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Lothal: A Harappan Port Town 1955-62 (Set of 2 Volumes )

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Volume I   Preface The delay in publishing the report on the excavations at Lothal which was ready in 1965 is due to certain technical difficulties, but I must add that this delay has enabled me to include a Chapter on the decipherment of the Indus Script. A more comprehensive work on the subject is in the press. The present report is divided into two volumes. Volume I deals with the discovery of Lothal, the cuttings, stratigraphy, structures and cemetery. An attempt has ...
Volume I

 

Preface

The delay in publishing the report on the excavations at Lothal which was ready in 1965 is due to certain technical difficulties, but I must add that this delay has enabled me to include a Chapter on the decipherment of the Indus Script. A more comprehensive work on the subject is in the press.

The present report is divided into two volumes. Volume I deals with the discovery of Lothal, the cuttings, stratigraphy, structures and cemetery. An attempt has also been made in this volume to throw some light on the religion and social life of the Harappans and their relation with the neighbouring countries. The observations made in Chapter XIV on the origin and authors of the Harappa Civilization are bound to be tentative but I can derive some satisfaction from the fact that the latest evidence available on the subject from the excavations of Harappan sites in India and Pakistan has been taken note of.

I hope the reader will not have to wait more than a few months for the release of Volume II which contains technical reports of the Chief Archaeological Chemist, Anthropologist, Zoologist and Botanist and also the description of individual portable finds.

I must express my gratitude to Shri M. N. Deshpande, Director General and Shri B. K. Thapar, Additional Director General, Archaeological Survey of India for expediting the publication of this Volume and to Shri B. D. Sen, Managing Director, Naba Mudran (Pvt) Ltd, Calcutta for excellent printing.

 

Volume II

 

Preface

The second volume of the report on the excavations at Lothal-A Harappan Port Town was ready in 1966 along with the first volume which was published as Memoir No. 78 of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1979, but owing to circumstances beyond author's control, the publication of the second volume has been delayed. Anyway it is gratifying to find that this volume has now seen the light of the day.

Normally excavation reports are not indexed, but an exception has been made in this case by providing a short index to both the volumes to facilitate reference to important subjects and sites. Appendixes I and II have been added for updating the information on Indus civilization. A list of Harappan and Late Harappan sites has been given in Appendix III.

I am obliged to Prof. S. S. Sarkar, Dr. B. B. Lal, Dr. K. Ramesh Rao and Krishna Lal, Shri Bhola Nath and Shri V. K. Chari for contributing appropriate technical reports.

My thanks are due to Dr. M. S. Nagaraja Rao, Director General, Dr. H. Sarkar, Joint Director General and Shri K. N. Dikshit, Director, Archaeological Survey of India for bringing out the volume. I am particularly grateful to Shri S. R. Varma, Administrative Officer (Publications) who took great pains at every step to expedite the printing of the book. His long experience in getting technical reports printed has improved the quality of the illustrations which would have otherwise suffered owing to the long interval of almost 20 years between the preparation of halftone blocks and actual printing.

I must express my gratitude to Shri T. K. Sen of Naba Mudran (Pvt.) Ltd, Calcutta for full co-operation and excellent printing.

I am obliged to Sarvasri K. M. Srivastava, Suraj Bhan Chaudhary, Udai Vir Singh, T. S. Iyengar, K. D. Tripathi and S. N. Raghunath for assisting me in preparation of technical reports on pottery, metal, shell, bone, ivory and faience objects. My thanks are also due to Sarvasri Lalit Kumar jain, V. M. joseph, M. j. Vyas, B. P. Saxena and jassu Ram for the line drawings and to Sarvasri M. B. Limaye, S. N. Shah, V. M. Date and Pramod Singh for photographs of antiquities.

 

Contents

 

Volume I

 

Chapter I Introduction 1
1 Physical features 1
2 Tradition 1
3 Prehistory 11
4 Discovery of Lothal 12
5 Further exploration 14
6 Acknowledgements 15
Chapter II The Site and the Problems 18
1 The Site 18
2 The Mound 20
3 History of excavations 21
4 The Problems 22
Chapter III Cultural Sequence 24
1 Introduction 24
2 Period A 28
  Period B 33
Chapter IV Chronology 37
1 Conventional date of Harappa Civilization 37
2 Lothal Rojdi 37
3 Rojdi 45
4 Revised date of Rangpur 45
5 Ahar 46
Chapter V The Cuttings 47
1 SRG 1 47
2 SRG 2 47
3 SRG 3 50
4 Other Cuttings 50
Chapter VII Stratigraphy 53
1 General 53
2 Section looking east 54
3 Section looking south 62
4 Section connecting cemetary with habitation area 68
Chapter VII Structural Remains 71
1 Introduction 71
2 Town Planning 85
3 Block 'A' 88
4 Block 'B' 100
5 Block 'C' (warehouse) 111
6 Block 'D' 115
7 Block 'E' 115
8 Block 'F' 117
9 Block 'G' 120
10 The Dock 123
Chapter VIII The Cemetary 137
1 Locations 137
2 Burials and structural phases 138
3 Strata 138
4 Burial practices 140
5 Grave goods 143
6 Sex and age 144
7 Chopping marks 145
8 Trephination 145
9 Date of the burials 146
10 Ethnic affinities 146
11 Observational report on the skeleton in their in situ position 147
Chapter IX Decipherent of the Indus Script 170
Chapter X The Harappan Religions  
1 Introduction  
2 Cults  
3 Funerary practices  
4 Knowledge of rice and horse  
5 Conclusion  
Chapter XI Trade and Transport 221
1 Merchandise 221
2 Organisation of trade 222
3 Mechanisms of long distance trade 224
4 Transport 225
Chapter XII Social Aspects 227
Chapter XIII Lothal and Mesopotamia 230
1 Evidence of trade contacts 232
2 Cultural contacts 237
Chapter XIV Conclusion 239
1 Origin of the Harappa Civilization 239
2 Authors of the Harappa Civilization 246
3 End of the Harappa Civilization 251
  Postscript  
1 Harappan script a mixed writing 261
2 Morphic structure 262
3 Indus and Semitic scripts 263
4 Problems of reconstruction of the Harappan language 264
5 Explanation of Figure 36E 265
6 Transcription and transliteration of inscription (plates CXXV-CXXVII) 267

 

Volume II

 

Chapter XV Human Skeleton Remains from Lothal  
1 Introduction 269
2 Condition of the bones 269
3 The Skeletons 270
4 Population 274
5 The Crania 274
6 Ethnic Affinities 289
7 Some Special Features 295
8 List of Lothal Skeletal remains 297
9 References 304
Chapter XVI Seals and Sealing  
1 Introductory 305
2 Seals 306
3 Sealings 319
4 Motifs 322
5 Indus Signs 323
Chapter XVII The Pottery  
1 Introductory 334
2 Main ceramic types 337
3 Painting 344
4 Pottery of Period A 351
5 Period B 418
6 Burial Pottery 452
7 Pottery of foreign origin 454
8 Miniature vessels 456
9 Graffitti 458
10 Report on pottery from Lothal 461
Chapter XVIII Terracotta Objects  
1 Introductory 475
2 Human Figurines 476
3 Animal Figures 481
4 Tools and Instruments 497
5 Household Objects 502
6 Gamesmen and Toys 502
7 Personal Ornaments 514
8 Other Terracotta Objects 517
Chapter XIX Copper and Bronze Object  
1 Introductory 520
2 Technique 520
3 Source 524
4 Tools and Weapons 529
5 Personal Ornaments 533
6 Animal Figurines 534
7 Miscellaneous Objects 535
Chapter XX Stone Objects  
1 Introductory 555
2 Objects of Domestic Use 555
3 Tools and Weapons 556
4 Weights 560
5 Stone Anchors 565
Chapter XXI Beads  
1 Introductory 580
2 Matrial 583
Chapter XXII Other Finds  
1 Faience Objects 609
2 Steatite Objects 612
3 Shell Objects 614
4 Bone Objects 624
5 Ivory Objects 626
6 Gold Objects 632
Chapter XXIII Animal Remains from Lothal Excavations  
1 Introduction 636
2 Systematic Account of animal remains 637
3 References 648
4 Explanation of plates 648
Chapter XXIV Report on the Chemical Analysis and Examinations of Metallic and Other Object, from Lothal  
1 Copper and Bronze Object 651
2 Faience and Steatite Specimens from Lothal 661
3 Specimens of Gold from Lothal 664
4 Plaster with Plant Impressions from Lothal 665
Chapter XXV Plant Remains from Lothal  
1 Introduction 667
2 Material 667
3 Method of Study 668
4 Results of Study and Identification 669
5 Discussion 678
6 Summary 683
7 Acknowledgements 683
8 Explanation of plates 683
  Appendix 685
  Index 705

 

Sample Pages

Volume I













Volume II
















Item Code: NAL660 Author: S. R. Rao Cover: Hardcover Edition: 1979 Publisher: Archaeological Survey of India Language: English Size: 11.0 inch X 9.0 inch Pages: 1055 (315 B/W Plates) Other Details: Weight of the Book: 4.0 kg
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