The Philosophical Systems (darsana) of India
In India one comes across six darsanas or orthodox system of philosophy: Vedanta or Uttara- Mimamsa, Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya and Vaisesika. These systems recognize the brahmanical or priestly tradition and are recognized by it.
Besides these orthodox systems, there are others, which are heterodox, such as the system of the carvakas, that of the Buddhists, etc. These systems do not recognize the brahminical or priestly tradition, and are rejected by it.
Each of the systems mentioned owns a basic text. There are commentaries and commentaries of commentaries or sub-commentaries for each of them. Generally, on account of its quality and ancientness, one of these commentaries succeeds in forming a unity with the text upon which it is commenting. It then acquires a great authority for interpretation of that text.
The yogasutras, the authorship of which is unanimously attributed by Indian tradition to Patanjali, constitute the basic text of the orthodox philosophical system of Yoga.
The Yogasutras are one of the most important works of Indian culture. This is so partly on account of their intrinsic worth as a masterly analysis of trance and as an equally masterly description of the method by which it is reached. Its importance derives also from its being the foundational text of Yoga, the system which plays a basic role in the culture of India. Indeed a knowledge of this system is necessary to understand the highly varied expressions of Indian culture, including those which like Buddhism, reject the orthodox brahminical tradition.
The Yogasutras do not give the impression of being a unitary text. Contradictions are found among different parts, and often the union of several sections seems contrived so that one may be inclined to think either that the Yogasutras are not an original work and are actually composed in their entirety of texts derived from a plurality of sources, texts juxtaposed and unified, in some way, by the compiler of the work, in the form in which we have them today, or that the original work was an object of more or less extensive interpolations, more or less in contradiction with the doctrine of the original. Unfortunately, it is impossible to express a firmly established opinion with regard to the form of the composition of the Yogasutras.
According to Indian tradition, Patanjali, the author of the great commentary of the grammatical aphorisms of Panini (4th century B.C.)who lived in second century B.C., would also be the author of the Yogasutras. But the more widely held view nowadays is that there are two Patanjalis- one the grammarian and the other the yogin, author of the Yogasutras- and that Patanjali the Yogin lived between 300and 500 A.D.
Indian as well as Western scholars generally consider that Patanjali was not the creator of Yoga, which had existed well before him. Patanjali had only restricted himself to writing a systematic exposition of it. Moreover, it is also considered that Patanjali was not the first author who wrote about Yoga. Others did so before him. He used their works in the composition of his treatise. But, as it often happens, his text caused the others to be forgotten and became itself the classic and basic text of the system.
It behaves us to make a few remarks regarding the opinions referred to in the preceding paragraphs.
In view of the results obtained by philological criticism, it seems that it is not possible to conclude that the Yogasutras would have been written by Patanjali the Grammarian, as the Indian tradition would have it. But there exists a solid reason to think that the author of the Yogasutras, in conformity with Western criticism, was another author also called Patanjali. Although it is certainly possible that the Yogasutras would have been composed by a second Patanjali of the period between 300 and 500 A.D., and that subsequently the Indian tradition identified this second Patanjali with Patanjali the Grammanrian of the second century B.C., in a agreement with the opinions of the Western critics, likewise it is certainly equally possible that the Yogasutras would have been composed by an author whose name is not known and they would have later been attributed, by Indian tradition, to Patanjali the Grammarian. There would be nothing strange in this view as in India the works of forgotten or second-rate authors are not infrequently attributed to authors of the first rank.
On the other hand, if the Yogasutras are held to be works of compilation, then Patanjali (or the unknown author) would not be the author. He would only be the compiler of the Yogasutras. And if we accept that the Yogasutras contain many interpolations, then Patanjali (or the unknown author) would be the author of the central nucleus, to the exclusion of the interpolation or, it could be the opposite: Patanjali would be in author of the interpolations, with the corresponding central nucleus attributed to another equally anonymous author.
Nevertheless, without the prejudice of the fare going and in the absence of elements of a judgment which can help elucidate with absolute certainly the questions raised in the preceding paragraphs, we shall continue to abide by the established practice and continue to call Patanjali the author of the Yogasutras and we shall consider him as the author of the entire text.
The contents of the Yogasutras
The Yogasutras comprise four books with the following titles: 1. Of Samadhi (concentration of mind); 2. Of Sadhana (method); 3. Of the Siddhis (Magic powers); and 4. Of Kaivalya (isolation of the spirit). They consist of a totality of 195 sutras, or brief aphorisms.
The elements go into the constitutions of the Yogasutras:
1. An experiential element made up of (a) the method which produces the Samadhi, by means of which the complete and absolute cittavrtti-nirodha (cessation of thought process)will in its turn be attained, and (b) the process which occurs in the mind while this cessation in being produced.
2. A supernatural element made up of the siddhis acquired by the yogin in the course of his practices, but which do not constitute his ultimate goal.
3. A speculative element constituted by the Samkhya doctrine, the philosophical foundation of the yoga of Patanjali and which comes through in many of the aphorisms of the Yogasutras. The Restraint of the Mental Process and the Method by which it is Attained.
The total and absolute restraint of the mental functions constitutes the yogic trances. With this restraint the mind empties itself of all contents, it becomes still in a complete quietude. The senses then do not receive the message coming from the external world, the faculties stop functioning, the conceptualizing activity comes to a halt.
The main aspects of the yogic method which produces the cessation of the mental functions or the trance are the following. At the outset the yogin must of necessity submit himself to an ascetic discipline (tapas) which weakens or annihilates his natural impulses; he must free himself from all attachment and destroy in himself all desire, all craving for and interest in things (vairagya). Besides this, the yogin shall practice breath control (pranayama). With the exercise of breath control he determines the number of inhaling and exhaling, their duration as well as the duration of holding air in the lungs, the volume of air inhaled. All this is done for the purpose of reducing the function of breathing to the minimum possible. The reduction of air received by the organism will necessarily affect reduction of air received by the organism will necessarily affect the brain and will result in the reduction of mental activity, both in volume and intensity, and also in the diminishing of the vital manifestations to the minimum (circulation of blood, sensibility etc.) leading the yogin into a cataleptic comatose state, close to extinction. It is a state which has been compared to the hibernation of certain animals. This enables the yogins to remain buried for many hours with a reduced volumes of air?
Finally, the yogin will concentrate his mind on a determined entity. For example, he will fix his sight and his attention on a luminous point. The mental function or process made up of this intensified perception will eliminate little by little all the other processes. The more intense the concentration, the greater the restraint of the mental functions. When the concentration has reached its highest stage. Then the yogin enters what is called the trance. We believe that the yogic trances, as any other mystical trance, is a sui generis phenomenon, although similar and related in many of its aspects to hypnotism, to catalepsy, and to hysteria.
**Contents and Sample Pages**
Item Code: NAU169 Author: Fernando Tola and Carmen Dragonetti Cover: HARDCOVER Edition: 2016 Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN: 9788120802582 Language: ENGLISH Size: 9.00 X 6.00 inch Pages: 230 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 0.43 Kg
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