada

434

Upanisads admit only the vivarta-vada

438

Refutation of the samghata-vada

439

Refutation of the arambha-vada

439

Method of refutation of the rival theories

442

Three points of view

444

Objection: three points of view relate to three types of aspirants

447

(Reply) The three points of view relate to only one aspirant

447

The maxim that the antecedent one is ineffective

456

The distinction of release and bond age according to the eka-jiva-vada

464

The self the locus of avidya

483

Difference between jiva and Isvara

485

Distinction between release and bondage

502

Indeterminable entity could convey the reality

505

Scope of the texts enjoining sacrifice, etc.

512

THIRD ADHYAYA

 

Means of the knowledge of the self

515

Transmigration

517

Means to liberation

536

Clarification of the senses of the terms tat and tvam

538

The secondary sense of the term tvam

539

The secondary sense of the term tat

579

Arambhavada, parinama; vada, and vivarta-vada

601

Status of scripture

620

The primary and secondary senses of the terms tat and tvam

633

Extent of the subsidiary Upanisadic texts

646

The proximate and the remote means of knowledge

652

Renunciation from activities a proximate means to moksa

667

FOURTH ADHYAYA

 

Question regarding the fruit of the knowledge of the self

669

The fruit of the knowledge of the self

670

Refutation of jnana-karma-samuccaya-vada

671

Nature of the removal of avidya

673

Liberation is identical with the self

680

The concept of jivanmukti

684

The path of manes and of gods not intended for the liberated soul

687

Karma-only a proximate means to knowledge

688

In praise of the knowledge of the self

689

Purpose of the composition of this treatise

693

Dedication to God

693

Part Three: Indexes

 

Index of quotations in the text

695

Index of the views of other authors referred to and implied in the text of the Samksepasariraka

698

Index of terms used in the text

699

Index of the verses of the Samksepasariraka

703

Bibliography

732

 

Sample Pages





















Item Code: NAJ970 Author: N. Veezhinathan Cover: Hardcover Edition: 1985 Publisher: University of Madras Language: Sanskrit Text With English Translation Size: 9.5 inch x 6.0 inch Pages: 750 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 950 gms
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