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Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Nyaya-Vaisesika Philosophy from 1515 to 1660 (Volume XIII)

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From the Jacket In this Volume the history of Nyaya-Vaisesika is resumed from Volume Six of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Series and brought up to the time of Gadadhara (ca. 1660). This is the period of the great subcommentators (Jagadisa, Mathuranatha, Gadadhara) on Raghunatha Siromani’s Tattva-cintamanididhiti, the culmination of some of the most intricate philosophical analysis the world has ever known. Prof. Sibajiban Bhattacharyya has in his extensive Introduction pr...
From the Jacket

In this Volume the history of Nyaya-Vaisesika is resumed from Volume Six of the Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies Series and brought up to the time of Gadadhara (ca. 1660). This is the period of the great subcommentators (Jagadisa, Mathuranatha, Gadadhara) on Raghunatha Siromani’s Tattva-cintamanididhiti, the culmination of some of the most intricate philosophical analysis the world has ever known. Prof. Sibajiban Bhattacharyya has in his extensive Introduction provided a thorough explanation of the basic style and content of these sub-commentators, along with a readable account of many of the main topics discussed in these works. His Introduction is followed by analyses of some of the chapters of these subcommentaries, provided by those few Indian scholars of recent times able to command the difficulties their interpretation poses. These summaries can be consulted for an initial acquaintance with the topics covered, free from the intricacies of the subcommentaries.

Karl H. Potter is retired Professor of Philosophy and South Asian Studies at the University of Washington, and is General Editor of the Present series, which attempts to summarily present the though of all the great philosophical systems of India.

Sibajiban Bhattacharyya was Professor at North Bengal University and then as Acharya B.N. Seal Professor of Mental and Moral Sciences at the University of Calcutta, where he remained until his retirement in 1988. During this period he also taught as Visiting Professor at the Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand and at the University of Washington in Seattle, U.S.A. He was Director of the Institute of Universal and Spiritual Values of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta (1986-88) and lectured regularly at the Ramakrishna Mission Institute, Gol Park, Calcutta (1987-1994). During these periods he received many laurels, among them General President of the Indian Philosophical Congress in 1987. He gave. Memorial Lectureships at various Indian universities between 1977 and 1993.

 

In Memoriam: Sibajiban Bhattacharyya

It is my sad duty to have to write this memorial to my old and good friend Sibajiban Bhattacharyya. Born in 1926, and having won many medals and honors during his schooling in and around Calcutta, he gained his first appointment in 1949 at Saugar University, moving to Burdwan, near Calcutta, in 1962, where he stayed until 1973. By that time, having gained renown as an exceptional scholar, and having published a number of articles in respected journals, both Indian and Western, he spent several years as Professor of Philosophy at the Centre (or Institute) of Advanced Studies in Simla. He finally arrived for good back in Calcutta, first as Professor at North Bengal University and then as Acharya B. N. Seal Professor of Mental and Moral Sciences at the Universe of Calcutta, where he remained until his retirement in 1988. During this period he also taught as Visiting Professor at the Victoria University in Wellington, New Zealand and at the University of Washington in Seattle, U.S.A. He was Director of the Institute of Universal and Spiritual Values of the Asiatic Society in Calcutta (1986-88) and lectured regularly at the Ramakrishna Mission Institute, Gol Park, Calcutta (1987-1994). Even after retirement he continued teaching and writing at several of the above-mentioned centers of higher education. During these periods he received many laurels, among them General President of the Indian Philosophical Congress in 1987. He gave Memorial Lectureships at various Indian universities between 1977 and 1993.

His major publications are listed below. Though his central Concern became classical Indian philosophy, especially the Navya-Nyaya, he was a keen student of Anglo-American philosophical analysis, as will be evident not only from the references in the Introduction to the present volume that follows, but also from the many articles he published in major Western philosophical journals such as Mind, Analysis, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, and the Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic. And of course it must be mentioned that he collaborated in the preparation and production of Volume Six of this Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. To me he remains a life-long colleague in our chosen field of specialization. Sibajiban and I must have first met at a philosophical meeting some time in the 1950s, quite possibly one hosted in 1953 by the Maharaja of Mysore, But my first clear memory of him stems from a visit my wife and I made to Saugar in 1958, where another old and recently departed friends, Daya Krishna, was also teaching at that time. After that I visited Sibajiban a number of times in Calcutta, being warmly received and fed in the Bhattacharyya’s home by Sibajiban and his wife Arati. But the strongest memories my wife and I have are of the family’s visit to Seattle in 1981, where Mr. And Mrs. Bhattacharyya were accompanied by their own right. Sheuli is now teaching at Manipal University in Karnataka, while Shyamasree is on the Philosophy faculty at the Alipur campus of the University of Calcutta. I recently learned that Mrs. Bhattacharyya passed away in early 2008.

In closing, I wish to express my thankfulness at having had such a wise and caring friend and colleague as Sibajiban. He was always generous in his participation in our scholarly ventures. My life and work have been infinitely enriched by his participation, for which I am forever grateful.

 

Content

 

  List of Contributors 5
  In Memoriam: Sibajiban Bhattacharyya 21
  Abbreviations 31
  Part One: Introduction (Sibajiban Bhattacharyya) 3
I. Metaphysics 35
  A. Substance in General 35
  B. The Individual Self 36
  C. Body 38
  D. Space and Time 40
  E. Relation 41
  F. The Concept of Cause 45
  G. Theory of Causation 48
  H. Theory of Universals 54
  (1) Technique of Forming Abstracts 56
  (2) Abstracts of Compound Words 61
  (3) Higher Order Abstracts 62
  J. Theory of Definition 67
  (1) The First Type of Definition 69
  (2) The Second Type of Definition 76
  (3) Relation between Two Types of Defining Marks 77
  (4) Some Special Features of Navya-Nyaya Theory 79
  (5) The Technique of Expressing Universality 83
  K. Some Terms of the Technical Language of Navya-Nyaya 86
  (1) Introduction 86
  (2) The Navya-Nyaya Theory 88
  (3) The Navya-Nyaya Technique 89
  (4) The Concept of Limiter 90
II. Epistemology 102
  A. Cognition 102
  B. Nature of Cognition 106
  C. Duration of Cognitive Mental States 107
  (1) Three Moments of a Cognitive Act 107
  (2) Relation between an Act and a Disposition 108
  (3) Relation between Acts 109
  (a) Psychological Relations 109
  (b) Epistemic Relations 110
  D. Classification of Cognitions 115
  E. Some Ontological Remarks 116
  (1) Collective and Abstract Terms 116
  (2) Adjectives 117
  (3) Kinds of Perception 119
  (a) Construction-Free Perception 119
  (b) Construction-Filled Perception 120
  (c) Special Perception 122
  (d) Cognition of Qualified Qualification 126
III. Theory of Inference 129
  A. Structure of Inference 132
  B. Pervasion 136
  (1) Pervasion and Generalization 136
  (2) The Possibility of the Psychological Process of Generalization 137
  (a) The Purva-Mimamsa Theory 137
  (b) The Navya-Nyaya Theory 138
  (c) The Navya-Nyaya Theory of Tarka 139
  (d) The Carvaka Theory 143
  (e) Cognition by Comparison (upamiti) 144
IV. Some Aspects of the Navya-Nyaya Theory of Language 145
  A. Concept of Language 145
  B. Navya-Nyaya Theory of Language 148
  C. Sanskrit as the Object Language 149
  D. Divine Origin of Language 151
  E. Theories of Language-Learning and Theories of Meaning 153
  F. Language as Means of Communication 153
  G. Ontology of Spoken Sentences 154
  H. An Ontological Problem Concerning Meaning 157
  I. The Navya-Nyaya Theory of Meaning 160
  J. The Navya-Nyaya Theory of Word-Meaning 161
  K. The Import of Sentences 164
  L. Cognition of Sentence-Meaning 165
  M. Jagadisa’s Theory of Words Occuring in a Sentence 169
  N. Gadadhara’s Theory of Word-Meanings 170
  O. Gadadhara’s Theory of Anaphora 173
  Part Two: Summaries of Works (Arranged Chronologically) 179
  1. Madhava Sarasvati (1515) 181
  2. (Pundarikaksa) Vidyasagara (1520) 185
  3. Damodara Thakkura (1520) 186
  4. Kesava Misra Tarkacarya (1525) 186
  5. Visvakarman (1525) 187
  6. Narayana Bhatta (1530) 192
  7. Haridasa Nyayalamkara Bhattacarya 192
  8. Balabhadra Misra (1530) 194
  9. Raghupati Misra (1535) 196
  10. Bhagiratha or Megha Thakkura 196
  11. Devanatha Thakkura Tarkapancanana (1540) 207
  12. Janakinatha Cudamani Bhattacarya (1540) 208
  13. Madhava Bhatta (Somayajin) (1540) 217
  14. Mahesa Thakkura (1545) 217
  15. Madhusudana Thakkura (1545) 217
  16. Durgadatta Misra (1550) 218
  17. Madhava Misra (1550) 218
  18. Vamesvara or Vamadhvaja (1550) 219
  19. Krsnamisra (1550) 220
  20. Candisvara (1550) 222
  21. Kanada Tarkavagisa (1560) 222
  22. (Vacaka) Gunaratna (1570) 224
  23. Ramakrsna Bhattacarya Cakravartin (1570) 225
  24. Rajacudamani Diksita (1570) 226
  25. Krsnadasa Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya (1570) 230
  26. Raghava Pancanana (1570) 268
  27. Ananta Bhatta (1570) 269
  28. Ramabhadra Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya (1570) 269
  29. Visvanatha Tirtha (1570) 275
  30. Bhaskara (1570) 275
  31. Padmanabha Misra (1578) 276
  32. Govardhana Misra (1580) 291
  33. Madhava Misra (1590) 294
  34. Gunananda Vidyavagisa Bhattacharya (1590) 294
  35. Gopinatha Thakkura (1590) 297
  36. Yallayarya (1590) 298
  37. Bhavanada Siddhantavagisa (1600) 299
  38. Vidyanivasa Bhattacarya (1600) 301
  39. Kesava Bhatta (1600) 301
  40. Yadavacarya (1600) 303
  41. Krsnadeva Sanmisra (1605) 307
  42. Subhavijaya Gani (1607) 308
  43. Visvanatha (1610) 308
  44. (Bhava) Ganesa Diksita (1610) 309
  45. Dharmarajadhvarindra (1615) 309
  46. Annambhatta (1620) 310
  47. Rama Tarkalamkara (1620) 340
  48. Kaundinya Diksita (1620) 341
  49. Jayarama Nyayapancanana (1620) 341
  50. Rudra Nyayavacaspati Tarkavagisa (1625) 343
  51. Jagadisa (Misra) Bhattacarya (1630) 344
  52. Agnihotra Bhatta (1630) 390
  53. Ramanuja Diksita (1630) 390
  54. Harirama Tarkavagisa (1635) 390
  55. Visvanatha Nyayasiddhanta Pancanana (1635) 419
  56. Gaurikanta Sarvabhanuma Bhattacharya (1635) 420
  57. Kaunda Bhatta (1640) 424
  58. Pedda Diksita (1645) 425
  59. Murari Bhatta (1645) 426
  60. Ramakrsna Adhvarindra (1650) 426
  61. Bhavadeva (1650) 430
  62. Gopinatha Maunin (1650) 431
  63. Mathuranatha Tarkavagisa (1650) 432
  64. Govindachandra Bhattacharya (Cakravartin) (1655) 488
  65. Raghudeva Nyayalamkara Bhattacarya (1657) 489
  66. Prahlada Krsnacarya (1660) 501
  67. Author Unknown (1660) 502
  68. Raghunatha (1660) 503
  69. Srikantha Diksita (1660) 504
  70. Gadadhara Bhattacharya Cakravartin (1660) 504
  Book One: Perception 507
  Book Two: Inference 508
  Book Three: Comparison 532
  Book Four: Verbal Testimony 532
  Glossary - Index 591

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Item Code: NAC234 Author: Sibajiban BhattacharyyaKarl H. Potter Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2011 Publisher: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Pvt. Ltd ISBN: 9788120835122 Size: 9.9 Inch X 6.6 Inch Pages: 658 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 1.08 Kg
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