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About the Book   In the Indian tradition, the most ancient Smrti has been created by Prajapati Manu. It is the oldest and most authentic text of Human Theology. Many directives of the Manu Smrti can be seen in the great epic Mahabharata also compilation of which began in the Dvapara Yuga. Manu Smrti contains about 2600 slokas in the 12 chapters. The main contents of the 12 chapters speak about the different ways in which a human can get ...

About the Book

 

In the Indian tradition, the most ancient Smrti has been created by Prajapati Manu. It is the oldest and most authentic text of Human Theology. Many directives of the Manu Smrti can be seen in the great epic Mahabharata also compilation of which began in the Dvapara Yuga. Manu Smrti contains about 2600 slokas in the 12 chapters. The main contents of the 12 chapters speak about the different ways in which a human can get happiness. The main topics are : the genesis of the universe, procedures of performing ceremonies, the methods of fulfilling vows, holy baths, performing marriages, Mahayajaya (religious sacrifices), method of pacifying deceased ancestors etc., regular ablutions and routines, Sutaka Vrata, edible and non-edible things, cleanliness, impurity, the duty of the wife, Yanaprastha, liberation, detachment, the duty of Royal people, the relegation of duty, the duty of women and men, the narrow, parochial castes, the duty in emergency, repentance, transmigration, Supreme bliss, the objective of the universe, actions, the merits, and defects coveted to deeds, place and castes, the duty of the clan and liberation.

 

In the present Kali Yuga also, prestige of Manu-smrti has been maintained. Even today, the pages of this great scripture are turned over whenever religious ways are sought in social conduct. Religious and flourishing existence of human being in the modern era can be regarded as a result of the policy outlined in Manu-smrti.

 

The present translation of Manu-Smrti by G.Buhler is an authentic English Translation with extracts from seven available commentaries on Manu-Smrti. The editor of the present book has further enhanced the English translation by replacing older usages of English words with the corresponding modern equivalents. He has done a considerable labour to put Sanskrit text and English translation side by side. The text has been corrected at various places for an improved edition of Manu-Smrti.

 

Introduction

 

In the Indian tradition, the most ancient Smrti has been created by Prajapati Manu. It is the oldest and authentic text of Human Theology. Many directives of the Manu Smrti can be seen in the great epic Mahabhdrata also compilation of which began in the Dvapara Yuga. Manu Smrti contains about 2600 slokas in the 12 chapters.

 

The main contents of the 12 chapters speak about the different ways in which a human can get happiness. The contents are:

 

1. The genesis of the universe.

2. Procedures of performing ceremonies, the methods of fulfilling vows.

3. Holy baths, sexual life, performing marriages, Mahayajaya (religious sacrifices), method of pacifying deceased ancestors etc.

4. Regular ablutions and routines, Sutaka Vrata.

5. Edible and non-edible things, cleanliness, impurity, the duty of the wife.

6. Yanaprastha, liberation, detachment.

7. The duty of Royal people.

8. The relegation of duty.

9. The duty of women and men, the duty of departments, the annihilation of the wicked, etc.

10. The narrow, parochial castes, the duty in emergency.

11. Repentance.

12. Transmigration, Supreme Bliss.

13. The objective of the universe, actions, the merits and defects coveted to deeds, place and castes, the duty of the clan and liberation.

 

FIRST CHAPTER

 

This Smrti which is said to be created in the Satya Yuga, speaks about the genesis of the universe and humans, the four Asramas (attainments) and the duties assigned to everyone, politics, public administration and the penal code. The constitution of the witnesses is also discussed. The duty and the protection of women, the significance of repentance and the fruits of various actions are the other topics discussed.

 

Manu Smrti is the first legal text of human civilization which till date has the ability to guide and direct the society. Maharsi Manu has said that every statement of the Smrti is like a statement of the Vedas.

 

yaha kascit kasyaciddharmo manuna parikirtitah//

 sa sarvo abhihito vede sarvajnanamayo hi sah //

 

Meaning: All the duties mentioned by Manu can be found in the 'Vedas as it is embellished by all forms of knowledge.

 

The Manu-smrti discusses the genesis and evolution of human civilization from the Vedic age, the cultural foundation, the allegiance which was all influenced by the place, time and situation. The Manu Smrti is the religious text of the Satya Yuga. On the persuasion of the Maharsis (sages), the brain child of Brahma, Prajapati Manu created this text. The' first chapter of this text speaks about the creation of water due to the divine powers of God and subsequently the creation of such energy from which the earth took birth. After this the god, the Yaksas, Gandharvas and human took birth.

,

etaddesaprasutasya sakasadagrajanmanah/

svam svam caritram sikseranprthivyam sarvamanavah//

(Manu. 2.20)

 

Meaning: All should imbibe the value of life and the instructions for sublime living from the Brahmin staying in his company. This statement of Vedas is adhered to by the people till date. Although people from other communities also have entered in the teaching profession, but for proper sublime education, people still approach a good Brahmin, as they did in the Satyayuga.

 

The Duties Delegated to the Different Castes

The Smrti says:

 

adhyapanamadhyayanam yajanam yajanam tatha

danam pratigrahan caiva brahmananamakalpayat//

(Manu. 1.88)

 

Meaning: The duties of the Brahmins are learning and teaching, performing religious sacrifices and getting them performed, taking and giving donations etc.

 

Brahmins follows this instruction of Manu till date. It is worth stating that with the advent of the fourth era considerable changes have taken place in the society in the purview of the work due to which people are also doing work they are not eligible for.

 

A. The Duties of Ksatriyas:

 

prajanam raksanam danamijyadhyayanameva ca/

visyesvaprasaktisca ksatriyasya samasatah//

(Manu. 1.89)

 

Meaning: The duties assigned to Ksatriyas are protection of the common men, to donate, to perform religious sacrifices, to recite the Vedas, to abstain from all forms of addiction etc. This code of conduct is followed till date but which a few exceptions by those who are inferior and disinclined.

 

B. The Duties Assigned To the Vaisyas:

 

pasunam raksanam danammijyadhyayanameva ca/

vanikpatham kusidam ca vaisyasya krsimeva ca//

(Manu. 1.90)

 

Meaning: The duties assigned to Vaisya are protection of animals, donation, religious sacrifices, study, business, trade, money lending and agriculture. The Vaisya caste now takes care of maximum duties assigned in the Satyayuga in the Kaliyuga itself. With the advent of new ear, slight changes in the patterns of lifestyle and duties have taken place.

 

C. The Duties assigned to the Sudras:

 

ekameva tu sudrasya prabhuh karma samadisat/

etesameva varnanam susrusamanasuyaya//

 

(Manu. 1.91)

 

Meaning : The duties assigned to Sudras are to serve others with benevolence and good will.

 

According to Manu, the seven ways in which one can scrupulously earn money are: inheritance of wealth from ancestors, wealth from a treasury, agriculture and trade, lending money, giving donations and by winning. The ten avocations, which CU'e useful to life, are teaching, service, employment, agriculture, sculpture, salaried job, contention, taking care of cows, money lending and begging.

 

Although money got from donation, religious sacrifices and teaching ultimately leads to hell, but the Brahmin can engage in these things as the Brahmin is pure as water and Agni (fire).

 

The sins begotten from religious sacrifices and teaching are eliminated by name recitation and Homa. The sin begotten by receiving donation can be washed away by renunciation of the thing received and penance.

 

pratigrahaccilaha sreyanstato apyuncah prasasya tell

 

It is preferable to collect the produce from the harvested field or to collect the remaining grains from the harvested field than to accept donations.

 

Without Daksina, no Yajna is complete, that is why in every ceremony a Daksina (a fee) is given. Only a pure donation is worth accepting.

 

In this light Acarya Manu has also discussed related concepts of sin and virtue. According to him, the highest form of duty is to adhere to the commandment of the Smrtis and Srutis as this is the thing that shall lead to the well being on one and all.

 

The Quadruped Dharma:

 

Mahamuni Manu says that initially the religion had four legs, which eloped one by one because of it being subjected to natural changes and limitations of human beings.

 

tapah param krtayuge tretayam jnanamucyate/

dvapare Yajnamevahurdanameka kalau yuge//

(Manu. 1.86)

 

Meaning : The things predominant in the Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga. Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga are penance, the significance and the glory of knowledge, the religious sacrifice (yajna) and donation respectively.

 

Dharma is the quintessence of human birth. It is only by this that a human can engage in enjoying material things. It is only Dharma that can help us to cross the ocean of material things. Even though situations and society has undergone tremendous change and vicissitudes, the significance of Smrti remains undiminished.

 

Contents

 

Introduction

 

Chapter-l

v

The Genesis of the Universe.

1-27

Chapter-2

 

Procedures of performing ceremonies,

 

the methods of fulfilling vows.

28-81

Chapter-3

 

Holy baths, sexual life, performing marriages,

 

Mahayajna (religious sacrifices), method of pacifying deceased ancestors etc.

82-140

Chapter-4

 

Regular ablutions and routines, Sataka Vrata

141-189

Chapter-5

 

Edible and non-edible fools cleanliness,

 

impurity, the duty of the wife.

190-223

Chapter-6

 

Vanprastha, Liberation, Detachment.

224-243

Chapter-7

 

The duty of Royal people.

244-287

Chapter-8

 

The Relegation of duty.

288-372

Chapter-9

 

The duty of women and men, the duty of

 

departments, the annihilation of the wicked etc.

373-444

Chapter-10

 

The narrow, parochial castes, the duty in emergency.

445-470

Chapter-11

 

Repentance.

471-522

Chapter-12

 

Transmigration, Supreme Bliss.

523-548

Index of Verses

549-588

 

Sample Pages











Item Code: NAK666 Author: G. Buhler Cover: Hardcover Edition: 2015 Publisher: Parimal Publication Pvt. Ltd. ISBN: 9788171105274 Language: Sanskrit Text with English Translation Size: 8.5 inch x 5.5 inch Pages: 648 Other Details: Weight of the Book: 820 gms
Price: $35.00
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