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The Greeks in India (A Survey in Philosophical Understanding)

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  About the Book: This book relates to the history of the ideological presence of the Greeks in India. Unlike the previous works, which have been focused on particular historical periods, the present study aims to present the literary and religio-philosophic character of the Greek in India as they interact with the Indians and the Indian culture from the earliest times to the present. It includes prehistoric, mythical and the first historically attested accounts of contact, a cri...

 

About the Book:

This book relates to the history of the ideological presence of the Greeks in India. Unlike the previous works, which have been focused on particular historical periods, the present study aims to present the literary and religio-philosophic character of the Greek in India as they interact with the Indians and the Indian culture from the earliest times to the present. It includes prehistoric, mythical and the first historically attested accounts of contact, a critical review of the Oriental Origin theory and travels of the Greek philosophers who are commonly thought to have visited to have been influenced by India, the meeting of Alexander with the Indian Gymnosophists, the inter-religious contacts that took place between the two peoples during the reign of the Indo-Greek kingdoms in Bactria and the Medieval Ages, and a critical study of the identity of the Yavanas as they occur in Indian texts and inscriptions. The book provides further information on the life and work of the first and foremost Greek Indologist studies in Greece, and reviews on the works made by contemporary Greek scholars and diplomatic representatives in India.

Aout the Author

Dr. Demetrios Theodossios Vassiliades was born in the North Aegean Island of Thassos (Greece). He began his studies in Indian Philosophy while a student at the Athens School of Economics and the Business Science (ASOEE). After his graduation he came to India where he decided two decades in the study of Indian languages and philosophies. Initially he studied for five years at the Bihar School of Yoga, Munger and later at the Banaras Hindu University. He has been awarded first class diplomas in Hindi, Sanskrit and Yoga, a gold medal distinction for his M.A. in Indian Philosophy and Religion and a Ph.D degree for his dissertation, "A Critical and Comparative Study of the Prehistoric Greek and Ancient Indian Philosophies."

Jacket Illustration:
Demetrios Galanos, oil painting by Spyros Prosalentis.
Courtesy: University of Athens.

 

Foreword

The present monograph, entitled The Greeks in India: A Survey in Philosophical Understanding, is the natural outcome of Dr.Demetrios Th. Vassiliades' long and sincere endeavour in Indian and Indo-Greek studies through which he succeeded in developing a competency in Indian histories, philosophies, and languages, qualifications absolutely necessary for the masterly of the complexity of the subject. The author has, in this informative treatise, systematically critically document Greek and Indian sources and brought to light many new perspectives and insights which enrich our understanding in regard to the history of the ideological presence of the Greeks in India as well as the interconnection between Hellenic, Indian, and Christian thought.

After reading Vassiliades' work, I am convinced that the Greeks in India, whose significance has been rather neglected in the past by both Western and Indian scholars, shall be recognized in the future as pioneers in the formative stages of the global family's advancement.

The West is understandably proud of Alexander's success in bridging the geographical distances that divided the East and the West for millennia. India has, however, to a greater extent focused its attention upon the contribution of the great scholars, such as Ctesias, Megasthenes, Apollonios of Tyana, Galanos, and numerous others less known and as yet unknown ancient and contemporary Greeks. India recognized them for bridging cultural differences and for their valuable contribution to the history of its ideas and culture.

Although I disagree with my Greek student on certain points, especially in his interpretation of the connection between Christian and Indian thought, yet I have no hesitation in recommending this book as most beneficial to scholars who are working in Indo-Greek Studies and to all those who are interested in the history of philosophy and religion in general.

 

PREFACE

While working on the completion of my Ph.D.thesis,"A Critical and Comparative Study of the Presocratic Greek and Ancient Indian Philosophies," at the Banaras Hindu University (B.H.U.) I planned to include an appendix on the ideological contacts between the Hellenic and Indian worlds in pre-Alexandrian times. Working on such a fascinating subject one is easily caught up in the zeal of research, and I found myself with a collection of important material beyond the scope of the limited chronological area of my work. I therefore decided to prepare a concise survey of the history of the ideological presence of the Greeks in India, which, along with some plates and maps, are presented here for the benefit of anyone interested in Journeying into this subject.

The book consists of the research papers and four appendices, which cover the entire area from the earliest times to the present. The first paper deals with the pre-Alexandrian era and includes prehistoric, mythical and the first historically attested account of contact. The second begins with the arrival of Alexander to India and ends with the interreligious contacts that took places between the two nations during the Medieval Ages. The third paper is a critical study of the identity of the Yavanas (supposed Greeks) as they occur in Indian texts and inscriptions from the Vedic king Turvasu up to the Turks. The fourth is short descriptions of the life and work of the first and foremost Greek Indologist Demetrios Galanos, who spent forty years of his life in Varanasi and contributed enormously to the promotion of Sanskrit literature and lexicography. The final paper includes a brief record of Indological studies in Greece and reviews of the works made by contemporary Greek scholars and diplomatic representatives, who researched and / or published book in India.

The first appendix incorporates information on the travels of the Greek philosophers who are commonly thought to have visited or to have been influenced by India, their philosophical doctrines and counterparts in Indian philosophy. The second is a review of the Oriental Origin theory. Third is a critical study of the views about the Brahmanas and Sramanas which appear in early Greek and Indian literature. Lastly, the fourth appendix incorporates reviews of the Ph.D. theses submitted by Greek scholars to Indian universities. A detailed comparative chronological chart, at the end of the book, lists the most important dates in the Greek and Indian histories.

As the topic is extremely vast, I was obliged to omit detailed accounts of historical and anthropological interest and to purse mainly topics of philosophical and religious significance. Some general social problems, and attitudes have also been briefly mentioned. A broader study would have also included research in scientific fields, especially in mathematics, music astronomy, medicine, and biology, but to the lack of time and evidence the present work had to be limited.

All facts are taken from Greek and Indian texts as well as from the fields of linguistics, archaeology and numismatics. In the footnotes are listed bibliographical details of books that I have consulted and my acknowledgement to their authors. The transliteration from Sanskrit is in accordance with internationally accepted characters, except for those terms and names for which there is a commonly accepted and simplified spelling. Though the English spelling of Greek names is often incorrect (e.g., Basileus instead of Vasileus, Boeotia instead of Voitia, Homer instead of Homeros Aristotle instead of Aristoteles, etc.), I was obliged to maintain it, because most readers are familiar with it. However, I tried to avoid manipulation of this problem and modern or less known Greek names are written with their Greek pronunciation. Also Greek names ending in -os maintain the Greek pronunciation (e.g., Olympus instead of Olympus, Demetrius instead of Demetrius, etc.).A few other terms such as Far-East, East and West, Orient, theologian, etc., as well as the use of the Christian calendar are based on relative points of view, but as they have been accepted by most scholars, I made conventional use of them.

 

CONTENTS

Foreword
Preface
Illustrations
Maps
Abbreviations

 

CHAPTER 1

The Pre-Alexandrian Age

    The Prehistoric Civilisations
    Greece and the Orient
    Indo-Iranians, Indo-Aryans and Indian Aborigines
    Greek and Vedic Gods
    The Proto-Indo-Europeans
    Mythical Contacts
    First Historical Contacts
CHAPTER 2

The Post-Alexandrian Age

    Alexander and the Indian Gymnosophists
    Megasthenes and Indian Religions
    The Greeks in the Mauryan Empire
    Greeks and Buddhism
    Greeks and Hinduism
    The Indians and the Greek Religion
    After the Fall of Bactria
    Early Travels to India
    Other Travellers
    Some References to Indian Religions in Early Greek Literature
    The Meeting of Religions
CHAPTER 3

Who Were the Yavanas?

    The Problem of Definition
    Traditional Views about the Origin and Social Status of Yavanas
    Yonas, Yavanas and other Greeks
    The Yavana Invasion
    Yavanas in the Pauranic Literature
    Later Historical References
    Yavanacarya and Yavanika
    The Mohammedan Invasions
CHAPTER 4

Demetrios Galanos (1760-1833)

    The First Years
    Galanos in India
    Galanos' Work
    Works on Galanos
CHAPTER 5

Contemporary Greeks in India

    The Greek Community in Bengal
    Two Eminent Ladies
    Indological Studies in Greece
    Greek Scholars in India
    The Descendants of Megasthenes
    Greek Culture in India

 

APPENDIX 1

Greek Philosophers and India

 

APPENDIX 2

The Oriental Origin Theory

 

APPENDIX 3

Sramanas and Brahmanas in Greek and Indian Literature

 

APPENDIX 4

Philosophical Review

A Comparative Chronological Chart

Index

Sample Pages




Item Code: IDD818 Author: Demetrios Th. Vassiliades Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2000 Publisher: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN: 8121509211 Language: English Size: 9.8" X 6.5" Pages: 277 (B & W Illus: 56) Other Details: Weight of book .680 gms
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