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Text Book of Salakya Tantra: Illustrated According to Revised Syllabus for B.A.M.S Course by C.C.I.M

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About The Author Prof. Udaya Shankar, M.D. (Ayu.) a graduate of SDM College of Ayurveda, Udupi (1987) and post graduate of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar (1990), is actively involved in clinical practice and teaching at Benaka Ayurveda Centre, Madikeri and KVG Ayurvedic Medical College, Sullia for the last two decades. He has presented research papers and chaired sessions in national level Salakya conferences. His talks were regularly broadcasted from AIR stations and article...
About The Author

Prof. Udaya Shankar, M.D. (Ayu.) a graduate of SDM College of Ayurveda, Udupi (1987) and post graduate of Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar (1990), is actively involved in clinical practice and teaching at Benaka Ayurveda Centre, Madikeri and KVG Ayurvedic Medical College, Sullia for the last two decades. He has presented research papers and chaired sessions in national level Salakya conferences. His talks were regularly broadcasted from AIR stations and articles were published in leading periodicals of Kannada. Authored ten books in Kannada and won awards from Govt. of Karataka and Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. He has also worked as an examiner and valuator for University examinations.

About The Book

The New Syllabus of Salakya Tantra is formulated after brain storming sessions to revive Salakya Tantra. It is aimed at training the students in basic concepts of ayurveda to manage the present day diseases of the eye.

Salient features of present book

• Original references of Susruta Samhita, Astanga and Videha Tantra are furnished on all eye diseases.
• Original quotations of Parahita Samhita, Kapali netra roga, Chakshusyena, Satyaki tantra etc., are given.
• Opinions of commentators like Dalhana, Indu, Arunadatta, Chandranandana, Vijaya rakshita, Adhamalla, Srikanta datta and other scholars are presented with due respects, whenever necessary.
• The research summary of several ayurvedic clinical studies on important eye diseases are presented on appropriate sections.
• The textual details of eye diseases are illustrated with more than 600 photographs for easy apprehension.
• The ancient and modern views are discussed separately.
• Kriya kalpas are described with disease wise drug formulations.
• Specific meaning of Sanskrit names are given in the beginning of the chapter. For example: The word pothaki is derived from pothana, the digging activity of the animals and the disease pothaki, forcefully invades the lids, conjunctiva, cornea etc.
• The conceptual background of Salakya is provided for new age diseases like retinopathies their effective ayurvedic management.

Thus, present manual is useful for all undergraduate and post graduate students of Salakya, as well as ayurvedic practitioners.

Foreword

Looking back to the pre vedic era we find that the primitive man was terrified by the world around and described diseases as supernatural malevolent forces. The age has perhaps even yet no entirely passed away. As a matter of fact the medical man represents the oldest professional class of which we have record. The oldest surgical operation of which we have evidence is the opening of skull.

There is a mention of revival of the lost eye sight and lost hearing by great physician/surgeons Ashvini Kumaras and Lord Indra in Rigveda the oldest and the first treatise of the world.

This is perhaps the first evidence of flourished medical knowledge and the treatment of the eye and ear diseases of which we have record in the history of human race. Further in the Ken Sutra of Atharvaveda we find the description of sensory organs seven apertures of the skull and location of the eye in the skull. Not only this we find sufficient use of antimony in eye disorders as well.

There is another treatise Netropanishad which speaks about different parts of the eye. Others like Aranyakopanishad tell us the greater details about the anatomy and physiology of eye including blood vessels, iris, pupils, lacrimation eye, lids. Etc.

It is important to note that the era of samhitas gets the credit for preserving shaping organizing Ayurveda as a separate branch. In addition during this period the science of ayurveda has been specified into different sections i.e. Ashtang Ayurveda as such this type of division, has been followed and considered to be necessary by the contemporary medical sciences of the day very recently.

The importance of the development of Shalakya Tantra as a whole was upheld to its maximum when we look into the written documents on the subject, i.e. Videha Tantra, Ninii Tantra, Gargya and (lalava Tantras, as well as, the Satyiki Tantra; who was the first to invent the couching system.

To our surprise, the only branch of Ayurveda—Shalakya Tantra could develop a new tradition to mention the disorders affecting individual structures of the eye. Almost all diseases of the eye which we come across today have been described by Sushruta.

Another important fact which Sushruta has indicated for local use in the eye is snake poison-venom and fat as well as flesh and vasa of vulture (Sushruta, Uttar Tantra 17.35) to check the development of cataractltimira in the eye. No other medical system speaks about such type of treatment. Hence, it is a unique and original contribution of Sushruta. Another significant contribution of Sushruta that needs a word of appreciation is the use of spleen and liver as food for the remedy of night blindness. (Sushruta, Uttar Tan u-a 17.24).

Sushruta also speaks about the errors of refraction, but he has not mentioned the use of spectacles. This fact can be taken as a guarantee that all such diseases must have cured with the help of medicines.

Similarly, while describing the surgical procedures in eye diseases, Sushruta mentions trephining for the cure of staphyloma and acute glaucoma.

In addition, it may not be an exaggeration to mention that the description of macula and pupil are in support of an apparatus which Sushruta must have been using to see the interior of the eye.

I am happy to note that Dr. Udaya Shankar, Madikeri has gone through all the literature while writing this book. Further, Dr. Udaya Shankar, being a Post Graduate student of mine. I could see the sincerity and dedication towards his studies and care of the patients.

This work on Shalakya Tantra will definitely be useful to medical students in the U.G. as well as PG. disciplines as will prove to be a good asset to them, who intend to have an understanding of the basic principles of the science and art of Shanakya Tantra. Similarly, this book will be of value for several practitioners in the field of Shalakya as well as those who wish to keep pace with the rapidly advancing knowledge in the diseases of Shalakya Tantra.

 

Preface

Compared to Kaya Chikitsa and Shalya Tantra, this specialty branch Shalakya Tantra seems to be lagging behind in clinical practice. To overcome it Central Council of Indian Medicine has formulated a new syllabus after brain storming sessions. This text book, based on this new syllabus, is intended to provide practical methods of Shalakya Tantra to treat the diseases of head and neck.

Some of the features that make this book distinct are;

• Proper illustrations of eye conditions are necessary than descriptive words. Hence maximum number of color photographs are presented for easy understanding of signs of eye diseases. It is for the first time, color images of most of the Netra rogas of classical texts are provided here.

• Original statements of Bhagawan Nimi (Videha) are scattered in the vast literary sources. They are compiled here to provide a comprehensive view of every eye disease. The teachings of Sushruta, Vagbhata and Nimi and quotations of Parahita Samhita, Kapali netra roga, Chakshusyena, Satyaki tantra etc., are also presented.

• Opinions of commentators like Dalbana, Indu, Arunadatta, Chandranandana, Vijaya rakshita, Adhamalla, Srikanta datta and other scholars are included while discussing the features of the diseases.

• While explaining the local eye treatments like Kriya kalpas, specific drug compounds are reviewed depending upon the ailment.

• Ayurvedic management of new generation diseases like Degenerative pathologies of eye are discussed based on practical experience and views of the contemporary scholars.

• Several clinical study reports are included while describing the treatment of Netra Rogas. As this data is incomplete, I hereby request the researchers to send the summary of their clinical trials, so as to include them in the forthcoming editions of Shalakya Tantra.

• Some of the descriptions in this book are based on the proceedings of the national seminars on Netra Rogas and internet sites. Few images are copied from well known medical sites. I am indebted to all those contributors.

 

Contents

 

 
Section I : Introduction
1-128
1 Nirukti and Paricaya of Salakya Tantra 5
2 History of Salakya Tantra 10
3 Netra Racana Sariram (Mandala, Patala, Sandhi, Drsti vicara) 26
4 Netra Kriya Sariram 40
5 Netra Pariksa (Examination of Eye: Ancient Methods) 52
6 Examination of eye (Netra Pariksopayogi Yantra Jnanam) 55
7 Surgical Instruments (Netra Cikitsopayogi Sastra Jananam) 73
8 Netra Roga Samprapti (Hetu Purvarupa, Rupa) Classification of Netra Roga: Ancient and Modern 92
 
Section II: Netra Cikitsa
129-208
9 Ocular Therapeutics 123
10 Tarpana 138
11 Putapaka 145
12 Ascyotana 150
13 Pariseka (Seka) 155
14 Anjana 157
15 Vidalaka and Pindi 169
16 Pancakarma in Salakya Cikitsa 174
17 Surgical Procedures 178
18 Parasurgical Procedures 188
19 Diagnostic and Therapeutic Pharmacological agents list of figures 199
 
Section III: Netra Sandhigata Roga
209-256
20 Sandhigata Roga 211
21 Puyalasa 214
22 Upanaha 217
23 Netra Srava 221
24 Parvani and Alaji 227
25 Krimi Granthi 230
26 Epiphora 233
27 Dacryocysitis, Dacryocystectomy and Dacryocystorhinostomy 236
28 Pediculosis 242
29 Blepharitis 243
30 Cysts and Tumours of Lacrimal Gland 245
 
Section IV: Vartmagata Roga
257-352
31 Vartma 259
32 Vatmagata Roga 262
33 Utsangini 266
34 Kumbhika 270
35 Pothaki 273
36 Vartma Sarkara 276
37 Vartmavabandha 278
38 Bahala Vartma 279
39 Syava Vartma 280
40 Vartma Kardama 282
41 Klista Vartma 284
42 Lagana 287
43 Anjana Namika 289
44 Bisa Vartma 291
45 Arso Vartma 293
46 Suskarsa 295
47 Vartma Arbuda 296
48 Paksma Kopa or Paksmoparodha 298
49 Klinna Vartma and Aklima Vartma 302
50 Vatahata Vartma 304
51 Nimesa 306
52 Sonitarsa 308
53 Kukunaka 310
54 Paksma Sata 314
55 Diseases of the Eyelids 316
56 Style and Chalazion 318
57 Anomolies in the Position of Lid: Trichiasis, Entropion and Ectropion 321
58 Adhesions of lids Lagophthalmos and Blepharospasm 325
59 Ptosis 329
60 Trachoma 331
61 Lid Growths 333
 
Section V: Suklagata Roga
353-408
62 Suklagata Roga 355
63 Arma 360
64 Suktika 371
65 Arjuna 373
66 Pistaka 376
67 Sirajala 378
68 Sira Pidaka 380
69 Balasa Grathita 382
70 Pterygium and Pinguecula 385
71 Sub Conjuctival Haemorrhage 389
72 Conjuctival Xerosis 391
73 Scleritis 393
74 Episcleritis 395
75 Cysts and Tumours 397
 
Section VI: Krsnagata Roga
409-464
76 Krisnagata Roga 411
77 Savrana Sukla 414
78 Avrana Sukla 420
79 Ajakajata 423
80 Aksinpakatyaya 428
81 Sira Sukla 431
82 Cornea and its diseases 433
83 Cornela Ulcer (Keratititis) 436
84 Corneal Opacity 442
85 Staphyloma 445
86 Vascularisation and Degenerations 447
87 Diseases of Uveal Tract 450
 
Section VII: Sarvagata Roga
465-552
88 Sarvagata Roga 467
89 Abhisyanda 470
90 Adhimantha 476
91 Anyato Vata 491
92 Vata paryaya 493
93 Amladhyusita 495
94 Aksipaka 497
95 Sirotpata 503
96 Sira Harsa 505
97 Conjuctivitis 507
98 Glaucoma 511
99 Pan Ophthalmitis 522
100 Dry Eye Syndrome 524
101 Aupasargika Netra Roga (Occular Manifestation of Infections Diseases) 529
 
Section VIII: Drstigata Roga
553-688
102 Drstigata Roga 555
103 Timira 559
104 Timira Cikitsa 569
105 Linganasa 578
106 Ptta Vidagdha Drsti 590
107 Kapha Vidagdha Drsti and Dosandhya 595
108 Dhmadarsa and Hriswajadya 598
109 Nakulandhya and Gambhirika 601
110 Errors of refraction 606
111 Strabysmus 615
112 Amblyopia 617
113 Cataract 619
114 Diseases of Retina 627
115 Diabetic Retinopathy 631
116 Hypertensive Retinopathy 637
117 Retinitis Pigmentosa 640
118 Central Serous Retinopathy 644
119 Age Related Macular Degeneration 646
120 Optic Neuritis and Optic Atrophy 650
121 Eales Disease 655
122 Nayanabhigata 657
123 Ocular injuries 663
 
Section IX: Prevention fo Blindness
689-728
124 Blindness 691
125 Malnutritional Eye Diseases 694
126 Eye Banking 697
127 Artificial Eye and Eye Removal 700
128 Natural Methods for better eye sight 703
129 Eye Exercises 713
  Bibliography 729
  Annexure-I 732
  Annexure II 735
Sample Pages



Item Code: NAC976 Author: Prof. Udaya Shankar Cover: Paperback Edition: 2012 Publisher: Chaukhambha Visvabharti ISBN: 9789381301043 Size: 9.5 Inch X 7.0 Inch Pages: 760 (Full Color Illustrations) Other Details: Weight of the Book: 1.20 kg
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